The main problem of re-industrialization and further development of the country is the creation of conditions for the expanded reproduction of intellectual property in the defense industry. The domestic civilian sector almost does not supply high-tech consumer goods to the market, not only because of the lack of funds for the development and organization of their release, but also because it is not motivated to innovate modernization. And in the defense industry today practically no intellectual property is produced.
The problem of using intellectual property of the defense industry in the civilian sector of the country's economy is not new. Three attempts can be made to connect the resources of the military-industrial complex to solving the tasks of filling the consumer market for goods and services. True, they all did not have a significant positive impact on the modernization of civil enterprises, primarily on the production of products with high added value.
The first attempt is connected with the “lowering” of the planned indicators for the production of consumer goods to the enterprises of the military-industrial complex of the USSR. However, since the military factories had a state-guaranteed market for their main products, plans for their production did not focus their leadership on using the existing scientific potential for the development of the country's consumer market. Therefore, the diversion of engineering and technical personnel to the production of washing machines, pots, etc., was not a blessing for the military industrial complex, but a burden, which also reduced the profitability of production.
The second attempt is related to the conversion carried out during the period of adjustment. One of the tasks voiced then was the transfer of the released funds and intellectual property of the military-industrial complex of the USSR to the civilian sectors of the economy. But this goal could not be achieved, since the focus on reducing the burden of military spending made the costs of converting intellectual property unjustified. As a result, the released personnel with the highest level of training at the time were forced to use the instruments and equipment of yesterday in civilian sectors. This marked the beginning of the process of degradation of the scientific and technical intelligentsia of the USSR and, as a result, “squeezing” and reducing the accumulation of intellectual property in the military-industrial complex.
The third attempt is related to market reforms. It can be considered a continuation of the policy of Soviet conversion, since the task of developing the market for goods and services was also supposed to be solved through the massive release of qualified specialists. The authors of the reforms a priori assumed that engineering and scientific personnel are able to independently realize their intellectual capital in the market. The naivete of this position is amazing. But it became the basic element of the national economic development strategy, the result of which was, firstly, the destruction of the material and technical base of scientific research at defense enterprises, secondly, the degradation of the intellectual property available in this sector, thirdly, the extremely inefficient use of the overwhelming majority liberated scientific and technical intelligentsia in small and medium businesses.
Theory and practice
Today, the country is making its next, fourth attempt to use the intellectual property of the defense industrial complex in the interests of developing civilian sectors of the economy.
If this is so, then we are witnessing the beginning of the end of the “spiral turn” in the interaction of the military and civilian sectors of the economy. And this process will take place in very difficult conditions for the domestic industry.
Thus, according to the "pure theory" market demand for research and development determines their supply, but in Russia this rule does not apply. With a clearly growing demand in the domestic market for high-tech consumer goods and services, domestic producers practically do not supply them. They have no means or interest to use their intellectual property for innovative modernization of production.
Today, only the state is able to initiate this interest, thereby guaranteeing the realization of the ultimate goal of the innovation economy. Without replacing the market, it can act as a customer for the production of goods with high added value. It should also, as is done all over the world, become a customer for relevant research and development.
What do you need to do to do this from the perspective of the effective use of the intellectual property of the defense industry?
Assessment of the situation
If we start from the wording of the content of this form of ownership in the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, then first of all we need to develop legal norms that encourage defense enterprises to carry out research and implement their results to civil enterprises.
Activity in this direction is important, but secondary.
The main problem is the creation of conditions for the expanded reproduction of intellectual property in the DIC, since today there is practically nothing like this here.
However, the solution of this problem is hindered by at least five groups of factors.
The first is the deformed structure of the economy.
The second is the low level of wages in industry.
The third is personnel shortage.
The fourth is the spatial overconcentration of intellectual property carriers.
Fifth - the loss of a significant part of intellectual property.
1. The structure of the economy. The calculations in the 1 table show a reduction in the contribution of the basic industries of re-industrialization - mechanical engineering and metalworking to the total industrial output. It is not possible to increase this share by connecting the enterprises of the military-industrial complex, since the picture presented in the table applies primarily to them.
2. The level of wages in industry. As follows from the 2 table, firstly, in 2012, the unit labor costs in the industry are significantly lower than not only in 1990. It has been established that “manufacturing enterprises“ officially ”spend about 25 percent less on labor payment than at the beginning of 2000's.” True, "this was partly due to a significant reduction in deductions for social insurance of workers: if in the 2002 year, manufacturing enterprises spent almost 13 percent of the total GVA amount, then in 2011, only 8 percent” (R. Kapelyushnikov. " Productivity and Wages: Some Simple Arithmetic. ”“ Economic Issues ”, 2014, No. 3).
The reduction in the share of wages noted in the 2 table has nothing to do with the transition to an innovative development model, since it is not associated with the replacement of human labor with modern technologies. It is the result of savings on wages, that is, the use of different versions of the sweatshop system.
3. Staff hunger. The situation with wages provokes a reaction of rejection in citizens of offers to work in industry. The depth of the personnel crisis is best illustrated by the passing scores in a number of universities over the past year.
The position of the famous “Baumanka” presented in the 3 table - the university that prepared the elite of the military-industrial complex of the USSR, does not require comments. But most of all it is shocking that in the specialty “Instrument Engineering and Mechanical Engineering” the passing score in “Baumanka” is 38 points lower than in the Russian Peoples Friendship University.
4. Overconcentration of intellectual capital carriers. Equally serious negative impact on the use of intellectual property of the defense industry in civilian sectors is the economic and geographical features of the placement of qualified personnel, inherited from the Soviet economic system.
As follows from the figure, which shows the proportion of people engaged in research in the total number of employees, the majority of “intellectuals” are concentrated in seven regional points. And if you consider that for the scientific elite it is preferable to live in Moscow and St. Petersburg, it is clear that representatives of this group, including those from the Moscow Region and Kaluga Region, will want to accumulate in the capitals. However, not in science and industry, but in finance and business.
5. Loss of intellectual property. During the period of market reforms, opportunities for using the potential of the defense industrial complex in the interests of the development of civilian sectors of the economy were dealt the most significant blow. Its cause was the unresolved problem of ownership of intellectual capital.
It is widely believed that the Soviet military-industrial complex possessed enormous intellectual property. But it is not. The real owner was not the enterprises of the military-industrial complex, but hundreds of specialized institutions and design bureaus. But since, for reasons of secrecy, this property in most cases was not legally formalized (for example, through international patenting), it was lost, stolen, or sold abroad. Thus, it is estimated that the total value of intellectual property in the field of defense, which was illegally transferred to third countries, is eight billion dollars.
In our opinion, it is impossible to overcome the negative impact of the first three groups of factors by the forces of the MIC and only inside it. For this, a system of economic and legal mechanisms is needed, which induces all machine-building enterprises to manufacture products with high added value.
If this conclusion is correct, then the solution of the problem of using the intellectual property of the military-industrial complex for civilian needs should be sought not inside it, but in developing a strategy for the re-industrialization of the Russian economy.
This strategy, among other things, will have to take into account the impact of the fourth factor - the features of the spatial distribution of carriers of intellectual capital. That is, the solution is seen in the formation of clusters according to the type of Dubninsky, the use of the preserved human potential of company towns, etc.
As for the fifth negative factor - the loss of the intellectual property objects of the military-industrial complex, we need to start with its protection. A complex of measures is necessary here, since the entire volume of protected intellectual property in Russia does not exceed one percent.
To solve this problem, first of all you need:
specify the rights of the Russian Federation to the results of intellectual activity (RID), created at the expense of the state budget;
to ensure a balance of the rights and legitimate interests of participants in legal relations in this area;
create, at the level of legislative acts, conditions sufficient to stimulate creative activity and the use of RIA in the sectors of the military-industrial complex;
legislatively determine the procedure for the transfer by the state of rights to RIA created at the expense of the state budget;
to increase the level of protection of rights to RID, toughen responsibility for their violation, etc.
However, protective measures are not enough, since the main problem is not the need to preserve the intellectual property accumulated in the defense-industrial complex, but its expanded reproduction.
This requires, firstly, an inventory of the intellectual property of the DIC in all the remaining forms. Secondly, it is necessary to revive the defense research institutes and design bureaus in the priority areas of restoring defense. Thirdly, there is a need to develop economic and legal mechanisms for transferring this intellectual property to the production of military equipment, where it can be used by both state and private producers. By the way, this process is well established in the USA. And only in fourth place are economic and legal mechanisms for transferring (selling) intellectual property to the defense industrial complex in the sphere of civil production.
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