Main battle tanks (part 11) Al-Khalid (Pakistan)




On the first day of October 1988, between the PRC, which was represented by NORINCO and Pakistan, an agreement was signed with the representative office of Heavy Industries Taxila on the design development and joint manufacture of a new combat tank MBT-2000, according to the technical documentation - “Type 90-II”. The work program was approved by the Chinese Defense Committee on January 16, 1990, and in May of the same 1990, the main contract was already concluded. In parallel with the tests in China, the MBT-2000 tank passed similar tests in Pakistan. The production of combat vehicles was planned at the Taxila R-711 plant. By that time, “Type 59”, “Type 69” combat vehicles, as well as an upgraded version — “Type 85-IIM” were already being produced at this plant.

In the middle of 90-ies, the Pakistani side decided to purchase a license for the production of MBT-2000, followed by modernization. Comprehension of technology and serial construction of the main battle tank, which received its own name - "Al-Khalid" was made at the Pakistani military factory "Heavy Industries Taxila" (HIT). The Al Khalid tank is slightly different from the MBT-2000. Firstly, it is equipped with a hinged dynamic additional protection made in China, which gives the tank a specific appearance. Blocks of additional dynamic protection are located on the main front projections of the tower and the hull, similar to the tank “90-II” with remote sensing, except for the cheekbones of the tower, where the defensive blocks are installed “corner”, like tanks made in Ukraine and Russia. Additional blocks of special dynamic protection are installed directly on the tower basket. The real combat weight of the tank is 48 tons. France’s automated fire control and control system is similar to the Leclerc’s main tank control system and contains a panoramic low-level sight for the commander, a combined gunner’s sight with a thermal imager, a control panel, a two-plane weapon stabilizer, a set of sensors and a digital ballistic computer. The armament consists of the 125-2 46-mm smooth-bore cannon with an automatic loader manufactured in Russia, as well as the 7,62-mm main twin and 12,7-mm additional anti-aircraft machine guns made in China. Additional Al Khalid systems are: navigation instruments, a smoke grenade launching system, an anti-WMD FVM protection system, high-speed fire-fighting equipment. There was information that in Pakistan there are ongoing and well-funded work on the development of unique types of armor alloys, intended for further use on Al Khalid tanks. By installing the Ukrainian diesel engine with identical power with the German Condor as a power unit, the Pakistanis retained the necessary specific power and maneuverability of the tank at the level of the prototype. Within 10 seconds, the tank reaches the speed of 30 km / h. In the end, these works, the stern of the combat vehicle acquired a complete similarity with the MTO tanks produced in Ukraine - T-80UD / T-84. In 2000, the Pakistani enterprise Taxila announced the end of production of a limited pre-production batch of Al Khalid tanks. 15 combat vehicles were produced, which were transferred to army units for trial operation.



The main battle tank of the Pakistani army "Al-Khalid" was created in the framework of an international large-scale project with the participation of Pakistan itself, as well as China and Ukraine. Under the terms of the contract, which was signed in 2002 year, the Kharkov plant them. During the 3 years, Malysheva undertook to supply 285 engine and transmission compartments for these combat vehicles to Pakistan for an amount of about 100 million dollars. The contract for the supply of the above-mentioned 285 units became the 2-th successful deal between Kiev and Islamabad after the well-known contract, under which the Kharkov plant named after Kh. Malysheva in the period from 1996 to 1999. sent 320 Ukrainian tanks T-XNUMHSUD worth 80 million dollars to Pakistan. Most likely, the supply of T-650UD tanks and ultimately played a decisive role in the choice of the Ukrainian government of Pakistan as the main partner in the production of their main tank, Al Khalid.

According to the general director of the plant. Malysheva G.Gritsenko, to date, the partners are already conducting additional negotiations on modifying previously installed transmissions, equipping the tank with new, unique, closed-type anti-aircraft systems, with the Varta optical-electronic laser suppression system, as well as fire protection systems. The Varta complex includes a warning system about laser irradiation, that is, it gives a signal about the means of destruction induced by a laser beam, as well as a system of infrared interference, aerosol and smoke protection systems.



The “Indian factor” can also contribute to the further strengthening of cooperation between Ukraine and Pakistan in the production of armored vehicles. At the end of the 90-s, India had about 3,3 thousands of tanks in service, which, without taking into account the Ukrainian X-NUMXUD 320, significantly exceeded the Pakistani tank fleet (by more than 80 vehicles). At the present stage 900 American tanks M-120 and 477 M-280, 48 T-1200 and T-59 of China, as well as 69 T-40 are in service with the army of Pakistan. After India signed a contract worth 85 million dollars for the purchase of 800 T-310С in Russia, Pakistan will probably try to increase its own tank fleet in response, which may ultimately bring Ukraine expensive new orders. Obviously, these defense programs of Islamabad will be implemented in the very near future.

Performance characteristics of Al Khalid (Al Khalid)
Property: Value:
Weight, kg 48000
Crew 3
Height, mm 2300
Length, mm 6900
Trench, mm 3400
The maximum speed, km / h 62
Power reserve, km 400
Gradient,% 60
Vertical wall, mm 850
Trench, mm 3000
Engine power, hp Xnumx
Number of gears back 3
Number of gears forward 7
Caliber of the main gun, mm 125
The caliber of the main machine gun, mm 7.62
Caliber anti-aircraft machine gun, mm 12.7
Ammunition of guns, pcs. Xnumx
2 Cannon Stabilization Planes



In addition to the production of the main battle tank "Al-Khalid" for its own army, Pakistan in every way promotes it to the external market. Saudi Arabia and Malaysia have already shown some interest in this combat vehicle. Constantly demonstrates at various international exhibitions own MBT-2000 and China.


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  1. datur 17 July 2011 14: 26 New
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    Upgrading Pakistani T-80 Khokhlyat spill cool.
    1. Superduck
      Superduck 18 July 2011 10: 18 New
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      Yes, no, his dad has a Chinese Type 90-II, which seems closer to the 72nd. A hohlyatskoe there only MTO.
      1. Superduck
        Superduck 30 November 2011 18: 09 New
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        Type 90 also seems to be Kharkov MTO, and yes, ears stick out from 72nd.
      2. Bobik012 27 May 2017 18: 20 New
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        But how do they differ besides MTO? :-) Well, the torsion bars are a little different
        1. Bobik012 27 May 2017 18: 21 New
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          meaning t-80 and t-72
  2. Odessa
    Odessa 2 October 2011 02: 15 New
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    Unfortunately, for certain objective reasons, I won’t be able to write a lot of interesting things to you, but I have something to do with the topic of inexorable “Chinese Kharkovites”. In short, the Chinese learn very quickly and learned how to copy almost everything smartly. Moreover, they are very able to “dilute” the worn copies with local “color.” Type 99 has significant differences from the T-72 and, no offense to the Russians, is a cut above including the latest modifications. And the T-90 (it can also easily compete with the T-90S), and the T-84 - there too.
    The main topics were: an aerosol system and laser systems for optoelectronic suppression and warning, a mechanical transmission, a gun (we carefully considered the possibility of installing a 120 mm other gun), the Chinese version of the engine, and something else. From Ukraine there were several groups of specialists in different directions It was the gun that caused the most difficulties. The Chinese made a good SLA and new power supply to it (the new thermobaric power supply is especially good, instead of the long-obsolete OF-72-90), although initially it was the usual high-explosive one. Some comrades did not write. but the T-84 control system (including the T-80 and T-90 as well) and the T-64 Restayl are a stone age against Type 99. For communications, it’s better not to write at all - this is a disorder for the Chinese. learn and learn. But the gun is problematic. The Chinese barrel is enough for almost three times less number of shots than even 2A46 T-72 (the T-90 also has an improved gun). And after 3 missile shots (converted by the Chinese Reflex) through the trunk - you can immediately return to the scrap (The Chinese prefer to keep quiet about this). After firing rockets, it gives a significant distortion to conventional PSUs. And barrel wear is almost catastrophic (on the T-72 it’s also not a standard, but better). The change is quite easy. One of the difficult problems was the transmission (borrowed from T-72M). The car is much heavier than the T-72, and the wear of the hodovka is much higher. And the maximum speed characteristics stated on the website do not correspond to the real ones (they are definitely overestimated by 10 km / h). Well, unless you pull a tank from a high hill or in tow behind an airplane .This is true. The tank is noisy. But its special coating makes it invisible to the radars of the same attack aircraft and even in the thermal imager for 1000 meters it is practically "invisible." The Chinese have an excellent thermal imager. They stripped off the Israelis (they also took some part ), or the French. It does not cause any difficulties aiming at a range of 2000-2500 m (depending on the size of the target), and the target is notched at a distance of 4-5 km at night or in bad weather. Active defense clearly works against anti-tank systems 2 3rd generation Bassoon, Competition, Tou-2, Javelin, etc. (Note: it was the emphasis on protection against growth. The ATGM was emphasized. Why it was a good question. Maybe because the neighbors are full of them, for example, the Vietnamese, or maybe ...). The defense worked well against the ATGM with laser guidance, such as Hellfire There were also good results in disrupting the guidance of missiles, guided cassettes, or air-launched bombs with laser and satellite guidance. They learned how to make jammers excellent GPS (by the way, I strongly suspect that they hijacked technology in the Russian Federation, or bought it. Although it was growing. OBT I have not met such technologies).
    There is more space in the fighting compartment for the crew than in any Ukrainian-Soviet-Russian-Russian special-operations base (well, the Chinese themselves are not gullivers, of course). The roof of the tower is better protected than the T-72, but still weak, although According to the Chinese, I have to withstand the cumulative cumulative rate of the Smerch class RZSO cassette. I doubt it. I wrote for the gun. I can also note weak resistance to avg electronic warfare systems (continue to work on it), as well as the crew’s insecurity by the partition from the BC (although not a panacea) like on the T-72, the rather vulnerable “body kit” of surveillance, communication, active defense, guidance even from small-caliber weapons fire –– the tower configuration is not quite successfully changed, taking all the same weak points as in the T-72, and shells often they either go under the tower (a weak spot) or ricochet at a slight angle, “combing” all the bumps. Although I can’t say anything specific about the reservation (I wrote on the roof of the tower). Why did the Chinese wind it, put it in closed with seven locks. I know for sure that combination and it’s very different from the T-72, but what exactly and how much, but where - sorry. I don’t really know anything about the standing “killer” generator (they didn’t stand on experimental machines, although there were enough additional connectors and fasteners), which allows fixing the direction of the attack and blind the operator-gunner of the enemy. He indicates the direction (with the help of our already determined system), but for his remaining capabilities there are a lot of questions and it is not clear at all, like through a bunch of filters and so on. can anyone be blinded and disable optics ?! In the majority of modern tanks, even mechanic drivers no longer look through triplexes, not to mention the gunner or tank commander. Although, maybe, again, the T-34-85, which still exists these things work for the Vietnamese. Although, as for me, either the Chinese are not saying anything or the effectiveness of this device is greatly exaggerated.
    In general, the car is not bad, with its own “bugs”. A number of shortcomings of the machine can not be eliminated in this already shattered hull configuration and base (base T-72!). Type 99 is a strong opponent for the T-90, Abrams M1A2 or Leopard A4, but has horseradish protection of the bottom from mines (like T -72) and is not integrated for conducting, for example, a setentric warrior (not included in the integrated information network) like M1A2SEP or A6. The system is good for leading a previous generation warrior. The Chinese understand this. Therefore, most likely, they limited themselves to a fairly limited party. Yes, and it turned out to be not cheap.
    1. Bobik012 27 May 2017 18: 28 New
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      And even better, the Chinese know how to trick and declare characteristics that are not confirmed later. Not a single Chinese copy is better than the Russian original
  3. Superduck
    Superduck 30 November 2011 18: 20 New
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    By the way, who will explain what is
    "equipping the tank with new anti-aircraft installations of a unique closed type"
    I saw the T64 Kharkov modification with a 30mm remote gun, is it or is it that progress has come to placing an air defense system in the rear of the tower, which is very kosher for me.
  4. Baron Wrangell 9 December 2011 14: 49 New
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    like it or not, but Russian (Soviet) tanks are still copying, also nice.
  5. mega_jeka
    mega_jeka 16 January 2012 11: 38 New
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    tractor wink
    The screens drove into the water already wink