The first proposal in the world, in which the interaction between the ship and the aircraft was predetermined, was also born in the Russian Navy. Its author was the captain of the corps of engineers of the fleet Lev Makarovich Macievich. Even 23 in October 1909, in his first memorandum to the Main Naval Staff, he predicted the future of naval aviation, offered to start building an aircraft carrier, seaplane and catapult to launch it from the deck of the ship. It is not by chance that in Russia the process of movement of aircraft is called aeronautics, aviation is called an air fleet, the sky is called the fifth ocean, and heavy planes are called ships.
Hydroaviation in Russia began to emerge in 1911. First, seaplanes were purchased abroad, but soon Russian engineers V. A. Lebedev and D. P. Grigorovich created several models of flying boats, which allowed the Russian Defense Ministry in 1912 — 1914. on the basis of domestic seaplanes to form the first aviation units of the Baltic and Black Sea fleets. At the same time, the flying boat designed by Grigorovich M-5 exceeded foreign specimens of similar types in its flight characteristics.
At first, naval aviation was used mainly in the interests of reconnaissance, that is, as a means of ensuring the combat activity of the fleet. However, the experience of aviation in the first months of the outbreak of the First World War showed that the combat capabilities of aircraft go far beyond intelligence. They began to be used to bombard and bombard objects at naval bases and in ports, of enemy ships and ships at sea.
In the Russian fleet on the first aircraft carrier "Orlitsa" based seaplanes Grigorovich M-9, had machine guns and can carry bombs. 4 July 1916 g. Four aircraft from the "Eagle" conducted an air battle over the Baltic Sea with four German aircraft, which ended with the victory of Russian naval pilots. Two Kaiser airplanes were shot down, and the other two fled. Our pilots returned to their aircraft without a loss.
This day - July 4. 1916 was the day of the first victory in an air battle over the sea of naval pilots on domestic seaplanes based on the first domestic aircraft carrier, it is rightfully considered to be the birthday of naval aviation.
By the middle of 1917, the turning point for stories In Russia, in the Russian fleet, the prerequisites for the conversion of aviation into one of the main forces of the fleet appeared, which served as the basis for the establishment in the Maritime Office of a special body - the Naval Aviation and Aeronautics Administration.
After the October Revolution, the Soviet military leadership during the armed struggle against the interventionists and the White Guards on the fronts adjacent to the sea in the regions with lakes and along major rivers could not do without hydro-aviation. The creation of a new naval aviation formation began.
27 April 1918 was the birthday of the Baltic Fleet aviation. Then a special brigade was formed in its composition.
3 March 1921 is considered the birthday of the USSR Black Sea Fleet aviation. On this day, the formation of the Headquarters of the Air Fleet of the Black and Azov Seas was completed. 4 on April 1932 was born Pacific Fleet aviation, and 18 on August 1936 was Northern Fleet aviation.
History shows that in the 20 and 30 years, when naval aviation was organizationally part of the Air Force of the Red Army, the country's top leadership and the leadership of the Defense Commissariat assigned aviation to support ground forces, to cover the troops and rear facilities from from the air, as well as to combat enemy air reconnaissance. In accordance with this, the development and construction of aircraft and their armaments were carried out, and training programs were developed for pilots in aviation schools. Operational-tactical training of leading military cadres and the entire combat training of military aviation was also directed at this. At the same time, a minor role was assigned to naval aviation, and therefore the fleet of naval aviation during these years was replenished only with seaplanes intended primarily for conducting aerial reconnaissance at sea. For her, flight personnel were trained only at the Yeisk school of naval pilots and letniters.
Grigorovich Flying Boat M-9
At 30-e years accounted for the triumph of aviation, design ideas and, above all, sea pilots who showed outstanding examples of airmanship, courage, bravery and heroism.
They were repeatedly involved in the implementation of special and government assignments. Of the sea pilots, polar aviation was completed, which played an enormous role in the development of the Northern Sea Route, the importance of which for our country cannot be overestimated.
Pilots especially showed themselves in rescuing Cheliuskites in 1934. Their courage and heroism, their willingness to take risks in order to save the lives of people in distress, became a convincing basis for the establishment in our country of the highest degree of state distinction - the title Hero of the Soviet Union. The golden star of Hero number one was presented to the sea pilot Anatoly Vasilyevich Lyapidevsky. At the same time, naval pilots I. Doronin, S. Levanevsky and V. Molokov were awarded this title.
The country lived by great construction sites. The state has taken measures to strengthen the country's defense. The Navy received for service new warships, including those capable of taking on board seaplanes. But this was far from enough.
The situation for the better changed dramatically with the formation of the Navy Commissariat, when naval aviation entered its structure organizationally. By that time, views on naval aviation had finally become established as one of the main arms of the fleet. Commander Corps Officer Semyon Zhavoronkov, who received the profession of a military pilot at a relatively mature age (34) and successfully commanded naval aviation right up to 1947, was appointed first as Chief of Aviation of the Navy of the USSR. In 1944, he was promoted to Air Marshal.
A positive role in the further development of naval aviation was played by the aviation flight test institute. Its specialists developed tactical and technical requirements for the equipment and armament of naval aviation, carried out tests of experimental and modernized models of aviation equipment and weaponsand also provided retraining for the flight management staff.
Large-scale fleets began to receive heavy type TB-1, TB-3 and DB-3 type aircraft that were in service with the Red Army Air Force, specially converted for the use of mine-torpedo weapons - the traditional maritime weapon of hitting the underwater part of ships and ships at sea .
Soon, from the bomber aviation stood out and was organized in an independent kind of naval aviation mine torpedo aircraft.
With the transfer of aviation schools to the fleet, the system of training naval aviation personnel became more perfect and purposeful. The School of Naval Pilots and Letnabs in Yeisk and the School of Naval Pilots of the Polar Aviation Directorate of the Northern Sea Route in Nikolaev were transformed into Naval Aviation Schools, and the Military School of Aviation Technicians in Perm became a Naval Aviation Technical School. During the first three years, the number of cadets in these schools has increased several times.
For the training of naval aviation command personnel, a command and aviation department was established at the Naval Academy, and it also opened one-year advanced training courses for naval aviation command personnel.
The aviation design bureaus and enterprises focused on the production of equipment and armament for the Navy’s aviation also earned a specific purpose. All this could not but contribute to the fact that by the beginning of World War II, naval aviation had grown significantly in quantitative and qualitative terms; this subsequently affected the effectiveness of its use in hostilities.
At the same time, the uncertainty of the organizational structure affected the nature of the views of its operational-tactical application. For a long time it was believed that the air combat at sea would be conducted predominantly by operational units (air corps) of the Red Army Air Force. In accordance with this, in the operational training, the interaction of fleets and air corps was worked out, and the naval aviation was responsible for providing the fleet with aerial reconnaissance and air defense of the home base of the fleet and ships at sea.
In practice, this did not happen. Neither front-line or long-range aviation formed in 1942 did not participate in any fleet operations, and naval aviation became one of the main strike forces of the fleet.
From the first days of the war, due to the situation created on the maritime fronts, naval aviation was used to strike at the enemy’s combat formations. And this task became the main task for a long time, although naval aviation did not prepare for its solution in the pre-war years.
Apparently, this history lesson should be fully taken into account in the combat training of naval aviation in our time of peace.
The book convincingly shows that combat operations of naval aviation by ships and ships of the enemy at sea were particularly effective, which is quite consistent with its main combat mission.
The sections of the book devoted to the military operations of the Navy aviation during the years of the Great Patriotic War are full of the facts of the feats of naval aviators. The first among the naval pilots in this war was the success of the Black Sea Fleet air regiment fighter squadron, attached to the Danube Flotilla, commanded by Captain A. I. Korobitsyn.
In the Baltics, the squadron’s deputy commander Captain A.K. Antonenko opened the account of the enemy’s downed aircraft, and the lieutenant BF Safonov, the squadron commander, on the Northern Fleet.
The Baltic pilots under the command of Colonel E. N. Preobrazhensky, who delivered the first blow to Berlin on the night of 7 on 8 in August 1941, gained worldwide fame.
During the years of the Great Patriotic War, the naval aviation flew more than 350 thousands of combat missions, destroyed thousands of enemy aircraft in the air and on airfields over 5,5. As a result of naval aviation operations, fascist Germany and its satellites lost 407 warships and 371 transport with troops and cargo, which accounts for two thirds of the total losses of the enemy from the effects of fleet forces.
The motherland highly appreciated the combat activities of naval aviation. 57 state awards were decorated with banners of regiments and divisions, 260 naval aviators were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, and five of them - B. F. Safonov, A. E. Mazurenko, V. I. Rakov, N. G. Stepanyan and N. V. Chelnokov - twice.
Among the sea pilots there are heroes who repeated the feat of Alexei Maresyev. In the Baltic it is L. G. Belousov, in the Black Sea - I. S. Lyubimov, in the Northern Fleet - 3. A. Sorokin.
The combat experience gained during the war formed the basis for the development of plans and directions for the further development of naval aviation and the improvement of the principles and methods of its use in the war at sea. This also tells the real work. The post-war development of naval aviation was characterized by the specialization of the created aircraft and armaments, the transition to jet technology with great potential in terms of speed and range of impact. Airplanes and helicopters were equipped with effective means of search and destruction, electronic equipment; Most flight control and weapon applications are automated.
It should be borne in mind that this work was led by the most experienced aviation commanders, who personally experienced the bitterness of failures and the joy of victories during the years of war, who knew deeply the needs and possibilities of fleets. Among them were the famous aviation commanders E. N. Preobrazhensky, I. I. Borzov, M. I. Samokhin, N. A. Naumov, A. A. Mironenko, G. A. Kuznetsov, S. A. Gulyaev, V. I. Voronov and others. Their ideas, plans and undertakings in the development of naval aviation found understanding and full support from the top management of the navy, headed by N. G. Kuznetsov, and then S. G. Gorshkov.
In the fleets, the problems of counteracting the forces of a potential enemy acting secretly from under the water were put in the forefront. Therefore, already in the 50-s, the long-range hydroplane Be-6 designed by G. M. Beriev was created and put into operation. To combat submarines, the aircraft had radiohydroacoustic buoys and magnetometers as a means of searching for an underwater enemy, and depth bombs and torpedoes to destroy it. Anti-submarine weapons were equipped with basic Mi-4 helicopters and the first-born ship-based helicopter aviation — the Ka-15 ship-based helicopter designed by N. I. Kamov.
In the course of their flight operation, extensive research was carried out and the foundations of tactics and combat use of anti-submarine aviation, soon transferred to more advanced anti-submarine complexes such as the Be-12, Ka-25, Ka-27, Mi-14, Il-38 and Tu-142 different modifications.
The development of missile systems with aircraft cruise missiles significantly increased the combat capabilities of the strike fleet aviation in the fight against ship groups of a potential enemy at sea.
At the beginning of the 60-ies, anti-submarine and naval missile-carrying aircraft took shape organizationally into independent branches of the navy. At the same time, the reconnaissance aviation of the fleets was being transformed.
Long-range reconnaissance aircraft Tu-95рts were sent to the open-sea fleets — Northern and Pacific — with an automated target-pointing system for missile forces of the fleet, including missile submarines that carried combat service at sea. This also allowed naval aviation to reach remote areas of the World Ocean to observe the naval forces of a potential enemy and timely warning about the threat of their impact on our forces and targets.
In the Baltic and the Black Sea, reconnaissance began to be carried out by supersonic reconnaissance aircraft Tu-22р.
The combat capabilities of the USSR naval aviation significantly expanded due to the incorporation of the anti-submarine cruisers "Moscow" and "Leningrad" into the navy. From that time on, ship aviation was officially formed as a new kind of naval aviation.
The anti-submarine cruiser “Moscow” with Ka-25 helicopters on board made its first march to combat service in the Mediterranean from September 19 to November 5 1968. In subsequent years, the Moscow and Leningrad anti-submarine cruisers repeatedly carried out military service in various areas of the oceans.
According to the conclusion of the then-Commander-in-Chief of the Navy of the Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union S. G. Gorshkov, the helicopters became an integral part of modern surface ships of various purposes, they gave them a completely new combat quality. A fundamentally new direction in the development of naval aviation opened the creation of vertical take-off and landing aircraft and the construction of Kiev-type aircraft-carrying cruisers.
The first aviation regiment of the Yak-38 naval attack aircraft was formed on the Black Sea Fleet. Its first commander was F. G. Matkovsky. He was the first to lead the aviation group and trained pilots to fly from a ship on a long-distance cruise of the Kiev-carrying cruiser.
In the Northern Fleet, V. N. Ratnenko became the first commander of the aviation regiment of naval attack aircraft. V.M. Svitochev was the first to command a regiment of naval attack aircraft in the Pacific Fleet.
The aircraft-carrying cruisers Kiev, Minsk and Novorossiysk repeatedly carried out military service in various regions of the World Ocean, and ship aviators — pilots, engineers, and technicians — showed courage, skill, and high moral and psychological qualities.
Particular attention is paid to the book shipboard fighter aircraft fleet. Such aircraft was created on the basis of fourth-generation fighter aircraft of the Su-27 and MiG-29 type, recognized as the best modern fighter in the world today. The first aircraft carrier, created in our country, is able to provide for the basing and fighting of fighters for springboard take-off and aerofinisation landing.
In the birth and development of the ship-based fighter aircraft, the great merit of one of the leading test pilots Viktor Georgievich Pugachev. Timur Avtandilovich Apakidze became one of the first enthusiasts in the development of a new kind of ship aviation. His courage and professional skill are attested by the fact that, back in 1991, he was awarded an honorary diploma and an award from the International Aviation Safety Foundation for decisive and competent actions in an emergency situation during flight. Saving the experimental aircraft, T.A. Apakidze left the uncontrolled falling apparatus at the last second. Shortly after the experienced accident, he took the new risk and the first of the pilots of military units of military aviation in our country landed on the deck of the cruiser "Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov" on the first Russian ship-based fighter Su-27k without transportation on a fleet. It was September 29 1991 on the Black Sea Fleet.
During the flight tests of the Su-27k aircraft, the first leader group of pilots of the Northern Fleet Air Force was successfully prepared for flights and combat operations from the deck of the ship. Thus, in 1994, a new elite of military pilots — the elite of deck pilots — was born in Russian naval aviation.