The picture shows the Elcan SpecterDR, it is used by German special forces and is an innovative product that combines a mirror collimator sight for melee and a telescopic sight with a fourfold increase for fighting at longer distances. Also note the non-standard attachment of accessories to the G36 assault rifle - a distinguishing feature of special forces throughout the world.
It is intuitively clear that special forces, on the basis of the nature of their tasks, must accordingly be equipped with "special" weapons.
However, to be more precise, this implies a careful selection of the best “tools”, taking into account special tasks or, of course, even one specific task. Indeed, the weapons used by the soldiers of special operations forces (SSO) are “special” not so much regarding its specific design and characteristics, but rather because the special forces themselves have the privilege to choose it, despite the standardization issues or any other industrial or logistic considerations, based solely on their own assessments and preferences. Indeed, a very large part of the “MYS of the MTR” consists in the use of other weapons than that prescribed by the usual infantry unit, and it is not uncommon to see a MTR soldier inside the same unit wearing another weapon.
Another aspect of “exclusivity”, which is to thoroughly search for absolutely optimal solutions in the field of equipment of SSO, is that personal and serviced weapons are, as a rule, almost not used in SSO in a configuration originally made by the manufacturer; armament should receive a whole series of design changes, improvements and additional devices.
Automatic pistols (and in some cases also revolvers) represent a very strange paradox in equipping the SSO. While pistols and revolvers are rapidly losing popularity as standard combat weapons, even including minor tasks such as self-defense or weapons for non-combatant personnel, they are still an integral part of the MTR arsenal and really effectively replaced the combat knife as a melee symbol. The use of MTR pistols is usually associated with the "elimination" of specific people, but in reality it is much more important to provide a deliberate near defense.
Prudence necessarily requires the elimination or reduction of shot noise. An important difference in this regard is quiet weapons (that is, created as such or capable of using noiseless ammunition) and so-called “jammed”, usually due to the installation of a silencer.
Typical examples of silent guns are the Chinese Type 64 and Type 67, both with a cam for the rifleless cartridge 7.65 x 17, they are based on the concept of the expansion chamber. The Russians, for their part, have developed a whole family of silent / non-inflamed cartridges, which are used in a single-action firing mechanism (non-self-driving). The first relevant weapons for the special forces were two small large-caliber models, the SME (SP2 7.62x35 cartridge) and С4М (SP3 7.62XXNNXX cartridge), whose obvious limitations led to the introduction of a semi-automatic MSS pistol (self-propelled limitation) into a special weapon for the PSS (a self-propelled constraint led to the introduction of a special automatic pistol for self-propelled guns (self-propelled limitations) that led to the introduction of a semi-automatic MSS pistol (a self-propelled constraint led to the introduction of a semi-automatic MSS pistol (a self-propelled restriction) in the 62.8 to introduce a semiautomatic PSS pistol (a self-propelled constraint led to the introduction of a special automatic pistol for the PSS (a self-propelled restriction) in the 1983 to introduce a semiautomatic PSS pistol (a self-propelled restriction) to introduce a semiautomatic PSS pistol (a self-propelled constraint led to the introduction of a special automatic pistol with a special pistol) The MSS still has no analogues in the West; they are currently armed with several units of Russian special forces (for example, the Interior Ministry seizure groups and the Alpha group at the FSB). He shoots SP6 4x7.62 cartridges with a 42-gram steel bullet, designed specifically to produce good armor-piercing power, at least against the simplest types of body armor. The Tula KBP recently presented the Stechkin OTs 13 pistol for the SP38 cartridge, which apparently was aimed at fulfilling the strong desire of the special forces not to leave the spent cartridges behind them.
Makarov's PB is a kind of compromise between silent and muffled weapons. It is based on the design of a standard Makarov automatic pistol and shoots conventional 9x18 cartridges with a traditional removable silencer, but also has a bulky expansion chamber around the perforated barrel. Most recently, the Russian special forces units appear to have adopted the silent version of the new PU automatic pistol (known as the MP-443 Grach), selected in the 2003 year as the new standard pistol of the Russian Armed Forces.
Western industry and MTR soldiers were never particularly interested in quiet weapons, but, nevertheless, several models of pistols were developed and manufactured specifically for the requirements of special forces (including the well-known Heckler & Koch Mk23Mod0 for the American command of special operations forces); they are all equipped with standard silencers. Rather, the emphasis is on features such as maximum stopping power, robust construction and superior reliability, while a large magazine, usually the main requirement for military hand weapons, is less important here.
In 2005, the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) began the Joint Combat Pistol (JCP) program, a rather perplexing and reckless attempt to combine the American Army's Future Handgun System (FHS) and USSOCOM's own projects called Combat Pistol SSO SOFCP (Special Operations Forces Combat Pistol) in a single purchase in the amount of 645 pistols. Less than a year later, the program lost its “J” (Combat Pistol - CP) letter and was drastically scaled back to USSOCOM's own needs (approximately 000 pistols), before being postponed indefinitely until the end of 50. Be that as it may, several potential competitors have prepared models that meet the mandatory key characteristics of the JCP / CP (.000 ACP cartridge and the use of two magazines of different capacities); these include, for example, H&K HK2006 and HK45C, Beretta PX45 SD, S&W MP45, FN Herstal FNP4 and Sig Sauer P45 Combat TV.
A special category includes automatic pistols with a chamber for powerful types of ammunition, originally developed for the PDW (Personal Defense Weapons) class, which, paradoxically enough, were intended to replace pistols. After the abolition of the H&K P46 (4.6x30) project, the only Western weapon in this category is the FN Herstal FiveseveN (5.7x28). FiveseveN's large, roomy magazine (20 rounds), a significant hitting range (100 m), excellent penetrating power and the availability of a full family of special cartridges open up completely new prospects for the combat use of hand weapons.
The Chinese were also moving in the same direction, and in 2006, the QSW-06 model was introduced to replace Type 67. It shoots Chinese 5.8x21 cartridges (two types: standard DAP92 with Vo = 895 m / s and supersonic DCV05), they are fed from the magazine to the 20 cartridges, this gun is equipped with a standard silencer.
IWI GALIL ACE - the latest copy of an 5.56-mm assault rifle, designed specifically for the needs of the SSO soldiers. Weapon in the picture without sight
The Aimpoint CompM4 series of collimator sights conforms to the latest version of the US Army's M68 Close-Combat Optic (CCO) optics
Submachine guns (SMG)
Despite the general trends regarding standard military small arms, SMG submachine guns are still widespread in the MTR units, despite some preference recently expressed in many battle scenarios given to compact / short-barreled assault rifles and carbines.
The most common in Western MTRs is without doubt the ubiquitous H&K MP5 series, available in a variety of variants. For highly specialized applications, extremely compactness is appreciated, therefore, certain interest is shown in such models as, for example, the MP-5K, Micro UZI and B&T MP9 (originally Steyr TMP). The vast majority of Western SMGs are chambered for the standard 9x19 cartridge, and numerous attempts by the industry to introduce new or MTR-optimized cartridges like the 10mm Auto or .40 S&W, or to resurrect the venerable .45 ACP have met with little commercial success. Even the H&K UMP, firing the new + P variant of the .45 ACP cartridge, goes unnoticed in the global MTR community.
Since the end of 80, the Russian industry of handguns has also re-opened the SMG market and offered an absolutely staggering variety of designs and models that often show a certain degree of innovative ingenuity and all of them, as noted, have been “accepted”, “approved” or , at least, "tested" by special forces. Partial Cities -18 Cedar / Klin (9x18 PMM), PP-7.62 (25x9 PMM), PP-19M10 helicoidal store (01x9, 19x9 19N7 / 21N90), PP-9 (18x91), AEK-9K Chestnut (18x93) OTs- 9 Cypress (19x90) and CP-1 Heather (rather, a unique design that removes gases, shoots powerful 9xXNNXX cartridges). The helicoidal store is a reasonable idea to combine a larger capacity (the Buffeton's 19) with compactness and of course it was immediately copied by the Chinese (Chang Feng 9).
Again, when it comes to muted SMGs, this is definitely the best-known H&K MP-5SD Category 5 weapon, which could actually be considered a weapon icon for the MTR. Due to the presence of concentric expansion / decompression chambers with internal deflecting flaps, the MOP-9SD can fire a standard 19x7 cartridge, which, however, is made slower (subsonic speed) in order to eliminate the most important part - the sound signature (sign of visibility). The weapon was also produced in several countries under more or less sanctioned licenses and inspired designs such as the Daewoo K2 (South Korea), FAMAE SAF-SD (Chile) and Pindad PM-21 (Indonesia). The IWI Micro TAVOR MTAR 9 (19x5.56 variant of the compact XNUMXmm carbine) is an interesting attempt at an original modular solution, both modules have a built-in silencer.
The main disadvantage of SMG with a built-in silencer for using the SSO is that the already very modest stopping power of their pistol cartridge is even more reduced due to the need to reduce the speed of the bullet to subsonic. The Russians were at the forefront of work on this issue, and in the past, special forces almost completely replaced their SMGs with AK-47 / AKM assault rifles with a detachable silencer; he shoots a special subsonic version of the 7.62XXNNX bullet with a 39 gram bullet. Starting from the end of the 193s, a more radical approach would be adopted to special develop special types of cartridges and weapons for firing them. The subsonic 80x9 cartridges SP39 and SP5 showed good characteristics with regard to practical range (up to 6 m) and penetration ability. These cartridges are based on an M300 43x7.62 sleeve with an extended neck up to 39 mm and have a heavy, streamlined bullet; SP9 has a 5 gram bullet for precision hit, while SP260 has an 6 gram armor piercing bullet with a hardened steel core. The first automatic weapon created for these new cartridges, steel carabiners BCC Vintorez from CRI Tochmash and AS Val, they were followed by 247A-9 and VKS-91 from KBP, SR-94 whirlwind of CRI Tochmash, modular scheme Bullpup COO OTS-3 Thunderstorm from TsKIB and the latest model (in 14 year) AK-2007 developed by Izhmash Kalashnikov. The basic (i.e., 9x9) version of Thunderstorm was reportedly in service with the MIA of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, while the special forces apparently chose the version with the camera for the original cartridge US 39x7.62.
The Western counterpart is the .300 “Whisper” cartridge from SSK Industries, it is based on the .221 Fireball cartridge case extended for the 7.62 mm bullet; there are either subsonic (220 g, 1040 ft / s) or supersonic (125 g, 2100 ft / s) options. Several companies (for example, the French Stopson TFM) modified the AR15 assault rifles for new cartridges, but very few of these rifles were sold.
As for the PDW class (Personal Defense Weapons is a personal weapon for defense), for a short time it seemed that this weapon had completely lost its originally intended market (this, however, has nothing to do with its quality and characteristics), it could find a new an important market niche, in fact replacing the SMG in the arsenals of the SSO units. However, this does not happen. Despite the clear advantages of PDW regarding general ballistic characteristics and especially penetration power, whose value will further increase due to the current widespread use of reinforced body armor, including non-combat personnel, PDW is purchased in relatively small quantities to replace SMG for certain specific applications, but not for their final replacement. An important exception is the Chinese army, which, apparently, is going to introduce a QWC-05 rifle bullpup with a camera for the already mentioned 5.8xXNNUMX cartridge, it has an 21 magazine for cartridges, and will replace the muffled SMG Type 50 and Type 79, which are in service with the MTR. India also seems to be moving in the same direction with the MSMC weapons (Modern Sub-Machine Carbine - modern submachine gun, carbine) manufactured by DRDO and the unique cartridge 85x5.56.
Optical electronic sights for small arms
The broad category of opto-electronic sights (or perhaps more accurately the sighting systems) consists of two main groups: laser / infrared and collimator devices. Regardless of the technology, their main function is to help the shooter capture and destroy targets or a number of targets without using standard sights, including very poor lighting conditions (especially laser / IR systems).
Laser / Infrared Pointers
Laser pointers create a beam that is visible as a small red dot on the target, corresponding to a bullet hit point. This mode of operation makes them suitable for use in special combat conditions, when it relies on instinctive fire "from the hip," for example, in close combat inside buildings.
Currently, two main classes of laser pointers are available: daytime systems operating at frequencies of about 620 nm to create a red dot that is visible to the naked eye under normal daytime conditions; and night systems operating in the near infrared spectrum and thus creating a red dot, which can only be seen with night vision goggles.
Beyond this major difference, there are a number of intriguing variations and improvements possible. LAM (Laser Aiming Module) from Insight Technologies Inc., adopted by the US Special Operations Command for the OHWS / H & K Mod. 23 .45 ACP. It has a dual laser pointer operating in the visible and infrared spectrum, plus a conventional illuminator + IR source. Another interesting model is the increasingly popular AN / PEQ-2, which, in addition to the IR pointer, also works as an IR "spotlight", which allows (through night vision goggles) to identify a target at a long distance, as well as provide adequate combat visibility in absolute darkness (for example, at night inside a building or in a tunnel).
The so-called collimator (red dot) systems work on a completely different principle, when the red dot is visualized inside the sight with an overlay on the image of the target, rather than physically projected onto the target itself as in a laser system. Accordingly, the collimator sights have no signature and nothing can be detected on the target.
Leading suppliers of red dot sights to the military and police include the Swedish company Aimpoint, which originally invented the system, and the American companies Tasco and Weaver. The Aimpoint Comp M model was purchased in large quantities, starting with 100 scopes ordered in 000 by the US Department of Defense under the designation M-1997, plus 68 units ordered by France in 10, 000 scopes delivered to Sweden in 2000-60, later Italy has ordered 000 pieces. The M2003 model features enhancements such as 2005 day settings and 24000 low light settings, as well as new CET (Circuit Efficiency Technology) diodes to reduce power consumption. It quickly became a popular red dot sight for weapons such as the H&K MP2 series SMG, the H&K G4 and Colt M6A5 assault rifles, the Colt M36 carbine and the FN MINIMI / M16 machine gun. The tactical model R2 includes additional features such as illuminated reticle and the largest magnification of 4x (previous models were without magnification). The exit pupil with a diameter of 249 mm, combined with a wide field of view, allows you to quickly capture stationary and moving targets. The CompM3.5 series of scopes (in the US Army a variant of the M3.5 CCO (Close-Combat Optic - close-range optics)), the company says, is the series of the most advanced scopes it produces. Improvements include high energy efficiency, which shows continuous operation for 8 years on a single AA battery! CompM4 sights have a built-in holder, which eliminates the need for a separate ring, with the help of vertical and front spacers, it can be mounted on various weapons systems.
The specific and potentially dangerous characteristics of collimator systems are that, under certain lighting conditions, their front lens can create reddish reflections. For this reason, some Comp M users equip their sights with an anti-reflective device in the form of honeycombs.
Mirror systems, which could be considered as a variant of the red dot technology, were first introduced several years ago by Bushnell. These devices replace conventional light points with a holographic reticle crosshair that becomes visible when illuminated with built-in light sources and that can be selected among several different configurations (traditional or open reticle, double ring, 3-D rising marker, etc.) . The main advantages of mirror sights over traditional models are the ability to increase brightness to 20, depending on operating conditions and the elimination of possible parallax errors caused by the need for the shooter to simultaneously focus his eye on the red dot and target, which are on two different focal planes. Mirror systems, such as the Trijicon series, have a very high accuracy and extremely high target acquisition speed, while the miniaturization components make it possible to create extremely compact and lightweight devices for handguns. For example, this is the Docter Sight sight (46x25.5x24 mm, 25 g) which also has an automatic brightness adjustment depending on the lighting conditions in the direction of the target.
A further step forward in the design of sights and their parameters was the SpecterDR model from Elcan (Raytheon), recently adopted by the MTR command. It is declared that it is the most advanced optical rifle sight in the world. The SpecterDR is actually two sights in one, it combines an optical sight with a wide field of view (24 °) and an increase in 1x and a long-range optical sight (magnification 4x, field of view 6,5 °). Switching between the two sighting modes is instantaneous and, in contrast to sights with magnification mechanisms, the reduction in eye load and optical design are optimal. LED backlight from batteries has two ranges: one highlights all the crosshairs with long-term use in low light and the other highlights just a red dot in the center in close combat conditions. Zero function is included in the built-in mount, the sight is mounted on Picatinny Mil-Std-1913 guides.
The Trijiton RX01-NSN mirror lens is designed for the US military and is designed for close combat. The reticle in all mirrored sights is illuminated with both fiber optics and tritium, ensuring the arrow has a bright, clearly marked aiming point in any light. RX01-NSN is part of the SOPMOD M4 weapons systems used by US Army Special Forces
Aimpoint CompM2 in the American Army received the designation M68 CCO