Ukrainian media traditionally write about Grushevsky: a famous historian and political figure of the last century, the first president of the Ukrainian Republic (never was! - V.P.), the chairman of the Central Council (March 1917 - April 1918)
“Lukavy, tricky book didok”, - said his contemporaries, poet Alexander Oles about Michael Hrushevsky. And it is difficult to give a more accurate description of the "dіdka". A little detail. In the memoirs of Grushevsky there is a description of the episode of the winter of 1918, which is very indicative of him: “Having received the parade, having impregnated a flock of people, sent a message, ### luvav ikonu - the regiment Svyatinya, who changed me.” It turns out that for the mason of Grushevsky (he never hid his freemasonry), which, however, according to his apologists, did not refuse orthodoxy, the icon is not a shrine. At best, superstition. But why not ### to kiss if the “flock” believes in it? “But how am I supposed to earn?”, Grushevsky justifies. As they say in such cases: "For the sake of blatant words, he will not regret his father ...".
After that, you’re more calmly perceiving everything written by Grushevsky, for example, such a quote from the 1 volume of his 10-volume “History of Ukraine-Russia” - the history of a never-existent state: “The movement of Ukrainian tribes to the south was manifested in the colonization of the Ants of the Black Sea steppes “Between the Dnieper and the Don ... This is the first Ukrainian colonization that we can ascertain, and therefore should dwell on it more.”
By the way, in the title of the section where this quotation is taken from, there are words about “the Ants' identity with the Ukrainian tribes”. The question is: where did the “Ukrainian tribes” suddenly appear in those ancient times?
The answer is simple as a rap turnip: M. Hrushevsky invented them. Moreover, from him and no special effort was required. As early as the 6th century AD, the Gothic historian Jordan mentioned the Ants tribes living between the Dniester and the Dnieper. Another historian of the same time, a Byzantine Procopius of Caesarea, noted that the Antes and the Slavs are one and the same people with "simple and barbarous language", "they do not differ from each other and their appearance." These ants Hrushevsky took and declared "Ukrainians"
In fact, the historical concept of Grushevsky is reduced to the following completely unsubstantiated assertions. The first. Ukrainians are the indigenous population in the “Nezalezhnoy” territory, which existed since the times of the ancient Antes and, possibly, is the descendants of even more ancient Tripoli (the so-called Trypillya culture). The second. Ukrainians in Kievan Rus were the main population from which Russians descend - descendants of the wild peoples of the northeast cultivated by Ukrainians. Third. The heir to the statehood of Kievan Rus is the Galician-Volyn principality, and through it the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
This theory (the mythological version) was called "Stream". Within its framework, all the works of Grushevsky recognized the heritage of Kievan Rus exclusively for Ukrainians. Hrushevsky asserted that in the old days Ukrainians were called “Rusyns”, and Ukraine - as Rus, but in times of political decline this name was “appropriated by the Great Russian people”. Here they are, "klyatyh" Muscovites, and these little stories about different peoples are driven into the heads of the population of Ukraine for a good hundred years, no less. And especially actively - in the years of "Nezalezhnosti".
At the end of the 19th century, the Austrian authorities (special services, first of all) on the eve of a possible armed conflict with Russia turned their attention to the young Kiev historian, Ukrainophile Hrushevsky, and offered him the post of professor of the World History Department with a special overview of the history of Eastern Europe at Lviv University. A little later, he will head this department and will hold office for 20 years - from 1894 to 1914. Vienna was in dire need of ideologues who were able to resist the Russophile movement that was gaining strength. In Austria-Hungary, there was an acute shortage of ambitious interpreters of the true story, for the works of which the rich Habsburg Empire was ready to pay with pure gold.
Grushevsky worked his fees very diligently. “Grandfather” (a full-bodied beard a la Marx Hrushevsky wore his youth) was very prolific: in the Lviv period of his life he wrote three dozen books and more 2000 articles. Among them, the most famous is the “History of Ukraine-Rus”. Its first volume was published in Lviv in 1898. And in the same year, Germany launched the idea of creating a “independent Ukrainian nation” as part of autonomy in Austria-Hungary. The terms “Ukraine”, “Ukrainian”, etc., began to be used in Berlin under the control of Berlin instead of the concepts of “Rus” and “Ruski”.
In the memoirs of the former commander of the German Eastern Front, General Hoffmann (1926), it was directly stated: "The creation of Ukraine is not the result of the initiative of the Russian people, but the result of the activities of my intelligence."
Simultaneously with the teaching activity, Grushevsky headed the “Scientific Society named after Taras Shevchenko” created a decade earlier, which immediately received generous funding from the imperial treasury. This circumstance subsequently made Grushevsky not only a historian, but also a political figure. The society became the main organ of Ukrainization in Austria-Hungary. The main merit of Grushevsky to the German and Austro-Hungarian empires, who were very afraid that the indigenous people of Galicia considered themselves Rusians and for the most part supported Russia, should recognize the creation of the Ukrainian language. This language was created in a way primitive to the amazement - Russian words were replaced by Polish, German and simply made up in a hurry ...
In this regard, it is impossible not to recall one of the philological "discoveries" of Grushevsky. According to him, the Ukrainian language is not only a direct descendant of the progenitor of all European languages - Sanskrit, but more like it!
“Discovery” caused a malicious remark on the part of the Russian writer - Ukrainian Levitsky's Ivanofil (known under the pseudonym Nechui-Levitsky): “It is none other than Hrushevsky that he writes in this very Sanskrit”. The patriarch of Little-Russian literature, first of all, meant the Ukrainian Newspeak, on which the History of Ukraine-Rus was written by M. Hrushevsky. This Russian-Polish surzhik Nechuy-Levitsky called it “a terrible thing”. The vindictive Hrushevsky did not forget these words and cruelly avenged his teacher, not having rendered him any help, when in April 1918 of Nechui-Levitsky died a beggar in one of Kiev almshouses - Dekhtyarevskiy nursing home ... At that time, an Austrian citizen of Grushevsky chaired the central Rade.
But he owed a lot to Nechui-Levitsky. At one time, it was Levitsky who took the then unknown gymnasium student under his protection, became his mentor in literary matters, recommended his first works for publication. Well, tell me, what else can so clearly describe the moral qualities of one of the pillars of "non-basement" Ukraine?
In 1909, a meeting of members of the Galician Ukrainian Party was held in Lviv. Hrushevsky offered to hold festive events in honor of Hetman Mazepa.
It was also supposed to publish a set of brochures in which the transfer of the hetman to the side of Sweden was to be seen as a speech in defense of the Cossacks oppressed by the Russian government. The proposal "torch of Ukrainian history", of course, was implemented.
The “philological” activity of Grushevsky was not limited only to Galicia. Taking advantage of a certain liberalization of the order after the 1905 revolution, Hrushevsky appears in Kiev, where he most actively propagates the “Ukrainian” spelling (albeit in a slightly modified version). With the same purpose, his associates begin to publish periodicals and books in the Ukrainian language.
The founder of the Ukrainian historical science and the creator of the Ukrainian language appreciated his personal merits so highly that in order to commemorate the 10 anniversary of his works for the benefit of the Habsburgs, he even decided to establish a bronze bust in the Shevchenko Scientific Society. And installed. Well, he was a very modest man, what to say!
However, not everyone recognized the innovation of Grushevsky. Russian historian Nikolai Ulyanov in the essay “The Origin of Ukrainian Separatism” indicates that Hrushevsky took the basic idea from an anonymous political pamphlet of the 18th century. "History of the Rus".
The merit of Grushevsky was only that he inscribed the main doctrine of this famous fake into the generally accepted concept of Russian history, about which the unknown author of The History of the Rus had no idea.
Ulyanov, in particular, writes: “The History of the Rus” not only does not recognize the single all-Russian state of the 10th – 13th centuries, but also the single Russian people who inhabited it. In vain attributed to MS Hrushevsky was the author of a self-styled scheme of Ukrainian history: its main positions — the initial isolation of Ukrainians from Great Russians, the separateness of their states — were anticipated almost a hundred years before Hrushevsky. Kievan Rus has been declared an extremely Little Russia. ”
M. Hrushevsky served this fake idea all his life.
He was born on September 17 1866 in Holme (the territory of modern Poland) in the family of a teacher. The passion for history began after entering 1880 in the gymnasium, then it led him to Kiev University (1886-1890). During his university years, under the leadership of one of the most famous historians of the time, Professor V. Antonovich, he took the first steps in science. In the third year, he undertakes the study of the Kievan land (from the time of Yaroslav the Wise until the end of the XIV century). Later, on the recommendation of Professor Antonovich, he moved to Lvov, subject to the Austrians.
Change Kiev to Lviv and now there are few hunters. But then, only an adventurer like Hrushevsky could agree to move from the rapidly developing “Mother of Russian Cities” and even to the Polish-Jewish-Austrian provincial town of a foreign state far from friendly to Russia. He was only 28 years old, and he most recently defended his master's thesis. In his opinion, the Galician-Volyn princes became the heirs of the Kiev throne. It was the lands of the Galicia-Volyn principality that went to Poland (Galicia immediately, Volyn for some time belonged to Lithuania), and in the XVIII century the Galician lands were ceded to the Austrian crown. Thanks to the tendentious work of Hrushevsky, Vienna received not only the moral right to consider Galicia to be its patrimony, but also the opportunity to put forward territorial claims to Russia.
In Lviv, the newly minted professor was given a luxurious mansion and provided with a generous salary. Profitable selling fairy tales about the “Ukrainian tribes”, the cunning “Dedok” also built a huge house in Kiev literally a few steps from the station and was not at all about to part with a Russian passport. During the civil war, Bolshevik shells would collapse the Kiev property of a Lviv professor.
Grushevsky clearly did not foresee such a turn of events. From Austria-Hungary, he repeatedly came to Russia. The Police Department regularly received reports that the scientist secretly smuggles illegal literature of nationalist content across the border, and during visits to Kiev, the Austrian consul is necessarily visited, with whom he remains alone for several hours talking in his office. But how much string does not curl, and there is a tip.
After returning to Russia in 1914, four months after the outbreak of World War I, Grushevsky was arrested on charges of spying for Austria-Hungary. The order of the head of the Kiev Military District also stated: "Professor of the Lviv University, Mikhail Hrushevsky, as a propagandist of Ukrainian separatism and a prominent figure in the Ukrainian national democratic party, sent to Simbirsk for the time being of the localities from which he was sent on martial law."
He was exiled to Simbirsk, but initially spent several months in prison. Subsequently, at the request of the Russian academic community, he was allowed to move first to Kazan, and then to Moscow.
However, his work Grushevsky managed to perform. Among the Ukrainian intelligentsia, he managed to form a kind of “core” that considered Russia a “great prison of nations”, and saw a political solution to the separation of South Russia (from the western border to the foothills of the Caucasus) and its inclusion into the sphere of influence of Germany and Austria-Hungary.
In Moscow, he waited for the February revolution, after which he returned to Kiev, as they say, on a white horse: in March, 1917 was elected in absentia as chairman of the Central Council. In 1917-1918, being at the head of the UNR, Hrushevsky in some way even implemented the named project, “inviting” German and Austrian troops to Ukraine.
“No one was as fit for the role of national leader as the Grushevsky,” wrote the famous political figure of those years, Dmitry Doroshenko. But the former Austro-German owners, whom Hrushevsky invited to occupy Ukraine, did not value their agent very highly, trying to get rid of him as soon as possible. When the German-led coup d'état led by the hetman Skoropadsky took place in April of 1918 in Kiev, Professor Hrushevsky emigrated to Austria.
According to the French consul in Kiev, Emil Eno (1918): “Ukraine has never had its history and national distinctiveness. It was created by the Germans. Pro-German Skoropadsky government should be eliminated. " The French side, an ally of the Russians in the First World War, is easy to understand, because the so-called Ukrainian People’s Republic (UNR) has actually become a puppet of Germany since its inception.
As you know, none of the ukro-nationalist regimes during the period of revolution and civil war did not show even the slightest signs of viability. And above all - the pro-Western government of Grushevsky, stuffed with Austro-German agents.
That is very similar to today's Ukraine with its host of American "advisers", and even in the SBU.
It is important to note that, with all its Germanism, the Grushevsky spring, summer and autumn of 1917 conducted negotiations with the Russian Provisional Government on granting Ukraine autonomy within the Russian republic. It was about the possible creation of the Russian Federation. Kerensky agreed with the idea, but the question was postponed until the end of the war. In October 1917 came to power the Bolsheviks. But even then, the withdrawal from Russia did not happen. Hrushevsky went for it only on January 6 1918, the day after the Bolsheviks dispersed the Constituent Assembly, of which he, by the way, was also elected.
... Grushevsky asked for the Soviet Ukraine, when the civil war had not yet ended. Moreover, in such submissive expressions that cannot be called shameful for the “leader of the nation”. In the summer of 1920, he sends a letter to the Central Committee of the Communist Party (B) U in which he recognizes the merits of the Bolsheviks in the struggle against capitalism and assures that he realized, like other Ukrainian Socialist Revolutionaries, the fallacy of aspirations to isolate Ukraine from the universal development of the political battles combi ". He even stresses that he refused to support the nationalists and accepted the principles of the Third International! In a letter to the Pre-USSR Commissar of the Ukrainian SSR Rakovsky, the ex-chairman of the Central Council expressed even more humiliating: “... my boules are ready to cross the corpses of our party comrades, they innocently ruined the red cult ... Boules of ready-made pracciwi by your wire ...” (... we were ready to cross through our party comrades, who innocently died from red bullets ... We were ready to work under your leadership "(my translation is VP).
The Bolsheviks, for the sake of the struggle against which Grushevsky called the Germans, having started Ukrainization, they needed a lot of personnel and therefore quickly forgave their enemy. In 1924, he returned to his homeland, and 1929 was elected a full member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
The consequences of this decision were the saddest. The scheme of the Ukrainian history, which was perceived in pre-revolutionary Russia as an outrageous trick of the Galician marginal, was, with minor adjustments, naturally in the spirit of the Marxist ideology, accepted as the only correct one.
So, in the case of Ukrainization, one can hardly overestimate the importance of what Lazar Kaganovich, general secretary of the CC CP (b) of Ukraine, has done for Ukraine. So, thanks to him, the language created in Galicia by the Austro-Polish “philologists” was approved in the Ukrainian SSR as a state language in a slightly expanded form. She, this “move” was not loved, did not recognize her mother, but everyone had to learn and use. No democratic government would have achieved such successes by liberal methods over such a short period of time. As one of the Ukrainizers of Little Russia A. Sinyavsky said, “from the language of Zhmenka (a handful. - V.P.) of the semi-legal intelligentsia before the October Revolution, by the will of the latter it becomes an organ of the state life of the country”
The plans of Grushevsky and the Galician “specialists” attracted by him to remake the Little Russians into Ukrainians in the image and likeness of the process of reincarnation of Rusyns into Ukrainians went very far, right up to the separation of Ukraine from the USSR. What caused the professional interest of the security officers.
A separatist reformer group was arrested. As Grushevsky himself stated about this, “I am not a hero, so I told everything.” As a result, his comrades were shot or camped. And he not only was released, but also “deduced” from the publishing houses the fees detained by him with the help of new friends from the OGPU.
Nevertheless, in Stalin's time, Grushevsky was repressed - posthumously. From the end of 1930, references to Grushevsky and his works were banned, relatives were arrested, in particular, her daughter died in the gulag. At the official level, the topic has been closed. But the name of Grushevsky in Ukraine is not forgotten. In 1991, it was assigned to Kiev Street, where the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian SSR was located, and now the Verkhovna Rada is located "Nezalezhnoy". Curiously, with 1919, this street was a street of the Revolution.
And the successors of the historical fantasies of the author of the “History of Ukraine-Rus” brought them to the point of absurdity, attributing everything to the ancient “Ukram”, including the creation of the Egyptian pyramids. Even the Buddha, in their "scientific" opinion, also comes from Ukraine. And the Gauls, of course, are descended from Galicia.
But the main component of history is the “Ukrainian national idea” (the “unity” of Ukraine and the Ukrainian people, having an independent origin and an independent history, separate from Russia and the Russian people, who act as the “eternal enemy of Ukraine”). The concept of “Ukrainian national idea” also includes “European integration”, since the “history of Ukraine” is part of the history of Europe, and by no means Russia. The absurdity and anti-science of the Ukrainian historical and mythological construction have been repeatedly noted by Russian researchers.
However, when it comes to the “Ukrainian national project”, the criteria of scientific character give way to the political ideology of the ruling elite, which forms the anti-Russian political course aimed at integration into European and Euro-Atlantic structures.
Two generations of people have already grown up in "Nezalezhnoy." And they studied on the appropriate textbooks. At the same time, the “History of Ukraine-Rus” by M. Hrushevsky is defined by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine as the “metric of the Ukrainian people”.
In fact, in the Ukrainian school history textbooks there is a repetition of the “M. Grushevsky scheme”, according to which the ancient Russian people are denied. It is necessary to agree with the remark of a number of Russian researchers that one of the characteristic methods of Ukrainian myth-making is the substitution of the term "Rus" by the term "Ukraine". In addition, the term "Rus" is intentionally narrowed down by the territory of the southern principalities, "constituting the core of the future Ukrainian people." Thus, from the point of view of nationalism, Grushevsky is unambiguously the father of the modern Ukrainian historical school.
Recently, after the 10 months of the destructive for Ukraine actions of the Kiev “Maidan”, it was finally “cleared out” and, quite simply, dispersed. Throughout the existence of this nationalist dustbin, television from different countries of the world, primarily Ukrainian, constantly broadcast “pictures” from here, which, as it were, happened to focus on portraits of the “father of the nation” Taras Shevchenko and the “father of the Ukrainian revolution” Stepan Bandera. Their “patriotic” looks in large frames hung next to the walls of several houses adjacent to the “Maidan”. They were there all the time from the beginning to the end of the action of “onizhedetey”, killing Ukrainians for the sake of overseas Moloch.
This symbolic couple, Pan Taras and Pan Stepan, was missing, however, the portrait of the third, the “father-creator” of the mythology of the Ukrainian people, Mikhail Hrushevsky. It is his image that should open the “triune” series, symbolic for modern Ukraine.
But images of Pan Grushevsky on the "Maidan" were missing. True, his portrait from the time of President L. Kuchma is emblazoned on the bill (purple) in denominations of 50 hryvnia. It was in the struggle for banknotes that M. Hrushevsky put his "belly" on the altar of several "fatherlands".
Grushevsky died in 1934 in one of the resorts of Kislovodsk during treatment, according to the official version, from blood poisoning. And the 10 volume of his "History of Ukraine-Rus" was published in the USSR in 1936.
Incidentally, 22 in August 2003 in Moscow, on Pogodinskaya Street, a memorial plaque was opened on the house N 2 / 3 on N, as the Russian media reported, “the first president of Ukraine,” Mikhail Grushevsky.
The opening ceremony was attended by representatives of the government of Moscow, the Ukrainian diaspora, the ambassador of Ukraine to the Russian Federation, the staff of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. According to the Ukrainian ambassador, this board should have become a “symbol of our friendship, cooperation, mutual understanding and trust, a symbol of strengthening peace and good neighborliness” ...