Who and how knocked planes
Attempts to create anti-aircraft missiles made during the Second World War, but at that time no country has reached the appropriate technological level. Even the war in Korea took place without an air defense missile system. For the first time they were seriously applied in Vietnam, having a tremendous impact on the outcome of this war. Since then, the air defense system is one of the most important classes of military equipment, without their suppression it is impossible to win superiority in the air.
For more than half a century over 20 types of anti-aircraft systems and MANPADS have real combat successes. Moreover, in most cases, it is not easy to establish accurate results. Sometimes it is objectively difficult to figure out exactly what a specific airplane and helicopter was shot down. So below will be presented only verified and confirmed by all parties data. The true effectiveness of almost all air defense missile systems is higher, and in some cases at times.
The first air defense system to achieve combat success, and very loud, was the Soviet C-75. 1 May 1960, he shot down the U-2 American reconnaissance aircraft over the Urals, causing a huge international scandal. Then C-75 brought down five more U-2 - one in October 1962-th over Cuba (after which the world was one step from nuclear war), four - over China from September 1962-th to January 1965-th.
The high point of the C-75 came in Vietnam, where from 1965-th to 1972-th was delivered 95 СРК С-75 and 7658 ЗУР. The calculations of the air defense system were initially completely Soviet, but gradually the Vietnamese began to replace them. According to Soviet data, they shot down either 1293, or even 1770 of American aircraft. Americans themselves acknowledge the loss of approximately 150 – 200 aircraft from this air defense missile system. To date, the American side has confirmed the following losses: X-NUMX strategic bomber B-15, two or three tactical bomber F-52, 111 fighter F-32, 4 F-8, one F-105, 104 F-11, four scouts. 8, 66 RF-5, one O-101, 2 attack aircraft A-36, 4 A-9, 6 A-18, 7 A-3, 3 A-3, one AU-1, one transport C-130, one helicopter CH-123. As already mentioned, the actual results of C-53 in Vietnam are obviously higher, but what they are - it is already impossible to say for sure.
Vietnam itself lost from C-75, more precisely, from its Chinese clone HQ-2, one MiG-21 fighter, which in October 1987, accidentally invaded the airspace of the PRC.
The Arab anti-aircraft gunners in terms of combat training have never been compared to either the Soviet or the Vietnamese, so their results were much lower.
During the “War of Attrition” from March 1969-th to September 1971-th, the Egyptian C-75 shot down at least three Israeli F-4 fighter jets and one Mister, one A-4 attack aircraft, and transport Piper Cube at Suez Canal , VKP C-97. During the October War, X-NUMX had at least two F-1973 and A-75 on the C-4 account. Finally, in June, the 4 th Syrian C-1982 shot down an Israeli Kfir-C75 fighter.
Iraqi C-75 during the 1980-88 war with Iran shot down at least four Iranian F-4 and one F-5E. Real results could be many times more. During the “Storm in the Desert” in January-February, the 1991-th Iraqi C-75 destroyed the US Air Force F-15E fighter-bomber, the US Navy F-14 fighter-bomber, and the English Tornado bomber. Perhaps two or three more planes should be added to this list.
Finally, 19 March 1993 of the year during the war in Abkhazia, the Georgian C-75 shot down the Russian fighter Su-27.
In general, C-75 has at least 200 downed airplanes (taking into account Vietnam, they can actually be at least 500). By this indicator, it surpasses all other SAMs in the world combined.
The C-125 SAM system was created a little later than the C-75, so it did not have time to go to Vietnam and made its debut during the “War of attrition”, and with Soviet calculations. In the summer of 1970, they shot down nine Israeli planes. At the time of October, there were at least two A-4 on their accounts, one each F-4 and “Mirage-3”.
Ethiopian C-125 (possibly with Cuban or Soviet calculations) during the 1977 – 1978 war shot down at least two Somali MiG-21.
The Iraqi C-125 has two Iranian F-4s and an American F-16C. They could have shot down at least 20 Iranian planes, but no direct evidence can now be found.
The Cuban-made Angolan C-125 in March 1979 shot down the Canadian Ju-bomber Canberra.
Finally, the Serbian S-125 has all the losses aviation NATO during the aggression against Yugoslavia in March-June 1999. This is the F-117 invisible bomber and the F-16C fighter, both belonged to the US Air Force.
Thus, the number of confirmed victories C-125 does not exceed 20, the real can be more than two or three times.
The most long-range in the world, the C-200 air defense system does not have a single confirmed victory on its account. It is possible that in September 1983, the Syrian C-200 with the Soviet calculation shot down an Israeli DRLO E-2C aircraft. In addition, there are suggestions that during the conflict between the US and Libya in the spring of 1986, the Libyan C-200 shot down two American A-6 carrier-based attack aircraft and an F-111 bomber. But not even all domestic sources agree with this. Therefore, it is possible that the only victory of the C-200 is the destruction by the Ukrainian air defense systems of this type of Russian passenger Tu-154 in the autumn of 2001.
The most modern air defense system of the former Air Defense Forces, and now the Russian Air Force, C-300P, has never been used in combat, respectively, its high performance characteristics have not received practical confirmation.
But they were widely used in battle by the Soviet air defense missile systems. First of all, we are talking about the Kvadrat air defense system (the export version of the Kub air defense system used in the air defense of the USSR ground forces). It is close to C-75 in firing range, therefore it was more often used abroad for strategic air defense than for air defense of ground forces.
During the October War 1973, the Egyptian and Syrian "Squares" summarily knocked down at least seven A-4, six F-4, one fighter "Super Mr.". In addition, in the spring of 1974, the Syrian "Squares" shot down six more Israeli planes (however, this is unilateral Soviet data).
The Iraqi air defense systems "Square" account for at least one Iranian F-4 and F-5 and one American F-16C. Most likely, one or two dozen Iranian aircraft, and possibly one or two American ones, can be added to this number.
During the war for the independence of Western Sahara from Morocco (this war is not over until now), Algeria acted on the side of the Frente Polisario fighting for this independence, who transferred a significant amount of air defense weapons to the rebels. In particular, the Kvadrat SAM system shot down at least one Moroccan F-5 (in January, 1976). In addition, in January, 1985, the “Square”, belonging to Algeria itself, was shot down by a Moroccan Mirage-F1 fighter.
Finally, during the Libyan-Chadian 1970 – 1980 war, the Chadians captured several Libyan “Squares”, one of which in August 1987 was shot down by the Libyan Tu-22 bomber.
Serbs actively used the Kvadrat air defense system in 1993 – 1995 during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In September, the Croatian MiG-1993 was shot down by 21, the English Sea Harrier FRS1994 from the Ark Royal aircraft carrier 1 was shot down in April (however, according to other sources, this aircraft was shot down by Strela-3 aircraft). Finally, in June 1995, the F-16С USA air force became a victim of the Serbian “Kvadrat”.
Thus, in general, in terms of performance among domestic large “Kvadrat” air defense missile systems, it seems that it bypasses C-125 and takes second place after C-75.
Created in the development of "Cuba" ZRK "Buk" and today is considered to be quite modern. On his account there are downed airplanes, although we cannot cause his successes with joy. In January, the Russian Buk was mistakenly shot down by an Abkhaz attack aircraft L-1993 during the war in Abkhazia, 39. During the Five-Day War in the Caucasus in August, the 2008-th Georgian Buk SAMs received from Ukraine shot down Russian Tu-22M and Su-24 bombers and, possibly, three Su-25 attack aircraft. Now it’s taken for granted that it is Beech (the only question — whose?) Was hit by the Malaysian Boeing 777 over the Donbas, but in fact it’s not at all obvious yet.
According to the Soviet data, from April 1981 to May 1982, eight Israeli planes were shot down by the Syrian Army's Osa air defense missile system - four F-15, three F-16, one F-4. None of these victories, however, has any objective evidence, it is possible that they are all completely invented. The only confirmed success of the Syrian “Osa” air defense system is the destruction of the Israeli F-4 in July of the 1982.
The Frente POLISARIO received air defense weapons not only from Algeria, but also from Libya. It was the Libyan “Osam” that in October 1981 shot down the Moroccan Mirage-F1 and the C-130 transport plane.
The Angola-based Osa air defense system in September 1987 was shot down by the Yuarovsky AM-3CM (Italian light reconnaissance aircraft). Perhaps, on account of "Wasps" a few more South African aircraft and helicopters.
Perhaps the Iraqi Osa in January 1991 was shot down by the British Tornado.
Finally, on the account of the Russian "Wasp" there is a Moldavian MiG-1992 shot down or shot down in June 29 over Transnistria.
In general, the successes of the OSA “Osa” are quite modest, as are the successes of the Strela-1 and its deep modification, the Strela-10.
In December, 1983, during the fighting between the Armed Forces of Syria and the NATO countries, the Syrian Arrow-1 was shot down by the American deck attack aircraft A-6.
In November, 1985-th Yuarovsky special forces trophy "Arrow-1" shot down over the Angola Soviet An-12. And in February, the 1988 th Yuarovsky Mirage-F1 was shot down in the south of Angola by either the Arrow-1 or the Arrow-10. Perhaps, on account of these two types of air defense missile systems in Angola there were several other South African airplanes and helicopters.
In December, the 1988 US civilian DC-3 was mistakenly shot down over the Western Frente Polisario's Arrow-10 Sahara.
Finally, during the “Storm in the Desert” 15 in February 1991 of the year, the Iraqi “Arrow-10” shot down two A-10 attack aircraft of the USAF. Perhaps, on account of the Iraqi air defense systems of these two types were a few more American aircraft.
The most modern Russian military short-range air defense missile systems, the Thor and the Tunguska and the Pantsir, also did not take part in the hostilities.
The successes of the western air defense systems are much more modest. This is explained, however, not only and not so much by their performance characteristics, as by the peculiarities of building air defense. The USSR and the countries that were guided by it in the fight against enemy aviation traditionally focused on ground-based air defense systems, and Western countries on fighters.
The greatest success was achieved by the American hawk and its deep modification "Advanced Hawk". During the "War of attrition" they shot down Il-28, four Su-7, four MiG-17, three MiG-21 Air Force of Egypt. During the October war, four MiG-17, MiG-21, three Su-7, Hunter, Mirage-5, two Mi-8 air forces of Egypt, Syria, Jordan and Libya were destroyed. Finally, in 1982, the Syrian MiG-25 and, possibly, the MiG-23 were shot down over Lebanon.
During the Iran-Iraq war, Iranian hawk-based air defense systems shot down two or three of their F-14 and 1 F-5 fighters, as well as to Iraqi 40 aircraft.
In September, the Libyan bomber Tu-1987 was shot down by the French XKHUMX over the capital of Chad, N’Djamena, by the French Hok air defense system.
2 August 1990-th Kuwaiti Advanced Hawk SAMs knocked out Su-22 and MiG-23BN Iraqi Air Force during the invasion of Iraqi troops in Kuwait. All Kuwaiti air defense systems were captured by Iraqis and then used against the United States and its allies, but without success.
Unlike the C-300P, its American alter ego, the American Patriot long-range missile defense system, was used during both Iraqi wars. Its main targets were obsolete Iraqi Soviet-made P-17 ballistic missiles. The effectiveness of the “Patriots” was very low, in the 1991 year it was from the P-17 that they missed that the Americans suffered the most serious losses in humans. During the second Iraq war in the spring of 2003, the first two downed aircraft appeared on the account of the Patriot, which, however, did not bring the Americans pleasure. Both were their own: the British "Tornado" and F / A-18С aviation of the US Navy. At the same time, the F-16C of the United States Air Force destroyed the anti-radar missile of the radar of one of the Patriot battalions. Apparently, the American pilot did it not by chance, but intentionally, otherwise he would have become the third victim of his anti-aircraft gunners.
Western short-range air defense systems have extremely modest successes, which, as mentioned above, is partly due not to technical shortcomings, but to the characteristics of the application.
On the account of the American air defense system "Chaparel" there is only one aircraft - the Syrian MiG-17, shot down by the Israeli air defense system of this type in the 1973 year.
Also, one aircraft shot down the English Rapira air defense system - the Argentinean Israeli-made Dagger fighter over the Falklands in May of the 1982.
A little more significant success has the French air defense system "Roland". Argentine “Roland” over the Falklands was shot down by the British “Harrier-FRS1”. Iraqi Rolands have at least two Iranian planes (F-4 and F-5) and, possibly, two British Tornadoes, as well as one American A-10, but these victories have not received final confirmation. In any case, it is interesting that all the aircraft shot down by the French air defense system in various wars are of western production.
A special category of air defense systems are naval SAMs. Combat successes have only British air defense system thanks to the participation of the British Navy in the war for the Falklands. The “Sea Dart” air defense system shot down a Canberra English bomber, four A-4 attack aircraft, a “Flight-35” transport aircraft, a French helicopter SA330L. On account of the C-KAM air defense missile system - two A-4C. With the help of the C-Wolf, they shot down a Dagger fighter and three A-4В.
Another special category of air defense systems became MANPADS, thanks to which infantrymen and even partisans and terrorists were able to shoot down planes (and especially helicopters).
For example, the Soviet Air Force and Army Aviation in Afghanistan lost 1984 aircraft and helicopters from MANPADS in 1989 – 72 years. At the same time, the Afghan guerrillas used the Soviet Strela-2 and their Chinese and Egyptian copies of the HN-5 and Ayn al-Sakr, the American Red I and Stinger missiles, and the British Bloupipe. It was not always possible to determine from which particular MANPADS a specific aircraft or helicopter was shot down. A similar situation occurred during the “Storm in the Desert”, the wars in Angola, Chechnya, Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, etc. Accordingly, the results given below of all MANPADS, especially Soviet and Russian, should be considered as significantly underestimated.
At the same time, however, there is no doubt that Strela-2 is an absolute and, apparently, eternal champion.
For the first time, "Arrows-2" were used by the Egyptians during the "War of attrition". In 1969, they shot down over the Suez Canal from six (Mirage 2, 4 A-4) to 17 Israeli aircraft. In the October war, they still have at least four A-4 and a CH-53 helicopter. In March-May, the 1974 Syrian "Arrows-2" shot down three missiles (two F-4, one A-4) to eight Israeli aircraft. Then, between 1978 and 1986, Syrian and Palestinian MANPADS of this type shot down four aircraft (Kfir, F-4, two A-4) and three helicopters (two AN-1, UH-1) of the Israeli Air Force and deck attack aircraft A-7 US Navy.
Arrows-2 were applied at the final stage of the Vietnam War. From the beginning of 1972 to January 1973, they shot down American 29 planes (F-4, seven O-1, three O-2, four OV-10, nine A-1, four A-37) and 14 helicopters ( CH-47, four AH-1, nine UH-1). After the withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam and until the end of the war in April, 1975-th on account of these MANPADS was from 51 to 204 aircraft and helicopters of the armed forces of South Vietnam. Then, in 1983 – 1985, the Vietnamese shot down at least two A-2 attack aircraft of the Thai Air Force over Cambodia with the Strelami-37.
In 1973, the Guinea-Bissau rebels shot down an X-NUMX with three Portuguese G-2 attack aircraft and a Do-91 transport aircraft.
In 1978 – 1979, the Frente POLISARIO fighters shot down the Western Sahara from these MANPADS over the French Jaguar attack aircraft and three Moroccan fighters (F-5A, two Mirage-F1), and in 1985, the German scientific Do-228, flying to Antarctica.
In Afghanistan, at least one Soviet attack aircraft Su-2 was lost from Strela-25.
The Libyan 2 Arrows in July of the 1977 of the year may have been shot down by the Egyptian MiG-21, in May of the 1978 of the year the French Jaguar. At the same time, the Libyan attack aircraft Su-2 was shot down by the Libyan trophy-1982 in August 22.
In Angola, MANPADS of this type also fired in both directions. Troopers "Arrow-2" Yuarovites shot down the Angolan (Cuban) MiG-23ML fighter. On the other hand, the Cubans shot down at least two Impala attack planes from these MANPADS, in reality their result was much higher.
In October, an American C-1986 transport aircraft with cargoes for the Contras was shot down by the Streloy-2 in Nicaragua in Nicaragua. In 123 – 1990, the Air Force of El Salvador lost three aircraft (two O-1991, one A-2) and four helicopters (two Hughes-2, two UH-37) from Strel-500, received by local partisans.
During the “Storm in the Desert”, the Iraqi “Arrows-2” shot down the British “Tornado”, “ganship” AC-130 of the US Air Force, AV-8In the US Marine Corps. During the second Iraq war in January 2006, Iraqi militants shot down an AN-64D Apache army aviation helicopter with these MANPADS.
In August 1995 over Bosnia Serbian "Arrow-2" (according to other data - "Needle") shot down a French bomber "Mirage-2000N".
Finally, in May-June 1997 Kurds shot down "Arrows-2" Turkish helicopters AH-1W and AS532UL.
The victories of more modern Soviet MANPADS - “Strela-3”, “Needle-1” and “Needle” - have not been fixed. On the "Arrow-3" recorded only the British "Harrier" in Bosnia in April 1994-th, which also claims, as mentioned above, the air defense system "Kvadrat." MANPADS "Igla" shares with the "Arrow-2" above-mentioned "Mirage-2000N". In addition, the F-16 of the US Air Force in Iraq on February 1991, the Georgian combat helicopter Mi-24 in Abkhazia in October 1992 and Russian Mi-26 in Chechnya in August 2002 (127 died people). The Ecuadorian “1 Needles” in January-February 1995 shot down a Canberra bomber (of English production), Mi-25 helicopters and Mi-8 Air Force Peru.
At the same time, all Soviet / Russian MANPADS (including the Arrow-2) at the expense of the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, Chechnya, Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, and Donbass obviously have significantly more victories.
Of the Western MANPADS most successful with the American "Stinger". In Afghanistan, they shot down at least one Su-25 attack aircraft of the USSR Air Force, one MiG-21U of the Afghan Air Force, Soviet transport aircraft An-26РТ and An-30, six combat helicopters Mi-24 and three transport Mi-8. The real successes of the Stinger in this war are many times greater (for example, the Mi-24 could have been shot down to 30), although the overall result of the Arrow-2 is far from him.
In Angola, the YUAR members shot down at least two MiG-23ML with the Stingers.
The British on the Falklands with these MANPADS destroyed the Argentinean attack aircraft Pukara and the SA330L transport helicopter.
Older American Red Id was used by Israelis against Syrian air forces. With it, seven Syrian Su-7 and MiG-17 were shot down during the October war and one MiG-23BN in Lebanon in 1982. The Nicaraguan Contras shot down Red Ayami four MI-8 helicopters of government forces in the 80s. The same MANPADS shot down several Soviet aircraft and helicopters in Afghanistan (possibly three Mi-24).
On account of the British Blupipe MANPADS, there are only two precisely established victories. Both were achieved during the Falkland War, in which this MANPADS was used by both sides. The British shot down their Argentine attack aircraft MV339A, the Argentines - the English fighter "Harrier-GR3".
It is possible to overthrow C-75 and “Arrow-2” from the champion pedestal only if a big war happens in the world. True, if it turns out to be nuclear, there will be no winners. If this is a normal war, then the main contenders for the championship will be the Russian air defense system. Not only because of the high performance characteristics, but also because of the characteristics of the application.
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