Military Review

Ukraine: fantasies about “uranium independence” and the real degradation of the industry

We continue to consider the fate of the "stubs" of the uranium complex of the USSR in the context of "uranium as fuel for nuclear power reactors". Kazakhstan was previously considered (part 1, part 2). In the current material we propose to discuss the Ukrainian "atomic" plot.

Ukraine inherited a rich legacy from the USSR in the field of nuclear energy - four NPPs (Zaporizhia, Rivne, South Ukraine, and Khmelnitsky) with 15 nuclear power units and a total installed capacity of 13 835 MW (seventh place in the world). In the country's energy balance, the share of energy generated from them is 19,2%. If you look only at "electricity", it turns out that NPPs provide about half (47%) of all electricity generated in the country. There were studied uranium deposits and operating mines for its mining. Ukraine also got plants for the production of turbines and other components for NPPs (Turboatom, Energomashspetsstal, etc.). Unfortunately, got Chernobyl.

Nuclear fuel for Ukraine: issue price

The development strategy of the nuclear industry in Ukraine in terms of nuclear fuel was finalized in 2008 by the creation of the state-owned concern Nuclear Fuel. It includes state-owned enterprises VostGOK, Smoly, Dniprovsky Precision Tube Works and UkrNIPIpromtechnologii. The main objective of the concern is to create the production of nuclear fuel. In August, 2009 was adopted the program “Nuclear Fuel of Ukraine”. In March of this year, the concern “Nuclear Fuel” once again declared its goals. Among them, the achievement of the level of uranium mining to the full satisfaction of the demand for it at Ukrainian NPPs and the creation in Ukraine of the production of nuclear fuel and components for it. What will it give to Ukraine?

To supply Ukrainian NPPs with fuel, 267 t of enriched uranium is needed per year, which is equivalent to 2480 t of uranium concentrate (U3O8). The average price of the latter in the period 2009 – 2012. - 125 dollars / kg. Based on this, the cost of uranium enriched for the operation of Ukrainian NPPs during the year is 310 million. According to the World Nuclear Association, the price of fuel assemblies for June 2013 in terms of 1 kg of enriched uranium was 2360 dollars / kg. Based on this, the cost of fuel for Ukrainian NPPs is 630 million dollars. A long-term contract for the supply of at least one nuclear power plant is concluded with the American company Westinghouse (or rather, it is a daughter of the Japanese concern Toshiba, which owns 87% of its shares) in 2009. New contract with TVEL, a subsidiary of Rosatom, in 2010. In 2012, the Ukrainian state concern Energoatom, an NPP operator, purchased nuclear fuel for them in the amount of 600 million dollars, including from TVEL, on 555 million dollars, from Westinghouse - on 45 million dollars. In 2013, nuclear fuel was purchased on 601 ln dollars. (all the "TVEL"). So, Ukraine spends about 600 million dollars a year on the purchase of nuclear fuel. But at the same time, VostGOK produced 2008 tons of uranium in 800 (the year of the creation of the “Nuclear Fuel” concern). Its cost is about 100 million dollars. Thus, the achievement of the goal would allow Ukraine to increase its GDP by 500 million dollars and reduce its imports by the same amount. What have you managed to do over the years?

Mining: Foreigners refused investment

The search for uranium deposits in Ukraine began in 1944. In 1945 and 1946. The first two fields have been discovered - Pervomaiskoye and Zheltorechenskoye In total, the 1991 deposit was discovered up to 21. The mining and processing of uranium ore is carried out by VostGOK. Created in 1951. First ore mined in 1956. Uranium mining (U3O8): 2001 – 2008. - 800 t; 2009 g. - 830 t; 2010 g. - 849 t; 2011 g. - 892 t; 2012 g. - 960 t; 2013 - 922 tons. Ukraine’s own production in 2013 provided 37% of NPP requirements.

Before 2011, VostGOK had two mines. The Ingul mine develops the Vatutinskoye field, and the Smolinskaya mine, the Michurinskoye and Tsentralnoe fields. Annual mining of mines is 350 – 400 and 450 – 480 and uranium, respectively. The reserves of deposits developed since the end of the 1960-ies, almost exhausted. In addition, the mining of uranium ore is based on obsolete technologies that are not subject to modernization. Dramatically increase uranium mining can only be due to the development of the Novokonstantinovsky deposit (all four deposits are located in the Kirovograd region). In terms of uranium reserves - 93 626 t (uranium content in ore 0,139%), it is among the ten largest deposits in the world. Will be developed to a depth of 700 m vertical shafts. But the main ore horizons are at absolute elevations “minus” of 120 – 440 m. Investment in development will amount to 1,9 billion dollars. They can be implemented in stages. The estimated cost of uranium mining is $ 70 / kg. Active work on the construction of the first mine and the preparation for ore mining at VostGOK began in 2010. Mining began in 2011. This year it was planned to mine 99 tons of uranium, in 2012 – 2013. - by 184, in 2015, - 1336, in 2018, - 2865, tons. In total, it is planned to launch VostGOK for mining 3,5, thousand tons of uranium.

Russian Atomredmetzoloto (Rosatom’s subsidiary), Westinghouse, Canadian Gold Corporation, French Areva, Japanese Itochu and Australian Uran Ltd. showed interest in participating in the development of the Novokonstantinovskoye field. But either the results of the technical and economic assessments turned out to be negative, or the investment conditions were not attractive. One way or another, but Ukraine has relied on the development of the field on its own. The issues of uranium mining at the Safonovsky deposit (Mykolaiv region) are being worked out. Its reserves are 3000 t, the forecast volume of production is 300 tons per year. Cost price - up to 75 dollars / kg. Possible project participants are Kazatomprom and Areva.

The company "Resins" produces a wide range of ion-exchange resins, primarily for the extraction of uranium, gold and rare earth metals from ores. In August, 2013 noted the “depressed state” of the enterprise, and in December negotiations were held with the Czech company Uranium Industry, as with a potential investor in a project to modernize its production facilities.

The plan for uranium mining at 2013 in Vostogok has not been fulfilled. Instead of 1050, 922 tons were mined. The first reason is financial. In September, 2013 was reported that VostokGOK was negotiating with Russian banks - Sberbank of Russia and VTB, for a loan of 1,5 billion UAH. There were other attempts to “find” money for the development of the Novokonstantinovsky deposit. But to no avail. The second reason is that Ukraine stopped producing some reagents necessary for the production of uranium concentrate.

Beneficiation: only at foreign enterprises

Uranium oxide-oxide (U3O8) is subjected to conversion and converted into gas uranium hexafluoride (UF6), which is the initial substance for enrichment. Enrichment leads to an increase in the U-235 isotope in uranium to 3 – 5% as compared to natural 0,72%. This is low enriched uranium, which is the fuel for nuclear power plants. Ukraine sought to create a uranium enrichment plant on its territory as part of a package agreement with Russia. But S. Kiriyenko, the head of Rosatom, spoke quite clearly (08.06.2010): “There is no enrichment in Ukraine. And it will not, because the enrichment technology is the technology of dual use, and there are international standards prohibiting its transfer to countries that did not possess it. ” At the same time, Ukraine has been offered access to enriching its uranium at Russian enterprises.

In October, 2006. TVEL and the national company Kazatomprom created the International Uranium Enrichment Center (70% and 30% of shares, respectively) based on the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Plant (not to be confused with the Uranium Enrichment Center). the base of the Ural Electrochemical Plant, which appears in the 1 part of the article “Big Uranium of Kazakhstan”). In October, 2010 bought “Nuclear Fuel” bought 10% shares from Rosatom (presumably for 100 thousand dollars), and in May 2012 did the same for Armenia. As you can understand, the center does not own any core assets, but is an operator. The annual volume of its deliveries to Ukraine (2012 – 2014) is 60 thousand separation units (about 9 tons of enriched uranium, 3,4% of the demand of Ukrainian NPPs).

Production of own fuel: the construction of the plant is stopped

At a certain stage, fuel pellets (uranium oxide, UO2) are obtained from enriched uranium hexafluoride, which are placed in tubes made of zirconium alloy. So fabricated fuel element (TVEL). Fuel elements are combined approximately in 200 units into complete fuel assemblies, ready for use in NPP reactors. In September, 2010 of TVEL won a tender for the construction of a plant for the production of nuclear fuel - fuel fuel assemblies (FA). In November, 2010 was created by the joint venture (50% + 1 share belongs to Nuclear Fuel).

The design of the plant (Russian State Specialized Design Institute together with UkrNIPIIpromtekhnologii) was completed in June of 2013. Its construction began in September of 2013. The design capacity exceeds the annual consumption of nuclear fuel by Ukrainian NPPs by 37,5%. The first phase was planned to be commissioned in 2015, the second - by 2020. The cost of its construction is 300 – 400 million. In 2014, it was planned to perform work on 92 million. The financing of the works should be done in accordance with the distribution of shares in the joint venture . But “Nuclear Fuel” was unable to contribute 2013 million to 42 in its statutory fund. The construction of the plant is stopped. In the first half of this year, great changes occurred in Ukraine. And in July, discussions began on whether other leading nuclear fuel producers (instead of TVEL) could be brought into the project - Westinghouse or Areva.

Deliveries of zirconium pipes and other components for the production of fuel assemblies were planned to begin by 2015. But in June, 2013 "started the procedure for the liquidation of the Dnepropetrovsk Precision Tube Works." In accordance with the program “Nuclear Fuel of Ukraine”, technical re-equipment of the enterprise “Zirconium” (production of zirconium; there is a corresponding raw material base in Ukraine) should have been performed. But funding was not conducted. The company has “bred” debts and today is in a state of bankruptcy.

TVS diversification: American assemblies "did not take root", but they are delivered again

Ukraine and the United States are working with 2000 to create an alternative to Russian nuclear fuel for Ukrainian nuclear power plants. The US government has invested about $ 70 million in the project. Ukraine - “at least 130 million dollars” (not including the cost of purchasing fuel assemblies). In 2008, a contract was signed with Westinghouse. According to him, in 2011 – 2015. At least three units of Ukrainian NPPs have Russian fuel assemblies to be replaced by American ones. This is a complex engineering task, since Westinghouse fuel assemblies are not suitable for Rosatom nuclear reactors. Nevertheless, after the design improvements of their TVS, Westinghouse began to deliver them to Ukraine in 2009.

During the scheduled repair of the third power unit of the South-Ukrainian NPP in 2012, problems with the Westinghouse FA were revealed. As a result, we had to unload defective fuel assemblies from the reactors of the two blocks and load the “native” Russian ones into them. Financial losses of Energoatom amounted to 175 million dollars. Those who wish to look at the technical side of the question can be found in the article “The American assemblies“ did not take root ”at the Soviet-Russian reactors”. The participants of this serious incident - Ukrainian politicians and officials, as well as the leaders of Westinghouse, pretended that nothing serious had happened. From a technical point of view, it is. And from a technological and geopolitical point of view, what happened can be called one slang word - lazhanulis. Let's note one more thing. Lost by Energoatom 175 million dollars would be enough for a contribution to the authorized capital of the Nuclear Fuel Plant (42 million dollars) to continue its construction in 2014, and to finance the first stage of the development of the Novokonstantinovsky uranium deposit. It would have remained to “maintain trousers” to the Dnipropetrovsk Precision Tube Works and Zirconia.

Earlier in 2004, Westinghouse installed its fuel assembly at Temelin nuclear power plant (Czech Republic), built according to a Soviet project. And they also had an accident. They are depressurized during extraction. After that, the Czech Republic returned to the TVEL TVEL. But Ukraine went its own way. In April of this year, Westinghouse announced that it had improved the design of fuel assemblies for Ukraine. In April, Ukraine renewed the contract for the supply of fuel assemblies for nuclear power plants to the frozen at 2012. It will act until 2020.

SNF storage: “easier” to pay “Rosatom”

Storage and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are the final stages of the “fuel” process chain. Zaporizhzhya NPP has its own SNF storage facility. And the SNF from the three other nuclear power plants of Ukraine is exported for storage and partial processing to Russia. For this, Energoatom annually pays Rosatom 150 – 200 million. Annual demand of Ukrainian NPPs in enriched uranium without Zaporozhye NPP is approximately 170 tons. Ukraine sends to Russia this amount of SNF for storage. The fee is 880 – 1180 dollars / kg, which corresponds to 37 – 50% of the price of fuel assemblies in terms of 1 kg of enriched uranium. In terms of 1 kg of unenriched uranium, the fee will be 95 – 126 dollars / kg, that is, approximately equal to its market price. Note that SNF is a valuable secondary raw material that can be effectively used in the next generation reactors.

Ukraine has a construction plan on its territory for a centralized SNF storage facility with a capacity of 16 529 spent fuel assemblies. The tender for the design and construction of the storage facility (2004) was won by the American company Holtec International. The contract was signed at 2005. The project cost is 3,7 billion UAH, the cost of its first stage is 1,2 billion UAH. But the project was almost frozen. The law allowing to begin construction of the storage facility was adopted only in 2012. In April of the current year, a decision was made to allocate hectares of area for it in the Chernobyl exclusion zone of 45. Construction is being carried out at the expense of loans from Energoatom. Pay attention to one moment. The cost of construction of the first stage of the storage facility is about 150 million dollars, which is no higher than the annual payment to Rosatom for taking Ukrainian spent nuclear fuel for storage. The storage could be put into operation in 2007. On the “freezing” of its construction, Ukraine lost approximately 1 billion dollars.

For how many years will Ukraine have enough of its uranium?

Despite the fact that the future of Ukraine and its territorial configuration remain uncertain, in our analysis we will consider the territory of Ukraine as a whole. The reasons for this are as follows. Firstly, it is not clear which boundaries will be divided. Secondly, an understanding of the possibilities of self-sufficiency of present-day Ukraine with uranium in any case will give an idea of ​​the dependence of this territory (for any borders) on external sources of raw materials.

There are predictable uranium resources. This is the approximate value of its reserves, profitable for development, which can be prepared from the results of geological exploration (GEW). Uranium reserves are usually estimated in three cost categories (costs of extraction, processing and receiving a unit of product): up to 40, from 40 to 80 and from 80 to 130 dollars / kg. Uranium reserves and resources, as well as commercial transactions with it, are usually expressed in equivalent masses of its nitrous oxide (U3O8). As of 2011, uranium reserves in the world amounted to 5 327 200 t, and its production this year amounted to 54 610 t. (85% of NPP demand). According to the report of the Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency (2011), uranium reserves in Ukraine are 119 600 t (1,8% of the world). Including 6400 tons with production costs less than 40 dollars / kg, 55 100 tons - from 40 to 80 dollars / kg and 58 100 - from 80 to 130 dollars / kg. The numbers above are geological reserves. The recoverable reserves of all deposits in the world make up 60% of the reliably estimated. For uranium deposits of Kazakhstan of the sandstone type - 70%. In Europe, uranium mining ceased when 50 – 70% of originally estimated reserves were mined. We can safely say that for Ukrainian deposits, recoverable reserves are approximately 50% of the geological. That is, the recoverable uranium reserves of Ukraine are equal to 59 800 t. Is it a lot or a little?

By 2019, the 10 of 15 power units of Ukrainian NPPs will end the design period of operation. But it will be extended by 20 years. In 2022, it is planned to begin construction of new blocks to replace the old ones being decommissioned in 2031 – 2037. This will allow up to about 2040 to ensure the generation of electricity at nuclear power plants at the level of recent years. To do this, you need 2480 tons of uranium annually. Recoverable reserves are enough for 24 of the year. For the world, this figure (at 60% recoverable reserves) is 50 years. That is, the supply of Ukrainian nuclear power plants with uranium reserves is two times lower than that of all nuclear power plants in the world. If Ukraine switches to self-sufficiency in uranium from 2017, its reserves will be enough to 2040. The territory of Ukraine is highly prospective for uranium. Based on this, according to the most optimistic forecast, it can be expected that the resources of uranium that can be transferred to reserves will suffice for another 10 – 20 years of operation of Ukrainian NPPs. In total, Ukrainian NPPs are provided with uranium reserves and resources at 34 – 44 of the year (up to 2050 – 2060). But Ukraine has plans to build two more power units at the Khmelnitsky NPP with their launch in 2018 and 2020. The design capacity of the units is according to 1000 MW. To ensure their operation, 390 tons of uranium will be required annually, which will reduce the period of supply of Ukrainian nuclear power plants with its reserves. With uranium mining at the level of the declared plan - 3,5 thousand tons per year, its reserves will be enough for 17 years. The conclusion is unequivocal. Uranium reserves and resources in the depths of Ukraine are not enough to supply its NPP reactors to the “planning horizon” adopted in the nuclear power industry.

The spot prices for uranium in the period from 2009 to the middle of 2012 were about 110 dollars / kg. Then began their fall. In the middle of 2013, they were at the level of 90 dollars / kg. In March this year - 77 dollars / kg. The prices for uranium on long-term contracts are, as a rule, higher than spot prices by 15 – 20%. In 2010 – 2012 Average uranium prices were about $ 125 / kg.

At the cost of uranium mining, VostGOK has a certificate from a competent Ukrainian specialist (01.06.2014): “we have more than $ 100 for sure, $ 120 even”. The estimated cost of uranium mining at the Novokonstantinovskoye deposit is $ 70 / kg, Safonovsky is $ 75 / kg. We can safely say that the latest estimates are seriously underestimated. Most likely, this is why it was not possible to attract foreign companies to develop fields. And for Rosatom's granddaughter - Uranium One (discussed in the 1 part of the article “Big Uranium of Kazakhstan”), the cost of uranium mining in 2013 was $ 35 / kg. The cost of production at its six ore fields in Kazakhstan varies from 24 to 55 dollars / kg. Willow Creek (USA) - 55 dollars / kg. That is, the cost of uranium mining from Uranium One (in 2013, it mined 4915 t) is three times lower than that of “VostGOK”.

The situation with uranium mining in Ukraine was difficult. "Old" deposits are practically developed. The extraction of "remnants" of ore on them has a high cost, and it will grow rapidly. In the foreseeable future, the Ingulsky and Smolinsky mines will be closed, and the agenda will raise the issue of financing the recultivation of mine workings, dumps and tailings. This is a lot of money. It should be noted that the Vostogok tailing dump (low radioactive liquid waste from a hydrometallurgical plant) is the largest in the world. All of the above means that the price of VostGOK (without the Novokonstantinovsky deposit) for foreign investors is not only minimal, but most likely negative. The declared cost of uranium mining at the new fields - Novokonstantinovsky and Safonovsky, is at the level of its spot prices, twice the real figure of Uranium One. In the foreseeable future, the situation is unlikely to change. This means that it is unlikely to receive a commercial loan for the development of the Novokonstantinovsky deposit.

The plan of "uranium independence" - rather, already история

On the whole, the plans adopted by Ukraine in 2008 for creating their own nuclear fuel production, taking into account the outlined joint projects with Russia, were quite real. But their implementation began against the background of accelerated degradation of the industry and lack of financial resources. But the lack of financial resources is the result of the degradation of the nuclear industry in Ukraine. In recent decades, the fixed assets inherited from the USSR have actually been “eaten away”. The industry did not form a profit from which it would be possible to finance the development of its individual components, including the creation of nuclear fuel production. But these are all formal conclusions made on the basis of the formal consideration of technical and economic issues. Ukraine’s real strategic goal was energy independence from Russia, and its own production of nuclear fuel is only one of the tools to achieve it. But it so happened that attempts to achieve a real goal led not only to the destruction of the foundations of the instrument, but also to the Ukrainian statehood itself.
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  1. Dezinto
    Dezinto 21 August 2014 14: 49
    How many useful, valuable and rare things are pumped through by the Ukrainian authorities !!!! sad
    1. Giant thought
      Giant thought 21 August 2014 16: 37
      Soon there will be a complete collapse in Ukraine, which will affect nuclear energy, and it is not known how the main juntaists will behave in a near-death hysteria regarding nuclear power plants, this is where the threat of global security is still sitting, imagine what would happen if several Chernobyls were torn in Ukraine at the same time.
      1. Kasym
        Kasym 21 August 2014 19: 10
        Part 1 and 2 about uranium RK by this author are interesting. Our cooperation on this topic. Read it. True, not everything is there. Russia almost lost our uranium. HERE IS A TRUE EXAMPLE OF ALLIES. Actually, they squeezed out the Americans (moreover, they entered their market and got their share). Now it's the turn, as I understand it, of the Japanese. And if the Canadians and the French continue to "muddy" the waters with technologies, then their time will come.
        The success of Kazakhstan in this topic (the author emphasizes this) was laid down by our new mining method, invented by our scientists (it is described in detail in the first articles on uranium of Kazakhstan).
        The history of our relations on uranium began very difficult. Rosatom, owning, after the collapse of the USSR, a large amount of fuel from warheads (disarmament), stopped paying attention to production. And the industry in the Republic of Kazakhstan could not work without the same in the Russian Federation (1 and 3 uranium redistribution in the Republic of Kazakhstan; 2 and 4 in the Russian Federation). Until 2006, they knocked on a closed door. Only then did everyone begin to understand that the fuel would soon become strained. “We came to our closest ally and neighbor. But everything is“ busy. ”- Kiriyenko, head of RosAtomProm. And we already have Americans, Chinese, French, Canadians, Japanese. NAS for the sake of Russia put Dzhakishev (head of Kazatomprom), in fact, he raised the industry; and ... did everything to ensure that Rosatom now receives 22% of all uranium mined or 50% of its production by foreign companies. We own 10% in an American company. And experts believe that the Japanese will be squeezed out. As I understand it, we (the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation) have signed a common strategy in this industry. And I think that in the "fuel of the 21st century" we will dominate.
        Practical implementation of the Nuclear Fuel Bank program through the IAEA has begun in Kazakhstan. And also together with Russia (in Uralsk-RK, 15% and in Angarsk-RF, TsOU, 30%) we are enriching uranium. Kazakhstan now needs only one thing - to build a pair of nuclear power plants ("shoemaker without boots"). hi
        There is talk of a unified energy system (RB, RF, RK-EAEU). In my opinion, there was infa on this site. Save 500 million green.
  2. B.T.V.
    B.T.V. 21 August 2014 14: 49
    Not a country, but continuous degradation, where you don’t spit.
  3. The comment was deleted.
  4. Veteran of the Red Army
    Veteran of the Red Army 21 August 2014 14: 58
    But their implementation began amid accelerating industrial degradation and lack of financial resources.
    1. sandrmur76
      sandrmur76 21 August 2014 15: 49
      Anatoly is unlikely to have such a future in Ukraine. Cattle will be devoured, a cart for firewood laughing With such experiments there will be a second Chernobyl, or a few more. they rule there and there will never be any order. They dug a hole for themselves, they just fit comfortably into it now. what
    2. mamont5
      mamont5 21 August 2014 17: 07
      With such an industry, uranium is enough for a long time.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. The comment was deleted.
    5. The comment was deleted.
    6. The comment was deleted.
    7. jagdpanzer
      jagdpanzer 22 August 2014 08: 16
      I see the atomic ..
  5. sanja.grw
    sanja.grw 21 August 2014 15: 09
    God forbid, a new Chernobyl in this dill, and Stalker will be in kind
    1. My address
      My address 21 August 2014 16: 43
      But this is scary, Alexander hi .

      Temporary storage of assemblies after operation has been worked out. And what about further processing and disposal? This is not poop from the above-described cows on the field to bury. The most complicated technology that is not in Ukraine. The Americans will not seriously help, they do not need nafig. If he goes belay , God forbid, Chernobyl may seem like childish fun. The East Ural radioactive trail is still popping up. And the population density of Ukraine is several times greater than the Urals.

      One word, Dill ... fool
      1. pensioner
        pensioner 21 August 2014 18: 20
        Well, Sasha appeared! Hello! hi
        And the fact that they will have incidents at the nuclear power plant is not to go to the grandmother. The only question is their scale. And there will be no one to substitute the shoulder in the form of Rosatom, as it was before ...
  6. bmv04636
    bmv04636 21 August 2014 15: 24
    They will soon have nothing to mine with coal either. The enterprises that made coal combines (Donetsk, Horlivka) were destroyed. Recently, representatives came to us to place an order for the production of a reducer for a coal combine from Donetsk; they managed to bring only the assembly to Kharkov together with people. Part of the order placed in Maykop, the part they want from us.
    1. bumerang.
      bumerang. 21 August 2014 21: 41
      They will soon have nothing to mine with coal either.

      And all because the owner / president is not like in Russia. love
  7. Bora
    Bora 21 August 2014 15: 28
    The archive contains a little more than 150 letters from Butusov’s personal mailbox on A little more than half are mailings with and any spam. The reliability of this box was confirmed to me by one Ukrainian colleague, so there is no big doubt about the authenticity. The archive itself is laid out in two forms, with a bunch of .eml files and one .mbox file. I don’t know why, in mbox the encoding of some letters was broken. According to the rules of LiveJournal, I can’t publish your full name and links to archives, but they google for five minutes, anyone who wants can break through DKIM and see the full versions of letters.

    Being an editor in chief is not easy. There will always be people who believe that you are not a journalist, but a station prostitute. It’s shitty when they know your mail and they start to write, write, write!
  8. 3vs
    3vs 21 August 2014 15: 44
    As children, everything is done in spite of Russia, even to the detriment of not holding power, of course, to its population.
  9. zennon
    zennon 21 August 2014 15: 44
    A wonderful article. I have not read such competent, well-founded and finished material. Author respect! hi But for hoh ..., that is, for dill, it seems like cranks in the energy sector. What will they do?
    1. victorsh
      victorsh 21 August 2014 16: 46
      I do not agree about the delivery of fuel rods to UkrAES. NZKhK has supplied fuel rods to UkrAES and it is supplying. But it will not supply equipment for the TVEL production plant in Ukraine (due to recent events).
      1. zennon
        zennon 21 August 2014 19: 17
        Quote: victorsh
        .NZHK both supplied TVELs to UkrAES, and so it supplies.

        So, do they pay for it? Or are we again figucci debt?
        1. victorsh
          victorsh 21 August 2014 20: 51
          Payment was made in advance.
  10. silver169
    silver169 21 August 2014 15: 46
    Everywhere you spit, from which side do not look, scribe is everywhere in Ukraine. Sorry for them, but they themselves sought this (((.
  11. Finches
    Finches 21 August 2014 15: 48
    I fear for dill nuclear power plants, well, if they drown them out, but as a result of their thoughtless policies and indulging the Americans, this may lead, God forbid, to accidents worse than the Chernobyl! Europe here certainly will not stay away!
  12. vrach
    vrach 21 August 2014 15: 49
    Ukraine is a country of lost opportunities.
    One wish to the author, the material is solid, detailed, but it can be shorter -
    That is, the security of Ukrainian nuclear power plants with uranium reserves is two times lower than the security of all nuclear power plants in the world.

    and so on about the high cost. For a larger audience, this one sentence without history is enough, you can refer to more detailed material.
  13. nfoma80
    nfoma80 21 August 2014 15: 52
    Yeah! But for some reason I’m not surprised, and you? Ukraine has a mess twice as powerful as ours, hence the conclusions. About five years ago, in Sevastopol, I ended up in a children's clinic, a child caught an otitis media, then I was very happy for Russian health care, I did not see such a mess in Russia, but the last repair was done there in 1989. And so everywhere, only on Soviet stocks everything kept. Look at their army, I have so many GAZ-66s, and I have not seen ZIL-131 for a long time, the stuff is barely traveling. that's why bulls are a topic!
  14. tolancop
    tolancop 21 August 2014 16: 13
    One moment is incomprehensible to me. In the spring, it was claimed that fuel at the Ukrainian nuclear power plant remained before the end of April. Now is the end of August. It seems that Russia nevertheless delivers fuel on credit. IMHO, still cheaper than fighting the consequences of 15 Chernobyls.
  15. goose
    goose 21 August 2014 16: 20
    The author briefly and specifically laid out the facts on the table. Worthy of respect.
    But it seems to me that the main problem of nuclear energy in Ukraine is the same that caused the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant - the catastrophically rapid degradation of the personnel responsible for servicing the nuclear power plant and making technical (and, accordingly, political) decisions. The washing out of Soviet-era specialists with sound special education can lead to disaster already in the next 10-15 years due to a lack of professionalism and knowledge of the very specific topics of managing nuclear reactors, chemistry of nuclear materials, nuclear physics, structuralists, etc.
    In view of this factor, in the near future Ukraine has every chance to switch to outsourcing maintenance of nuclear power plants from another state, or to shut down all reactors. But jamming the reactors will cause a social explosion.
  16. kompotnenado
    kompotnenado 21 August 2014 16: 27
    It’s long and tedious to list what can be expressed shorter. Dill profiled everything that touched their hands.
  17. Ordinary stock
    Ordinary stock 21 August 2014 17: 51
    Shutting down the reactor is easy. But this is not the same thing as taking the unit out of operation. The challenge for years.
  18. xtur
    xtur 21 August 2014 18: 06
    > Participants in this serious incident - Ukrainian politicians and officials, as well as Westinghouse leaders pretended that nothing serious had happened. From a technical point of view, this is true.

    Rђ RІRѕS, here the author is very seriously mistaken. There are top-level regulatory documents regulating the design and operation of nuclear power plants. So - the hardest variety design basis accidents at a nuclear power plant accidents with damage nuclear fuel. Design basis accidents it accidentsfor which project the station has standard protective equipment accidents, the course of which is well known, to counter which the station staff constantly trains in a variety of ways - from annual exams to work on simulators.

    design basis accidents at nuclear power plants with damage nuclear fuel it nuclear accidents

    Harder than nuclear accidents only beyond design basis accidents - based on the definition design basis accidents, obviously, for these types accidents there are no standard protective equipment, or they are already ineffective, the paths for such accidents are not very well known.

    Beyond design basis accidents with high probability it is Chernobyl and / or Fukushima.

    Any changes to reactor installation (RU) must be agreed with the designers of the plant, and a change in fuel is without a doubt a change in RU. In addition, all the operating modes of the station are directly tied to the properties of the fuel used, all of these modes are listed in Technical Regulation station, which is the highest normative document for all personnel and the directorate of nuclear power plants. all Operating Instructions all standard station systems are directly based on technical regulations.

    Therefore, without certification of any fuel in all modes of operation of the station, it categorically cannot be used at nuclear power plants. If Toshiba / Vestigauz wants to enter the market share of Russia, it should build its own research reactors and get decent fuel for them, and then coordinate its use with the designers.

    These are extremely important issues of security and commercial interests of Russia.
  19. voliador
    voliador 21 August 2014 18: 15
    Another myth of the "independent" leaders. But how much dough was cut.
  20. Aleksey888
    Aleksey888 21 August 2014 21: 59
    Those. What happens? The Americans quite legally and officially load "defective" TVELs into the Ukrop nuclear power plants, and as a result, Russia receives radioactive contamination of the area from the territory of Ukraine.