Military Review

In the United States are developing a reactor operating on nuclear waste

The events that took place in Fukushima in 2011 year, led many to reconsider their attitude to nuclear power. After the accident at the nuclear power plant in Japan, a wave of closures of nuclear power plants swept the world, some countries decided to completely abandon the peaceful atom. At the same time, some companies quickly found their bearings and continue to market safer forms of obtaining nuclear energy. One of these companies was able to obtain funding to translate plans into reality. The American company Transatomic Power became the owner of two million dollars received from the Founders Fund. The money should go to the construction of a salt melt reactor that can be “fed” with nuclear waste.

Transatomic Power has close ties with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Currently, the company has focused its efforts on making nuclear power more efficient, it focuses on smaller, but highly efficient installations that can be manufactured in a factory and then delivered to the assembly site. The company's specialists have already managed to create a system that is able to use various types of fuels, including materials, which in traditional nuclear energy are recognized as production wastes.

We are talking about salt decomposition reactors, which are attractive because they practically have immunity to core melts, like the one that occurred at the Japanese nuclear power plant in Fukushima. In such reactors, a mixture of salts with nuclear fuel is used, which makes it possible to significantly slow down the process of the chain reaction occurring in the reactor. At that moment, when the temperature in the core rises, the salt expands and leads to a decrease in the splitting rate. Since the melting point of salt is higher than the core temperature, even in the event of a state of emergency, at which no one can take any urgent measures, the reaction will gradually fade out by itself. This technology has been proposed before, but Transatomic Power says they were able to improve it by improving the internal geometry of the nuclear reactor. These changes made it possible to use nuclear waste or uranium with an enrichment level of just 1,8% as fuel.

New developments of the Transatomic Power company are interesting first of all because they cannot be used to create armory radioactive materials. Currently, the company's reactors are able to produce 500 MW of energy - this is only a small part of the capacity generated by standard nuclear power plants, but they are significantly smaller and produce only a small part of waste compared to large plants. The company's receipt of two million dollars for development will allow it to verify the reactor it has built. The next step will be the direct construction of the finished version of the nuclear power plant. The first prototype of such a station is expected to cost $ 1,7 billion. At the same time, the commercial production of such reactors can be launched as early as 2020. The launch of these reactors would be a major step forward for the entire nuclear industry.

In the United States are developing a reactor operating on nuclear waste

Reactors on molten salts

Reactors operating on molten salt (molten salt reactors - GSR or MSR, Molten Salt Reactor) belong to one of the types of nuclear fission reactors, in which the role of the main coolant is performed by a special mixture of molten salts, which is able to operate at very high temperatures, while maintaining This low pressure. This allows to reduce the mechanical stress inside the reactor and increase its safety level. Liquid nuclear fuel is also a coolant at the same time, which allows to simplify the design of the reactor, equalizes the burnout of fuel and allows the replacement of fuel without drowning out the reactor.

MSR reactors operate at a sufficiently high temperature: 600 — 700 ° C, which still does not exceed the boiling point of the molten salt. For this reason, the pressure in the nuclear reactor is maintained slightly higher - 1 kg / cm2, which allows the reactor to do without expensive and heavy body. Another important advantage is the small reactor core, which in turn means the use of a smaller amount of protective materials. One of the types used in these fluids are fluids based on thorium fluoride-232 and uranium-233. Rectors based on the thorium or uranium cycle.

At the same time, in many reactor designs, nuclear fuel is dissolved in molten fluoride coolant - in the salt of tetrafluoride. Beryllium and lithium are also added to the melt. Nuclear fuel consumption is estimated at approximately 1 tonnes of thorium per 1000 MW of energy produced. In this case, the high-level radioactive waste for the year, the rector produces only about a ton. Of this ton, 83% will stabilize after 10 years, and the remaining 17% will need to be buried for a long time (300-500 years). At the same time, the reactor produces only 30 grams of plutonium, which is why the salt melt reactors cannot be used to release weapons-grade plutonium. Currently, proven world reserves of thorium are 2,23 million tons, and the estimated amount of unexplored reserves is estimated at 2,13 million tons.

It should be noted that today the MSR technology is still not so well studied even among nuclear engineers. Wherein story Such reactors originated in the late 40-ies of the last century. Until the end of 1960's, attempts to adapt these reactors did not cease, taking into account their compact dimensions, as sources of energy for aircraft. The first operating reactor was ready in 1954, while even having equipped a B-36 bomber with such a reactor. However, intercontinental ballistic missiles and the development of missile technology in general put an end to aircraft that could be in the air for weeks without refueling.

The main reason that MSR reactors have not received mass distribution (despite the huge reserves of raw materials and a small amount of waste) is the fact that thorium was not a raw material for the production of nuclear weapons. Already in the 1950-60 years, interest in the development of nuclear power plants that would use thorium began to cool. The blame for everything was a flaming cold war. At that time, megatons were far more important than megawatts. Now the opposite is true: megawatts are obtained from megatons. About a third of the nuclear fuel comes from reduced and outdated nuclear weapons - weapons-grade uranium and plutonium.

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  1. nemo1983
    nemo1983 20 August 2014 10: 05
    "the company's reactors are able to produce 500 MW of energy" - the amount of energy can be produced, and the article says about the generated power. After this, the article can be skipped further. The author must translate correctly or not post the article.
    1. Falcon5555
      Falcon5555 20 August 2014 19: 36
      This English original is silly. Translation, of course, is also "free". In the original - 500 MW of electric current - is that clearer? Another translation example - $ 2 million for the construction of a reactor ??? This is a salary for 20 qualified people per year. In the original - to develop - develop. But the English original is also silly.
      The cooling liquid is molten salt, but "... Since the melting point of the salt is higher than the core temperature, then ..." you can not read further.
      Which core? This is an English core, but still do not understand.
      This "author" simply copied the text from
      He indicated this as a source of information, but it is the source of almost all of this text, and not information.
      And there, close to the literal, they transferred from there what is indicated:
      1. fennekRUS
        fennekRUS 21 August 2014 08: 22
        Illiterate translation, illiterate article.
        a lot of links to different sources.
        Well, here's the domestic developments
  2. netwalker1904
    netwalker1904 20 August 2014 10: 48
    what an interesting invention!
  3. Victor1
    Victor1 20 August 2014 11: 06
    I’ve heard for a long time that we have the opportunity to build reactors on more accessible uranium, which is also formed as a result of waste, but they don’t let the project start, and they want to focus on unpromising thorium reactors.
    1. insafufa
      insafufa 20 August 2014 13: 39
      Ours have already built a reverse cycle reactor and testing it allows you to recycle waste up to 70% of the waste can be recycled essentially closed loop
      1. anomalocaris
        anomalocaris 20 August 2014 16: 03
        What is this "reverse cycle"? Have we really learned to drive emitted neutrons back?
        1. GRAY
          GRAY 21 August 2014 11: 47
          Quote: anomalocaris
          What is this "reverse cycle"? Have we really learned to drive emitted neutrons back?

          Well it is more like Yes:
          Nuclear reactor neutron reflector
          1. anomalocaris
            anomalocaris 21 August 2014 15: 44
            Yeah. I read - complete nonsense.
            1. anomalocaris
              anomalocaris 22 August 2014 16: 48
              I apologize, not nonsense, sprinkle ash on my head request
              There it’s just a little about something else.
    2. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 20 August 2014 16: 08
      The minimum percentage of uranium enrichment at which a chain reaction is possible is 15%. In Soviet times, fast-neutron reactors were developed here, which could operate on the waste from conventional nuclear reactors. Everything would be fine, only such a reactor is much more dangerous.
    3. Mountain shooter
      Mountain shooter 22 August 2014 13: 03
      Only today was there a message about the start of domestic development of a natural uranium reactor 238. Kurchatov Institute is participating.
      1. anomalocaris
        anomalocaris 22 August 2014 16: 49
        Theoretically possible, but the seed must still be. And this seed will contain plutonium.
  4. bmv04636
    bmv04636 20 August 2014 13: 53
    but is it not the "light elves" who use a cold fusion thermonuclear reactor?
    And why do they need nuclear power plants when they already have so much gas and alternative orientation of energy
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 20 August 2014 15: 31
      With cold fusion, there are no industrial
      samples. There are controversial laboratory facilities with
      unstable process. And physicists and chemists do not
      came to a consensus that it releases heat there.
      Heat is generated by electric current.
      some surface films, but the amount of heat exceeds that,
      as in famous chem. reactions.
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 20 August 2014 22: 54
        There will not be a single opinion, nor will there be a result. Complex highly dynamic processes cannot be fully substantiated by mathematical analysis, which allows only partial solutions to be implemented. Scientists do not even understand what it means. And this means that nuclear reactions are a property of a substance to form magnetic forces of high density and in a radial polarization vector in interactions with the external environment. Therefore, spent nuclear materials can be polarized in a linear vector.
        1. anomalocaris
          anomalocaris 21 August 2014 15: 46
          Everything can be polarized. Even the idiotism of individual citizens ...
  5. Mama_Cholli
    Mama_Cholli 20 August 2014 17: 51
    All of this is certainly wonderful, but it seems to me that there is some negative point here. For example, how to dispose of these saline solutions? And what they will ultimately represent when disposed of. Maybe this will be even worse for the ecology of the planet.
  6. max702
    max702 20 August 2014 20: 15
    Illiterate article about another cut. Yes, and 2 million for the development of nuclear technology? This money for painting and lighting the set point is not enough.
  7. vladikaus
    vladikaus 20 August 2014 22: 24
    What are all the clever comments I write I feel proud of Russia
    1. schizophrenic
      schizophrenic 21 August 2014 02: 12
      Quote: vladikaus
      What are all the clever comments I write I feel proud of Russia

      Who in the subject may be absent from the site. To argue just happens with Neksem. Request, Russia with a capital letter you need to write.
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 21 August 2014 12: 01
        What and with whom to argue if no one has the understanding of
        that radioactivity is a radial high-voltage polarization, which is formed by magnetic force flows, which form the whole process in its measure and direction of development. This polarization can either be linearly concentrated in a bi-polarized vector, or multi-polar polarization vectors, or non-radioactive materials can be used at all, but create such a level of polarization in them
    2. gridasov
      gridasov 21 August 2014 11: 52
      And who said that Russia will continue its primacy in the technology war. New technology is a new way of thinking. Russia relies on a classical technological process.
      1. Yves762
        Yves762 21 August 2014 14: 14
        Here you go:
        Here are two for you:
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 21 August 2014 14: 40
          Show this nonsense to students and schoolchildren. It is all organized on Niko effective physical principles.
          1. Yves762
            Yves762 21 August 2014 17: 55
            Quote: gridasov
            This is all organized on low effective physical principles.

            Ek you, my friend, have bent indiscriminately ...
            Especially in relation to the breeder reactor, which gives energy and reproduces fuel.
            Good. Give an example.
            1. gridasov
              gridasov 21 August 2014 18: 33
              IMAGINE that you have an interconnected linear segment placed in such a situation when one end of it moves at any speed, but approaching zero, and its other end moves at any speed. Then we have a potential difference and EMF with a clearly expressed and obvious vector. If this piece is from radioactive material, then you get what you get. The task instantly turns from theoretical to purely technical. And it was solved without compromise. So who am I after that in all the attached epithets? I told only one part of that algorithmic process that allows you to apply a minimum of energy, and get incomparably more in the balance. Because in the application of energy the proportionality of one level, and in its resultant another. The process can be "endlessly" VARIED IN A COMBINATION OF WHAT IS TAKEN FOR THE basis and the environment in which it happens. And the fool will understand that the level of radioactivity of this base will depend only on the level of the potential difference at its ends. Radioactivity is a banally simple superdifference of potentials, but not linear, but radial. That's it.
              1. Yves762
                Yves762 22 August 2014 01: 06
                However, my friend, you still never understood me (or didn’t want to understand ... anyway).
                what And as an example, to be honest, I expected not to wire the stretched ears of the "philosopher's stone" (this is about vary combinations ...) to the "glass effect" (this is about the fact that more flows out than the last drop) ... etc.
                And something more material. A reference to practice, for example sad ...
                That's when you put it on the table not nanobolt (Yak Medvedev with Petrik), and at least the calculation of the generator on the Casimir effect, as a source of movement, then and only then .... what .. feel .. laughing ... I agree that you were not "covered" ...
                1. gridasov
                  gridasov 22 August 2014 10: 41
                  Obviously, it is useless to talk with a person who is weak in his own mind so as not to understand. that there can be no charged bodies, as such. Since the very definition of the presence of a body indicates the presence of dimension, and therefore the polarization of its dependence on forms. At a minimum, the center of mass can always be determined.
                  Secondly, you communicate with someone who does not popularize himself too much and is the primary source of information. In addition, you did not bother to see the meaning of what was meant in the first toast. And it is precisely because it has been theoretically justified and practically confirmed that a technology has been created in which it is possible to exceed the thresholds of the collapsing rotation of the body, which means that a whole algorithmic complex of effects and Coand and Magnus are taken into account and the defining meaning of the meaning of the Poincare hypothesis is found.
                  I will say more that I was uncovered because we created a methodology for complex analysis, since it is necessary to take into account the physical processes of transformation of a moving flow on the outflow surfaces and the transformation of these surfaces themselves at the level of change in their level of polarization and the direction vector of this polarization.
                  I want to note that such a comprehensive analysis of highly dynamically changing physical processes, besides occurring at different levels of process dynamics, requires a new mat methodology. analysis. since algebraic methods always determine only a particular solution and cannot allow to solve without errors the problems of analyzing high-capacity and highly dynamic and at different levels of processes, and most importantly solve them in a complex of simultaneous events.
                  1. Yves762
                    Yves762 22 August 2014 15: 03
                    Quote: gridasov
                    Obviously, it is useless to talk with a person who is weak in his own mind so as not to understand. that there can be no charged bodies, as such
                    -I didn’t talk about that. So ... by the way.

                    And yet nanobolt! am

                    My friend, next time you find a victim, try to take into account with your "methodology of complex analysis", which exploits matan on crutches (funny ... and what does it still work?), That your parishes are "available for direct observation" exclusively to you. And to prove them to others, if they did, it is necessary in the forms they recognized. By them - by others! Not by you.

                    And when you are asked to lay out a proof, the onny should not be in the form "I said \ saw \ heard \ smelt \ decided on my own! And nii ... тъ !!!"

                    But you resort to it:
                    Secondly, you communicate with someone who does not popularize himself too much and is the primary source of information.
                    - wassat Pfff ....

                    Okay. Consider that I have decided for myself with your "diagnosis".
                    I wish you good luck in promoting your ideas in material life. No matter how, as soon as it is a criterion of truth ...
                    1. gridasov
                      gridasov 22 August 2014 16: 00
                      And there is no question. In order to explain to someone that binary code is something so primitive, and that you can use code based on nat numbers. number, which means you can .... In short, the number of people in the crowd, the general level of intelligence does not change. I'm not one of those who will prove their case. It is truth, regardless of subjectivity. It simply can only be somehow justified or not. Because it exists beyond the grades of a wise guy or a fool. Good luck to you too.
                      1. anomalocaris
                        anomalocaris 22 August 2014 16: 45
                        Baby, well, suppose I know what binary, tertiary, quaternary, etc. the code is much better than vyv. Yes, by the way, the number 2, by the way, is natural.
                        You cannot prove anything, due to your own lack of education.
                        Z.Y. And what is truth?
                      2. gridasov
                        gridasov 22 August 2014 17: 04
                        Then the "daddy" can know how to build a multipolar transistor so that the polarization levels correspond to the interaction system with the nat numbers. series, but which also perform the function of code. As far as I know, the Americans are puffing over this task. And even the level of their achievements is known. And you are already in this "dock". Maybe you dear sir know and what is the key problem of a turbo fuel injector for missiles. And then you have a sound concept and turbos for an aircraft engine. Well then, of course, you are able to substantiate the reasons for the boundary limit of rotation of these turbines.
                        You do not understand gentlemen that, unfortunately, we can no longer express openly what we generally wanted to offer you.
                      3. anomalocaris
                        anomalocaris 23 August 2014 03: 51
                        Do you understand what you said?
                      4. gridasov
                        gridasov 23 August 2014 10: 21
                        Well, if you don’t even know that all of this is such, then I’d better be really the last idiot.
                        If you are so smart and do not know how to form a critical polarization on the turbine blades in such a way that it does not need to be cooled and at the same time raise the temperature in the combustion chamber by orders of magnitude, which means using such fuels that in their essence organize the gas-dynamic flow then think gentlemen yourself. Of course, I cannot physically do what I can’t, but I don’t have to be so incapable of seeing the obvious so as not to build a chain of algorithmic processes in which it is possible to organize the most intense linear, hydro-gas-dynamic flow and in which the transverse radial processes of polarization will be minimal , and hence the polarizing load on the blades will simply be removed outside their body.
                        And apparently in the end. I’m responsible for every word I say to myself, at least, but the talkers are only misrepresented in the methods of humiliating and insulting opponents. Be.
                      5. anomalocaris
                        anomalocaris 23 August 2014 10: 42
                        For every word you say? Well then, answer, our non-littered one, is that what you were going to burn in order to get the temperature in the GTE combustion chamber at least 200ºС?
                      6. gridasov
                        gridasov 23 August 2014 15: 18
                        It seems that I’m conducting a monologue with a rude, arrogant student, who only fights off bad manners in talking. But I will answer. The technology for using reactors on radioactive materials is justified by the fact that it is possible to obtain an exothermic process that is extended over time, which allows the carrier to be heated in the future, kinetic energy, which can be converted into energy on the shaft of the turbine rotor and generator. Therefore, it is not so difficult to obtain a linear plasma discharge with temperature parameters of 200 degrees or millions. It is important to understand that what is meant by temperature directly depends on the speed of the process. So there you go! The task is to bypass the process of heating the carrier of kinetic energy through radioactive materials to create conditions for the conversion processes in it and, at the same time, to convert the linear plasma breakdown vector into a radial and in an infinite algorithmic cycle. I hope this is clear? We are talking about such a reactor with a well-founded cyclic and algorithmic process.
                      7. anomalocaris
                        anomalocaris 23 August 2014 15: 54
                        Extremely. You have heard a lot of beautiful and smart words, but do not understand what they mean. And therefore, they look like a parrot, which can say the same thing, but not understanding the meaning of the utterance, it carries frank nonsense. You are not interesting to me and, frankly, disgusting.
                      8. gridasov
                        gridasov 23 August 2014 17: 50
                        Nasty? My dear, well, do not leave me! Honestly! honestly! I will be intelligent to the end Do you want to be a parrot? my dear!
                      9. anomalocaris
                        anomalocaris 24 August 2014 16: 37
                        My advice to you is to consult a psychiatrist, maybe it’s easier.
      2. anomalocaris
        anomalocaris 21 August 2014 15: 50
        And what is the NEW technology? And about thinking, you hit the sky with your finger.