The barbaric attack of the British on the Solovki monastery and the burning of Coke

Having declared war on the Russian state in 1854, England and France, using various means to inflict damage to Russia, tried to organize strikes not only on the Black, but also on the Baltic, White Seas and the Pacific Ocean. In the Baltic, a strong Anglo-French fleet blocked the Russian Baltic fleet, landed troops, which captured the fortress of Bomarsund.

The British launched an expedition to the White Sea. Already in May, the British sent three steamboats to blockade the White Sea. Then a few more English and French ships were sent there. The squadron commanded the English captain Oman. 5 (17) June an enemy squadron appeared at the entrance to the White Sea. The original actions of the British were limited to the seizure of small merchant ships loaded with bread and fish. 22 June (4 July) the English reached the Mudyug Island, which was located in the Dvina Bay of the White Sea, near the mouth of the Northern Dvina, and sent several boats to measure the depths. However, they were driven away by the fire of two cannons of Ensign Baldin and rifle shooting from the boats of Lieutenant Tveritinov.

Defense of the Solovetsky Monastery

On July 6 (18), two steamships Miranda and Brisk (Agile) attacked the Solovetsky Monastery. The steamboat frigate Miranda had 15 cannons, and the Agile one had 14. The British considered the monastery a strong fortress, but nevertheless decided to try to take it, as they hoped to capture the treasures that, according to rumors, were rich in Russian churches. On Solovki took into account the possibility of the appearance of an enemy fleet, therefore, all monastic values ​​were already exported to Arkhangelsk. According to the Ministry of War, the monastery had “20 pounds of gunpowder, spears and many reeds and axes from the time of Fyodor Ivanovich from defense means”. A battery with two three-pound guns was built on the shore, and another 8 small guns were placed on the walls and towers. The monastery was defended by a detachment of an invalid team.

Reference. Starting from the time of Peter I, soldiers in the Russian Empire were named as soldiers who received diseases, injuries or mutilations who were not able to perform military military service, and they were assigned to serve in civilian institutions, train new recruits or to perform guard duty. During the reign of Peter I, maimed, wounded, decrepit officers, constables, dragoons, privates were sent to monasteries. They were kept at the expense of the monasteries.

Anchored, the British ships immediately, without entering into negotiations, opened fire. They destroyed the monastery gates and bombarded the monastic buildings. Fireworks Drushlevsky responded shots from the coastal battery and was able to damage the "Miranda". After that, the British moved away.

7 (19) in July, the British captain Omani sent a truce and announced that since “the Solovetsky monastery assumed the character of a fortress and fired at the English flag”, it requires an unconditional surrender of the garrison with all the guns, weapons, flags and military supplies for 6 hours. Otherwise, he threatened the bombardment of the fortress. Archimandrite Alexander replied with a refutation of lies concerning guilt in the shooting of the British flag, as the Russians began to answer only after the third core, fired into the monastery. They refused to surrender.

Then began the bombing, which lasted more than nine hours. For our part, the disabled and hunters (volunteers) responded with fire from 10 guns. British bombs and cores caused some damage, but less than expected. The bombardment, for all its considerable intensity and duration, did not destroy the entire Solovetsky monastery, although the roof was pierced by the cores and the walls were damaged. There were no human victims. The strength of the English artillery was weakened by the fact that the enemy ships tried to keep a distance so as not to come under fire. The defenders believed that the British would land. Initially, apparently, they had this idea, but the British did not do it and 8 (20) July retreated.

Archimandrite Alexander and the entire population of the island showed real heroism, refusing to capitulate to the superior forces of the enemy. Russian people preferred to fall in an unequal battle, not having modern weapons, than voluntarily admit the enemy to the Russian land. Sovereign Nicholas ordered to award the Rector of the Solovetsky Monastery, Archimandrite Alexander, with a pectoral diamond cross on the Ribbon of St. George, and the monks Matthew, Barnabas and Nikolai for their excellent performance of their duties during the English attack, were marked with gold pectoral crosses on the St. George ribbon.

From the Solovki monastery, the British went to the deserted Hare Island, where they ruined and plundered the wooden church. Then in the Onega Bay robbed the village Lyamitskaya. 9 (21) July, the English appeared at Ky Island, in 15 versts from the town of Onega, where they burned down customs and other state-owned buildings. On the same island robbed the Monastery of the Cross. 10 (22) July, the British landed a team on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Onega, near the village of Pushlakhty. There were no Russian troops here, but the peasants (23 man), under the command of the two lower ranks and the assistant of the Kholmogory district head of the Ministry of State Property Volkov, resisted. They killed 5 people, wounded several, and retreated without loss. The British, in revenge, plundered and burned the village.

Later, Tsar Nicholas rewarded courageous people. Volkov was granted the Order of St. Anna 3 degree, non-officer Basov insignia of the Military Order and 25 rubles, and the usual Ievlev 15 rubles. All peasants received 5 rubles, the most honorable were given the insignia of the Military Order.

The barbaric attack of the British on the Solovki monastery and the burning of Coke

Cola Destruction

It should be noted that the danger of the situation of the Cola was noticed in March 1854. 2 March 1854, the Kola mayor Shishelov sent a report to Arkhangelsk military governor Boyle. In it, he said that if England wished to send part of its fleet to the northern shores of the Russian state, "in this case, the city of Cola can also not escape from his attention by the ease of capture ..." In the city there was no garrison, except for a few dozen ordinary disabled teams that were armed with only about 40 suitable guns, with a minimum amount of ammunition, no artillery weapons. Military Governor Boyle, for his part, wrote in March 1854 of the year to the Kola mayor that “the inhabitants of Cola are brave and intelligent people, and therefore I hope that they will not allow the enemy into their city, but will destroy it with shots from steep banks and because of bushes” . And to guide the residents sent Captain Pushkarev with 100 rifles and ammunition. Pushkarev was instructed to use a terrain character convenient for defense. The attack on the settlement could only be carried out on rowing ships and it was necessary to land on the steep shore.

However, Pushkarev stayed in the city for long. He was injured by some intruder and departed. The captain was able to track down two guns, one 2-pound and another 6-pound, but one of them turned out to be faulty, and the other during the battle could only make one shot. In addition, the parapet was built to shelter the soldiers. The military governor Boyle identified Lieutenant Brunner, who arrived in the city in August, as successors to Pushkarev.

The 9 (21) of August, the Miranda steamer-frigate appeared in Coke's mind. English boats began to carry out the measurement of the depths. 10 August, the British continued to measure, put the buoys. The Russians did not open fire from the existing gun, because of the considerable range they were afraid to spend the shots for nothing. At 8 one o'clock in the evening of the same day, the British ship raised a white flag and approached the coast. From the steamer “Miranda” a boat was sent to the shore. The British demanded an unconditional surrender of the city, fortifications and the garrison, threatening to destroy Coke otherwise. Although there was no modern fortification in Kohl (the fortification of the prison was outdated long ago, and there was virtually no artillery armament), and the entire garrison was made up of an 50 wheelchair person, the adjutant of the Arkhangelsk military governor, fleet lieutenant Andrei Martynovich Brunner answered with a strong refusal. He assembled a disabled team and several hunters (volunteers) from local residents and prepared for defense. All residents of the town expressed their willingness to sacrifice themselves and their property to repel the enemy.

Brunner, waiting for the immediate commencement of the bombing of the city, withdrew his small forces from the coastal strip under the cover of the steep banks of the Cola and Tuloma rivers. And at dusk, the lieutenant called the hunters (volunteers) to remove the buoys set by the British and take the fishing vessel they had seized to a new place. The volunteers volunteered the petty bourgeois Grigory Nemchinov and the exiles Andrei Mishurov and Vasily Vasilyev. They successfully completed their mission, removing ten buoys.

The steamer frigate "Miranda" destroys the city of Cola

On the morning of August 11 (23), British ships began shelling the city. The bombing continued until late in the evening. In addition, the enemy tried several times to make a landing with troops, sending boats with armed men to the shore, but each time a small detachment of disabled people and hunters under the command of Lieutenant Brunner stopped these actions. The lower part of the town, consisting of wooden structures, was completely destroyed. About 100 houses burned down, an old fortress with 4 towers in the corners, 2 churches, several shops. The upper part of the city survived. There were no people killed, several people received light wounds and contusions.

During the bombardment, the masterpiece of Russian wooden architecture burned down. The Resurrection Cathedral, built under the tsars John and Peter Alekseevich in 1684. The cathedral along with the Transfiguration Cathedral in Kizhi was one of the largest many-headed temples of the Russian North. The cathedral had 19 chapters (according to other sources, the chapters were 18, one was removed during the 1834 repair of the year) and, having stood for 170 for years, surprised everyone with its beauty and durability.

12 (24) of August, from early in the morning, the bombing of Cola was resumed again and continued until 7 in the morning. The British tried to set fire to the upper part of the Coke, but they could not do it. After that, the British retreated, without waiting for the surrender of Coke and not deciding on the landing.

Russian Emperor Nikolai, having received a report on the defense of Kola, Lieutenant Brunner noted the Order of St.. Vladimir 4 degree with a bow, captain of the 1 th Archangelgorodsk garrison battalion of Pushkarev - Order of St. Anna 3 degree with a bow, non-commissioned officer Fedotov - a badge of the Military Order. The exiled Mishurov and Vasilyev were transferred to Arkhangelsk for temporary residence.

In late August, the British appeared at the town of Onega. On the first alarm, the military team joined the 250 townspeople, armed with guns, lances and pikes, ready to defend their city. However, the enemy did not dare to attack and retreated. At the fighting in the North stopped.

Resurrection Cathedral (Cola)
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  1. +5
    15 August 2014 10: 25
    Teach HISTORIES to modern youth! Let it forever be deposited in their brains: "The Russian people have already been under the ISIS, and the second time they cannot be driven into slaves!"
    1. 0
      17 August 2014 02: 22
      As an Archangel-townsman, it is very interesting and instructive. Strange as it may seem, Russia almost never fought with England, but they always fouled us. And now it’s not SASHA, but England against us, to a greater extent.
  2. +2
    15 August 2014 10: 34
    There was a beautiful cathedral.
  3. +2
    15 August 2014 10: 55
    Here are the unknown pages of history. Who would have thought.
    1. 0
      16 August 2014 01: 21
      it is also very interesting how the Russians fought off the British in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Read on Wikipedia or Zadornov (father) "War over the ocean"
  4. Ofa
    15 August 2014 11: 29
    I am from Kandalaksha, Murmansk region. Our interventionists tried to land, but got a decent rebuff .... and so on
  5. +1
    15 August 2014 11: 34
    At least shoot a whole series on this subject. Events are little-known, but worthy of memory no less than the defense of Sevastopol, if only because the British army was opposed by veterans - the disabled and the civilian population. What a strength of mind!
    1. +3
      15 August 2014 12: 05
      Here I am about the same thing, it’s high time to make a good film about the Crimean War, to show how the country defended itself from the White Sea to Kamchatka, because they were attacked from all sides by a Europe and achieved little. Wonderful victories and heroic actions during the defense of the forts were on the Caucasian front. All this can be shown to young people, so that they know that Europe has never been our friend and, at the slightest of our weakness, tried to gobble up Russia.
  6. +1
    15 August 2014 12: 02
    Nobody is forgotten, nothing is forgotten! When the peoples of the World understand that their lives, the happiness of their children, the unification of efforts against the elements, the unification in the exploration of Space are hindered by the British and American governments with their "divide and rule" policy, they will be rewarded a hundredfold for all their crimes and lies at all times.
  7. +4
    15 August 2014 12: 29
    The Anglo-Saxons were, are and will remain the number 1 enemies of Russia.
    Do not have any with them (usa canada england australia)
    Economic relations, do not cooperate in matters
    Safety and introduce a mandatory section in schools on
    Stories "Anglo-Saxon aggression against humanity".
    People should know that they are no better than Hitler, they just
    Others in detail.
  8. +1
    15 August 2014 13: 14
    I read it with interest. More often it is necessary to publish similar stories about the courage and perseverance of Russians.
  9. +2
    15 August 2014 14: 05
    Good article, plus.
    I visited the Solovetsky Islands several times - fertile places. even the elephant camp could not ruin them.
    On my own I will add one nuance. When the British squadron landed on Bolshoi Zayatsky Island, an old man lived there - the monk Memnon (you can find out something here - So, this old man was a soldier who at one time "drove the French to Paris", that is, a former military man. He was not in the least frightened by the British who landed on the island. When the British left, without having achieved anything, they took all the goats and sheep from his herd, and also, like trophies, took a small bell and a mug for donations. Of course, this became known in the monastery, and then in St. Petersburg. Local journalists promoted this story "with trophies" so that the reputation of the British was severely undermined. Such is the old information war.
    Here's another nuance. When the English squadron was preparing to attack the monastery, they entered the Herring Bay. It was impossible to get closer because of the depths. Traditionally, two or three shots were fired as a warning signal for an attack. However, there were no people in the monastery who understood such traditions, so a "response" was made from all the available tools. The volley was so successful that the Brix was so damaged that it was forced to retreat behind the cape and fire at the monastery from a distance (although I no longer remember whether it fired at all). It is impossible to pierce (from the cannon of that time) walls 5-7 meters thick. We shot and faded away.
    Well and good. wink
  10. +1
    15 August 2014 16: 06
    the British appeared at the city of Onega. According to the first alarm, up to 250 townspeople, armed with rifles, peaks and hooks, were ready to defend their city. However, the enemy did not dare to storm and retreated... They were going to fight with them uncivilized: with hoes, peaks .. I would come to England wounded, they ask what they wounded with a hook, who wounded a woman ... they laugh ... theirs ... because they didn’t dare ...
  11. +1
    15 August 2014 20: 12
    These little Brittons are wretched, they can only fight with the Papuans, but they get a little rebuff, they dump them right away ... Already from the above examples, the settlements and monasteries were neither fortified nor had long-term weapons. Only the Russian spirit of the Russian people fought back, and that acted scary on the limes.
  12. Sofa fighter
    16 August 2014 06: 40
    So I read this and understand how they were barbarians and remained them, for the fact that we are so bad and they are good.
  13. 0
    16 August 2014 09: 25
    The British always did this, if they see that you can easily die and hide behind someone else’s backs, then leave immediately. And what do you want, a barbarian state founded by pirates and barbarians. They still live without a constitution. And the methods are like in the old days: meanness, deceit, murder of the innocent and profit.
  14. 0
    16 August 2014 11: 06
    I was born, live and work in Onega, which is mentioned several times in the article. My mother was born in the village of Lyamtsa (the village was called and called exactly that, and not Lyametskaya as indicated in the article). In 1854, the Kia Monastery, which is located on about. Cue (or Cue Island) 18 km. from the mouth of the river. Onega. The prey was not rich - everything was taken out of the monastery in advance to Onega. By the way, this is just an amazing place. In particular, 12 cannons, which lay in the monastery for about 200 years, ancient muskets, a bell, became prey
    The enemy landed in the village of Lyamtsa 2 times - in 1854 and 1855. And if for the first time the enemy carried out a robbery (all the males were haying far from the village), then for the second time the locals put up a very worthy rebuff.

    1854 year

    v / p5.php
    In the village of Lyamts, located on the eastern shore of the Onega Bay, 65 miles from Onega, about 40 armed sailors with five officers landed with two longboats under the white flag. They demanded that several bulls and rams be sold to them, threatening, in case of refusal, to burn a village in which, apart from children and women, then there were only priest Pyotr Lyskov and five elderly peasants.
    “The British then shot 2 bulls, 7 sheep and 10 chickens with a rooster, for which one officer threw 3 gold coins of unknown denomination from his pocket and said that two for the bulls and one for the rams and hens.” After spending a little more than two hours in the village, the British took the provisions and left the village.

    November 1855, XNUMX

    v / p5.php

    The most serious diversion into the campaign of 1855 was undertaken against the coastal village of Onega district of Lyamtsy and the village of Kandalakshi of Kola district.

    The battle near the village of Lyamtsy took place on June 27–28. An enemy steamboat fired ship cannons at the village for three hours, fired about 500 cores and bombs around the village, tried twice to land an landing, but in vain. He did not manage to break the resistance of the Lyamitsky inhabitants. 34 peasants under the leadership of Private Izyrbaev who entered the secondary service with rifle fire and a small cannon on rowing ships repelled the attack of the invaders and did not allow them to land.
    In the battle with the enemy, apart from the retired soldier Izyrbaev, the peasant Sovershaev, clerk Izyumov, the Arkhangelsk resident Alexander Lyskov and the local priest Peter Lyskov distinguished themselves. In the village of Lyamtsy there is still a monument reminiscent of the events taking place here during the years of the Crimean warrior and the courage of peasants who did not let the enemy into the village.

    On my own behalf, I want to add that the base of the monument is the cannonballs that were released through the village. In the 90s, the monument was in an unsatisfactory condition. I was about 12 years old and I tried to pull one core out of the Lyamtsa river (the Lyamtsa river bank began to crumble). The core turned out to be very small, but very heavy. Later, the monument was moved a little further from the coast and repaired. For military labors, all villagers were freed from taxes "for life." Despite the fact that 500 cannonballs were fired at the village, only 3 huts were destroyed and burned. The village itself is located in a lowland between 3 solid hills, two of which covered it from the sea (which influenced such an awful result of the shooting).
  15. 0
    3 February 2017 10: 14
    As always: well done against the sheep. Cowards and jackals! I can’t wait until we pile on them in full!

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