20 August 2014 marks the 60 anniversary of the Moscow Air Defense District, the successor and heir to the military glory of which is the command of the air defense and anti-missile defense of the East Kazakhstani Army. However, the air defense of Moscow began much earlier.
Formation of the air defense system of the capital
25 On April 1918, the Order No. 01 of the Military Head of the Moscow Region was issued, in accordance with which the Moscow Air Defense Directorate was formed. The former captain of the tsarist army N. M. Enden was appointed commander of the air defense.
Therefore, with good reason it should be argued that 25 April 1918 of the year is the day of the birth of the air defense of the capital of our state.
The main content of the development of the air defense system of the capital at that time was a consistent build-up of forces and means, their combat capabilities and, as a result, the corresponding structural changes.
““ In modern conditions, when, like us, in the hands of our probable adversary there are intercontinental weapons with nuclear filling, the importance of air defense, of course, has become No. 1. A grave grief awaits a country that will not be able to repel an air strike. ”
G. K. Zhukov ”
From 1924 to 1929, the composition of the air defense forces and weapons was limited to one zenap (first 1-th separate territorial-positional anti-aircraft artillery division - division commander Sudarikov SG, then 31-th separate anti-aircraft artillery division - division commander Sviklin Т. A. ).
In accordance with the Order of the Commander of the Moscow Military District, 21 September 1929, No. 339 / 111, the first combined air defense unit was formed - the 1 I Air Defense Brigade, which included organizational units for military unitary personnel, military contingency troops, and airborne forces.
In accordance with the Directive of the Red Army headquarters of 17 August 1931, the number 3 / 013720 1-I air defense brigade was reformed into the 1-I air defense division. The commander of the division was appointed commander, Scheglov N. V. The functional composition of the division did not differ from the composition of the brigade.
In accordance with the country's air defense improvement program approved by the Defense Committee of the USSR SNK and the Directive of the Military Council of the Moscow Military Military District No. 11 of January 1938, the 8826 Air Defense Division was reformed into the 1 Air Defense Corps. In April 1, the commander of the corps appointed brigade commander Kryukov F. Ya.
From October 1938 of the year until the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, taking into account the situation in the country at that time, the corps were commanded by the commander Olenin I. A., the commander Y. Gromadin, the major general of artillery V. Tikhonov, general Major Artillery Zhuravlev D. A.
On the eve of World War II, all air defense weapons were merged into the Moscow air defense zone, headed by Major General MS Gromadin. The zone included parts of the 1 Air Defense Corps and 6 IAC (Corps Commander - Colonel Klimov I.D.) and Kalinin, Yaroslavl, Gorky and Tula air defense brigade regions.
Moscow’s air defense system was based on the principle of a circular, echeloned defense with strengthening of the western and southern directions.
22 June 1941 of the Year Germany, without declaring war, treacherously attacked the Soviet Union.
In mid-July, within the framework of the general plan for the offensive deep into Soviet territory, the Hitler command specifically considered the preparation and conduct of massive raids aviation to Moscow.
The German fascist command undertook the first attempt to carry out such a raid on the capital on the night of 22 July. The raid of enemy bombers on Moscow lasted five hours in four consecutive echelons of individual aircraft and in small groups. The first and subsequent massive raids on the capital were successfully repelled.
It should be noted that throughout the entire period of the war, the structure and composition of the air defense forces of the capital and center of the country changed based on the capabilities of the enemy aircraft (composition and main areas of concentration of forces), the spatial scope of the operational construction of air defense force groups, the tasks they solve and most importantly unified leadership of these groupings.
In order to create a unified grouping of air defense forces and assets on the European territory of the country united into air defense regions, in accordance with the Decision of the State Defense Committee of November 9 1941, the 1 air defense corps was reorganized into the Moscow air defense corps.
Given the strengthening of the German Air Force grouping west of Moscow for a decisive attack on it, from 5 on April 1942, the Moscow Air Defense Corps was reorganized into the Moscow Air Defense Front.
In the interests of further improving the organizational structure of the troops and improving the leadership of the units in accordance with the Decision of the State Defense Committee of 29 June 1943, the Moscow Air Defense Front was reorganized into a Special Moscow Air Defense Army. The commander of the army was appointed Lieutenant-General of Artillery Zhuravlev D. A.
The 1-I VIA anti-aircraft defense, ZA divisions, aerostat barriers, and ARVA were included in the military structure of the army. Organizationally, the Special Moscow Air Defense Army was part of the formed Western Air Defense Front.
In the summer of 1943, the honorary task of conducting artillery salutes to commemorate victories on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War was assigned to the troops of the capital's air defense. The first salute sounded 5 August. Over the years of the war, more than 350 salutes were produced.
In response to changes in the overall situation, the GKO of the USSR reorganized the air defense fronts by its Decree of 29 in March of 1944. The special Moscow Air Defense Army became part of the formed Northern Air Defense Front.
In connection with the liberation of the territory of the USSR and in order to improve the coordination of military actions in accordance with the Decision of the State Defense Committee of 24 December 1944, the management of the Special Moscow Air Defense Army was reorganized into the management of the Central Air Defense Front (commander of the front - Colonel General MS Gromadin).
The Central Front air defense along with units and formations of the Special Moscow Air Defense Army entered the Leningrad Air Defense Army with 2-m Leningrad Guards IAK and Vyborg Brigadier area air defense, 1 and 3-Corps, 78, 80, 82-I Division and 16-I separate air defense brigade.
Marshal of the Soviet Union G.K. Zhukov, four Hero of the Soviet Union, told in his memoirs about the results of the air defense of Moscow during the war: “The country's air defense coped well with the defense of the capital of our Motherland, Moscow. Moscow tightly and reliably covered itself with anti-aircraft artillery and fighter aircraft. In rare cases, the air enemy managed to break through the air defense system to Moscow. Most often, enemy aircraft were destroyed or returned home ... "
Having begun a victorious march in the fall of 1941, near Moscow, the air defense soldiers completed it in the spring of 1945 in Berlin.
Guarding the peaceful sky
At the end of the war, the transition of the USSR Armed Forces to peacetime states began. In accordance with the Directive of the General Staff of 25 in October 1945, the Office of the Central Air Defense Front was reorganized into the Office of the Central Air Defense District.
Subsequent structural changes were based on the experience of the final stage of the war. In accordance with the Directive of the General Staff of 23 in May of 1946, the Central Air Defense Directorate was reorganized into the North Western Air Defense Directorate. Lieutenant-General P. Gudymenko was appointed commander of the Okrug troops, then in January of 1948 — Colonel General of Artillery D. Zhuravlev.
In 1948, the Air Defense Forces of the country were removed from the subordination of the commander of artillery and transformed into an independent form of the USSR Armed Forces, whose leadership was entrusted to the Commander of the Air Defense Forces of the country. Appropriate transformations followed.
In accordance with the Directive of the USSR General Staff from 14 August 1948, the Directorate of the North-Western District of Air Defense was reorganized into the Office of the Commander of the Air Defense Forces of the Moscow District. The commander of the district was appointed Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel General Moskalenko K.S.
The combat structure of the air defense forces of the Moscow region included 64 VIA as part of 56 (Yaroslavl), 78 (Bryansk) and 88 (Moscow) IAK. Each IAC consisted of three iads of a three-regimental composition; 2 and 3-I anti-aircraft divisions; 1 Guards, 74, 76, 80, 96 Zadad, 1287, 1306, 1326, 1329, 1383 Zenap, 33 kr. Izad, 17 separate division AZ; 3 and 6-th shelf VNOS, 14 RTP VNOS, eight ORB VNOS; 98 regiment of communication.
Since 1950, the creation of a system of anti-aircraft reactive (later anti-aircraft missile) defense of Moscow C-25 "Berkut" began. The design organization (KB-1) of the USSR Ministry of Armaments was appointed as the head organization. The leaders of KB-1 were P. Kuksenko, S. Beria, L., A. Raspletin. This was a unique experience in solving one of the main security problems of the country only by military measures.
The system was based on zrk, located around the defended facility - Moscow - in two echelons (44 zrk in the first and 22 zrk in the second echelon). They formed a continuous circular zone of destruction with a depth of more than 100 kilometers and reach an altitude of about 20 kilometers.
In 1953 – 1954, the commanders of the air defense forces of the Moscow region were Colonel-General N. N. N., Col.-General G. N. Galitsky.
1954 is the year that determined the development of the capital’s air defense for decades to come. In accordance with the Order of the Minister of Defense of the USSR from 20 August 1954, the Office of the Moscow District of the Air Defense was established on the basis of the Office of the Commander of the Air Defense Forces of the Moscow District. This event became the foundation for the construction of a future air defense system of the center of the country and the capital.
By order of the Minister of Defense of the USSR from 27 August 1954, the commander of the district was appointed Colonel-General Batitsky PF (later Marshal of the Soviet Union, Commander-in-Chief of the Air Defense Forces of the country).
The Moscow Air Defense District includes 52 VIA (formed on the basis of 64 VIA) consisting of 56, 78, 88 and 37 IAK, 151 iad, 38 and 182 Orae; 1 GU, 74, 76, 78, 80, 96, 52, 48, 80, 108, 387, 389, 393, 532, 1225, 1287, 126, 132, 292, 3, 6, 43, 57, 59, 61, 62, 63, 65, 67, 83, 84, 65, 21, 23, 26, 92, 17, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX RTP, XNUMX ortb, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, separate long-distance intelligence, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX XNUMX separate division AZ.
With the arrival of anti-aircraft missile systems and new radars, the beginning of the modern arms of the air defense forces - anti-aircraft missile and radio troops.
7 May 1955, the C-25 system was adopted. In accordance with the order of the Minister of Defense of the USSR from 15 July 1955, the 1 Directorate of the Special Purpose Air Defense Army (OH) was formed, which included four air defense corps (OH) –1 K air defense (OH) - Vidnoe, 6 K air defense ( HE) - Black, 10 K air defense (OH) - Odintsovo, 17 K air defense (OH) - Dolgoprudny.
In the 1960 year, the 52 control of the VIA Air Defense was disbanded. On the basis of the IAK's controls are formed the controls of the air defense units - 3-th (Yaroslavl), 7-th (Bryansk), 2-th (Rzhev), based on the management of the 78 zenad and 142 iad (Gorky) formed Management 18 Air Defense Division, based on the management of the 328 iad (g. Yelets) formed control 15 Air Defense Division. Thus, 1 A air defense (HE) as part of the 4 air defense corps (OH), 2, 3, 7 air defense corps, 15 and 18 air defense divisions entered the district.
In January, 1960 was decided to create the first national missile defense system - the RTC-81 system. As part of the management of the Moscow air defense district in 1965, a missile defense department was created.
In 1965, the 15 division of the air defense division dropped out of the county; the 18 air defense division was reorganized into the 16 air defense corps. The composition of the district did not change until 1988.
From 1966 to 1987, the district commanders were Colonel-General Okunev V.V., twice Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel-General Aviation Koldunov AI, Colonel-General Bochkov B.V., Hero of the Soviet Union Colonel-General Aviation Konstantinov A . W.
22 February 1968 The decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR for the great contribution to strengthening the defensive power of the Soviet state and its armed defense, successes in military and political training, and in connection with the 50th anniversary of the SA and Navy, the Moscow District Air Defense was awarded the Order of Lenin.
In 1972, the Office of the Chief of the ABM Defense Forces of the Moscow District of Air Defense was reformed into the Second Directorate of the Chief of the ABM Defense Forces of the Moscow District of the Air Defense and in 1976 was reassigned to the Civil Code by the Air Defense Forces.
In 1983, work began on the C-50 system. In the process of its creation, in the period from 1981 to 1985, the year in all 4 air defense buildings (OH) of the C-25 air defense systems were re-formed and reequipped to the new C-300PT air defense system.
In 1987, Colonel-General V.G. Aviation Colonel-General was appointed commander of the district forces.
This year became “black” in stories Air defense troops. 28 May 1987 of the year at 18.55 Mathias Rust's plane landed in Moscow on Red Square.
The serious imperfection of the legal basis for the actions of the duty forces of the Air Defense Forces of the country and, as a consequence, the contradiction between the tasks assigned to the Air Defense Forces and the limited rights of command and control personnel in the use of forces and weapons became obvious.
After the flight of Rust, the guilty were found immediately. Three Marshals of the Soviet Union (including the USSR Minister of Defense S. Sokolov, Commander-in-Chief of the Air Defense Forces A. I. Koldunov), about three hundred generals and officers were removed from their posts. The army did not know such personnel pogrom since 1937 of the year.
In the 1988, the 1, 6, 10 and 17 air defense (OH) 1 air defense (OH) corps were reorganized into the 86, 87, 88 and 89 air defense (OH) divisions.
In 1989, Colonel General V. A. Prudnikov (later General of the Army, Commander-in-Chief of the Air Defense Forces) was appointed commander of the district forces.
From September 1991 of the year, the district was headed by Colonel-General Aviation Kornukov AM (later General of the Army, Commander-in-Chief of the Air Defense Forces).
In 1993, the management of the 16 Air Defense Corps (Gorky) was reduced.
25 April 1994, by presidential decree of the Russian Federation, the air defense system of the capital C-50 was adopted.
At the same time, significant changes occurred in the structure of the district government bodies. The 86, 87, 88 and 89 controls of the air defense divisions (OH) 1 of the air defense army (OH) were reorganized into the controls of the air defense brigades, and the December 1 army itself was reorganized into the 1 air defense corps. The 3 controls of the air defense corps (Yaroslavl), the 7 air defense corps (Bryansk), the 2 air defense corps (Rzhev) were reorganized into the controls of the 3, 7 and 5 air defense divisions, respectively.
In 1998, the Moscow Order of the Lenin District of the Air Force and air defense was formed on the basis of the Moscow Air Defense District and the 16 Red Banner VA MVO. Lieutenant General of Aviation Vasilyev G. B. was appointed commander of the district troops.
The district troops included 16 BA, 1 air defense corps, 3 and 5 air defense divisions. Management 7 Air Defense Division (Bryansk) disbanded.
In 2001, the management of the 3 air defense division (Yaroslavl) was reduced. On the basis of the 5 control of the air defense division (Rzhev), the 32 control of the air defense corps was formed.
The 1 and 9 divisions of the air defense divisions are formed from the four directorates of the air defense brigades in the 37 case, and the 4-sector grouping of the C-2 system is created instead of the 50-sector.
As part of the military construction of the Russian Armed Forces 1 September 2002, the Office of the Order of Lenin of the Moscow District of the Air Force and Air Defense was reorganized into the Office of the Order of Lenin of the Special Purpose Command. Lieutenant-General Yu. V. Solovyev became the commander of the KSpN troops.
From 2005, the re-equipment of ZRV units to the new ZRS DD-400 “Triumph” began and in 2007 the first regiment (606 guards SRP), armed with Z-400 ZRS, solemnly took up combat duty.
In 2008, Lieutenant-General S.N. Razygraev was appointed commander of the KSpN troops.
As part of the military construction of the Armed Forces 1 June 2009, the Office of the Order of Lenin KSpN and 1 Air Defense Corps were reorganized into the Office of the Order of Lenin of the operational-strategic Command of aerospace defense with a deployment in Balashikha, Moscow Region. Major-General Tishkevich L.E. was appointed commander of the USC VKO military unit.
The composition of the troops USK VKO included 4, 5 and 6 brigade VKO. The 16 BA aviation units and units were transferred to the 1 Air Force and Air Defense Command of the Western Military District. The 16 VA management has been disbanded.
In 2010, Lieutenant-General V.M.M. was appointed Commander of USC VKO, and later became Chief of Staff - First Deputy Commander of VKO troops.
Continuing the glorious traditions
In the framework of the further development of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation 1 December 2011, a new branch of service is being created - the East Kazakhstani Army.
On the basis of the Directorate of the Order of Lenin of the USC VKO Defense, the Directorate of the Order of Lenin of the Command of the Air Defense and Missile Defense of the Troops of the East Kazakhstan Oblast is formed. The structure of the troops of the air defense missile defense command included the 9 missile defense division, 4, 5, 6 air defense brigade.
Major-General S. Popov, Lieutenant-General P. P. P. (currently Chief of Staff - First Deputy Commander of East-Kazakhstani Armed Forces) were the commanders of the Air Defense Command-Missile Defense Command from 2011 to 2013.
During this period, the number of operational (combat) training activities for troops of the air defense-missile defense command increased significantly.
Every year, five or six tactical exercises with live firing are held in the Air Defense Forces Command and Defense Forces, of which one is mandatory with an air defense force.
The formations and military units perform combat training tasks for “good” and “excellent”, combat shooting - with the effectiveness of 1,0.
Combat crews 9 missile defense divisions regularly successfully launch anti-missile launches. Means of the division are actively used in the interests of solving the tasks of the PN and CCP.
In the period from 21 to 22 in March 2013, the air defense missile defense command troops participated in the command post for the command and control of troops (forces) solving the tasks of the aerospace defense / air defense conducted under the guidance of the NGSH RF Armed Forces.
On the basis of the Air Defense Command and Missile Defense Command, an operational command of the East-West Kazakhstan Oblast was created, to which (according to the training conditions), 1 and 2 of the East and South Kazakhstan Air Defense Brigade, 1, and EKB BF brigade were directly subordinated.
The purpose of the training was to assess the ability of the created command to control the grouping of troops (forces) at the stages of direct preparation and conduct of hostilities in the area of responsibility.
The results of the training showed that the command and control of the air defense missile defense, the formations and military units successfully coped with the task.
In the period from 13 August to 12 September 2013, the troops of the Air Defense Command - ABM Command took part in a joint exercise with combat firing of troops (forces) of the East Kazakhstan region, Air Force (Air Defense, Air Force and Air Defense) of the armed forces of the CIS member states “Combat Commonwealth-2013”.
At this exercise, the command of the coalition group of aviation and air defense forces was established on the basis of the Office of the Air Defense Command-PRO Command, it was headed by the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Defense Command-PRO Command Lieutenant-General P. P. P.
In the period from 20 to 26 in September of 2013, the Air Defense and Anti-Missile Defense Command troops took part in the joint strategic exercise of the armed forces of the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation “West-2013”.
October 19 2013, by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 785 6, the Air Defense Brigade was given the honorary title of the name of three times Hero of the Soviet Union, Marshal of Aviation Alexander Ivanovich Pokryshkin, and the Air Force Brigade was given the honorary title of the name of Hero of the Soviet Union, Lieutenant General Boris Petrovich.
In 2013, the 93 air defense brigade 4 air defense brigade was reequipped for the C-400 air defense missile.
Military teams under the leadership of Colonel A.V. Lipikhin, A.V. Colonel Cheburin, A.V. Berezhnoy, Colonel Guards M.M., Lieutenant-Colonel Chumakov A., achieved the highest results in combat training and state of affairs in the 2013 school year. N.
According to the results of the 2013 school year of the Order of Lenin, the command of the air defense system of missile defense was recognized as the best among the unions of the EKR Troops.
2 December 2013, the newly formed 590 separate radio engineering unit of the Air Defense Command and the Missile Defense Command, successfully took up combat-duty duty, thereby greatly increasing the capabilities of the intelligence association.
In the spring of 2014, the military personnel of our union successfully fulfilled the special tasks assigned by the country's leadership to ensure the security of the referendum in the Republic of Crimea and the hero-city of Sevastopol. Many servicemen were awarded state and departmental awards.
Military personnel of the Air Defense and Anti-Missile Defense Command annually adequately represent the EKR Troops at military parades on Red Square in Moscow in honor of the Victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War 1941 – 1945, passing as part of mechanized columns at the BM Pantsir-S and PU С-400.
In the 2014 year, in accordance with the activity plan, up to 2020, the 549 znp 5 air defense brigade at the C-400 Triumph air defense missile system is being re-equipped, and the RTV units continue to be equipped with promising radars of the “Sky”, “Podlet”, “Kasta”, BBO, "Sopka", "Renewal", etc., the delivery of the means of the automated control system of the new generation to the troops is being carried out.
The troops of the Air Defense Command and the Missile Defense Command actively started preparations for the celebration of the centenary anniversary of the creation of an organized air (air defense) defense of the country and the 70 anniversary of the Victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War in cooperation with the Council of Veterans of the Moscow District of Air Defense.
As before, the personnel of our association, fulfilling the most important state tasks for air defense and missile defense of the capital of our Motherland - the hero city of Moscow and the Central Industrial District, with honor bears the high title "Defender of the Sky of Moscow".
I sincerely congratulate the personnel, veterans, members of families of servicemen, and defense industry workers on the anniversary of our illustrious association. I wish you health, well-being, high combat skills and alertness, a peaceful sky over your head!