Military Review

Boer War: Commando vs. Army Order

Boer War: Commando vs. Army Order

Guerrilla tactics allowed the Boers to defeat the British, who fought according to the old military canons that had already outlived themselves.

The Boer War was the first new type of conflict. It was there that massive smokeless powder, shrapnel, machine guns, protective-color uniforms (khaki) and armored trains were massively used for the first time. Together with block-houses, barbed wire is also included in the circulation, X-rays are used to find bullets and fragments from wounded soldiers. Special sniper units are being created, and the Boer tactics themselves — fighting by small mobile units — will later become the basis for the formation of special forces groups.

In this war, the young correspondent Winston Churchill - First Lord of the Admiralty during the First World War will be captured and made a daring escape. The future chairman of the State Duma, Alexander Guchkov, along with other foreign volunteers, will fight in the ranks of the Boers, and the young lawyer Mahatma Gandhi will lead the Indian sanitary squad and receive a gold star from the British for bravery. The war itself, exactly 100 years before NATO’s military operation in Yugoslavia, will be one of the first conflicts motivated by the defense of “human rights and freedoms” and the defense of “the values ​​of a civilized community”.

Background to the conflict

The Dutch East India Company imported colonists from the Netherlands to develop and manage their lands in southern Africa. After the Napoleonic wars, these territories finally passed to Great Britain, which deprived the descendants of the Dutch and French colonists, who later formed the Boer people, of self-government, the opportunity to receive education in their native language and impose their ideological guidelines on them.

In protest, many Boers leave the fertile lands of the Cape Colony. Moving to the north, they make a great track, or a great resettlement, as a result of which, not without conflicts, they occupy the territory of local tribes and establish several states. However, all this happens under the vigilant eye of the "big British brother." In 1867, the world's largest diamond deposit is discovered on the border of the Orange Republic and the Cape Colony. Later, the company will emerge De Beers - the diamond empire of the British colonial romance and capitalist Cecil John Rhodes (Rhodesia was named after him), who in 1890-ies took the post of Prime Minister of the Cape Colony and was one of the supporters of the hawkish policy with the Boer Republics. Cecile Rhodes sought to expand the network of British possessions in Africa "from Cairo to Cape Town", carrying the idea of ​​building a trans-African railway, and the independent Boer states interfered with these plans by the very fact of their existence.

Cecil John Rhodes and his partner Alfred Beit. 1901 year. Photo: Imperial War Museums

As a result of the first war between the Boers and Britain 1880 – 1881, agreements are being concluded that contain a number of intricate laws on Britain’s suzerainty over the Transvaal - in particular, the agreements included a clause on the British Queen’s mandatory approval of all treaties concluded by the Transvaal government or nations.

However, the main problems began at the end of the 1880s and were associated with the discovery of huge deposits of gold on the territory of the Boer states. Its mining is quite difficult, as it requires special tools, skills and investments, so the Boers, mostly engaged in cattle grazing, were not able to do this. Tens of thousands of Outlanders, pioneers of British expansion, arrive in the country. In a matter of years, entire cities populated by foreigners appear in the Boer colonies. The period of internal tension between the “long-standing” and “local” begins.

The active mining of minerals increases the bureaucratic apparatus and budget expenditures. The government of President Transvaal Paul Kruger in order to replenish the treasury goes to the issuance of concessions to foreign companies and entrepreneurs. Mindful of the English threat, they tried to give out concessions to anyone, but not to the British. Then the British colonial authorities in South Africa, provoked by the restless businessmen, recall the queen's right to the suzerainty of the Transvaal and demand to grant civil rights to the British living in the Transvaal. Of course, the Boers do not want to give the electoral rights to the oitlanders, rightly fearing for the future of their states, since the latter are quite openly acting as agents of British politics. Thus, during the arrival of Paul Kruger in Johannesburg, the crowd of his Outlanders who met him began to sing the anthem of Great Britain, God save the Queen, and defiantly tore off the flag of the Transvaal.

It cannot be said that the Boers did not attempt to incorporate the Outlanders into their society. Gradually, reforms were carried out that allowed labor migrants to address state issues. In particular, the second chamber of parliament (Lower Folksraad) of Transvaal was created, where representatives of naturalized oytlanders could be elected, while the first chamber was formed only from born citizens of the republic. However, the constant intrigues of the Outlanders and their influential patrons like Cecil Rhodes did not contribute to the onset of detente.

President of Transvaal Paul Kruger (Stefanus Johannes Paulus Kruger). Around 1895 of the year. Photo: Leo Weinthal / Getty Images /

The final boiling point was the incident that later became known as the Jameson raid - an invasion by a Rhodesian and Bechuanand police unit in Johannesburg, organized by Rhodes with the aim of raising the Outlander uprising against the Kruger government. Before the invasion, mass protests against the Boer government were organized, during which a list of claims was initiated in an ultimatum. However, no support was given to the rebels from the population of Johannesburg. Justly fearing the Boer’s army and seeing the solution to their problems in the war that the Government of Her Majesty should lead, the settlers did not want to risk their lives. The insurgency was crushed, and its leader Dr. Jameson himself was arrested.

It becomes obvious to the parties that only a big war can solve their contradictions. The British with might and main unleash a propaganda campaign about allegedly unprecedented pressure on British citizens who are deprived of fundamental human and civil rights. At the same time, the British military contingent is growing at the border of the Boer colonies. The Transvaal government does not stand aside and begins to purchase modern weapons, builds defenses, signs a military alliance with the fraternal Orange Republic.

It is necessary to say a few words about the Boer militia. Contrary to the military doctrines prevailing at the time, the Boer’s army was not divided into corps, brigades, or companies. The Boer army was not at all familiar with military doctrines and military science. There were commando squads that could consist of a dozen or a thousand people. The Boer commandos did not recognize any military discipline, they even refused to be called soldiers, seeing in it an insult to their dignity, as the soldiers, in their opinion, fight for money, and they are citizens (burghers) who only fulfill their duty to protect the country .

They did not have the Boer commandos and military uniforms; with the exception of gunners and several detachments consisting of the Boers-townspeople, the burghers fought in the same clothes that they used in peacetime. The democratic spirit of the Boers permeated the whole society, and the army was no exception. Everything was decided by voting: from the election of officers to the adoption of the military plan of the upcoming campaign, and each fighter had the right to vote along with the officer or the general. The Boer generals were not very different from the ordinary soldiers, there was no military education for either of them or others, so they often changed places: the fighter could become a general, and the general could easily be demoted to an ordinary fighter.

In battle, the burgher did not follow the officer, did not execute his decrees, but acted in accordance with the situation and at his discretion. Therefore, the death of the officer did not change anything, the burgher was an officer himself, and if necessary, the general. The role of the officers was simple - to coordinate the actions of the burghers and help them with advice, but no more. In a traditional army, soldiers were accustomed to obey an officer and act only if there was a corresponding order, thus the death of the latter was deprived of the control unit and fettered the fighters.

It was this anarchist spirit that caused the victories and defeats of the Boer’s army.


After the failure of the Jameson raid, the parties switched to military preparations, the British began to concentrate troops on the border with the Boer Republics, troops from all British colonies were forced into South Africa. President of Transvaal Paul Kruger sent an ultimatum, demanding to stop military preparations against the Boer republics during 48 hours, and resolve all disputed issues between the countries with the help of an arbitration court. The British rejected the ultimatum and October 11 1899, the Boer militia units crossed the border of the British provinces of Natal and the Cape Colony. The war has begun.

The lack of clear plans for the campaign, the squabble between the Boer generals, and the prolonged siege of some key cities, in particular Kimberly, the city where Cecil Rhodes himself took refuge, and Mafeking, led by the founder of the scouting movement, Colonel Baden-Powell, bound the main forces of the Boers, and they were unable to develop a further offensive. More precisely, they simply did not know what to do. Historical the chance to occupy the Cape colony and arouse local Boers against the British was irretrievably lost, and the initiative naturally passed to the British, who significantly increased and strengthened their contingent in the region.

Already the first weeks of the war show the relative backwardness of the British army and its inability to effectively combat the Boer commandos, using technically more advanced weapons, fighting in general without uniform, in earthy-colored suits merging with the surrounding terrain. The bright-red British military uniform itself, which in the midst of the battle helped to instantly determine who (friend or foe) next to you after revolutionary improvements in firearms, which improved accuracy and firing range, made the soldier an excellent target for an enemy sniper. In addition, thanks to improvements in shooting accuracy, the maneuverability of troops increases (shot out and retreated) and the aimed fire at enemy soldiers. The columns, in which soldiers of all European armies were traditionally built, no longer fulfilled their original functions. The rifle chains come to replace the columns, allowing you to more effectively fire at the enemy, which also significantly reduces your own losses.

John Denton Pinkston French, 1 Count Ipres, Viscount Ipres and Heileik. Around 1915 of the year. Photo: British Library

The khaki military uniform was first introduced (as an experiment) for individual units of the British colonial forces in India in the second half of the 19th century. As always, the main opponents of the transition to the new uniform were the conservative British military, who did not want to change their current form, but the losses from the use of the classic uniform spoke for themselves and the military gave up. Britain forever abandoned the bright red uniform. New uniforms of the British army has become a cult for the military of the whole world up to the present; so, the classic English military uniform became known as a French jacket, on behalf of the British General John French, one of the participants in the war in South Africa. During the First World War, the French Expeditionary Force will head in France.

Raising the qualitative component, the British did not forget about the quantitative. By the end of 1899, the total number of British troops in the region reaches 120 thousands, then, constantly rising by the end of the war, it reaches 450 thousands. As for the Boer militia, during the entire war its number could hardly have exceeded 60 thousands of fighters.

Gradually, the British push back the commandos from the Cape colony and Natal, transferring the war to the land of the Orange Republic and Transvaal, the Boers losing all major cities - a guerrilla war begins.


Speaking of the Boer War, it is impossible not to mention foreign volunteers. In the literature (especially the British) the participation of foreigners in the Boer War is noticeably exaggerated. Despite the fact that some individual volunteers provided really invaluable assistance to the Boer troops, in general, they did not leave a noticeable trace. Moreover, sometimes they only interfered with the Boer command, trying to teach the Boers the rules of warfare, while the latter considered their tactics and strategy to be as effective as possible under these conditions and did not heed the words of visiting experts.

The first such detachment was the German Legion, almost completely defeated in the battle of Elandslaagte. After this defeat, the Boers did not allow the creation of national volunteer units for a long time, and only the deterioration of the situation on the fronts changed their position. As a result, detachments of American, French, Irish, German, and Dutch volunteers were formed.

Russian volunteers, many of whom were residents of Johannesburg, fought as part of the Boer commandos. At one time, the Russian detachment under the command of Captain Ganetsky acted, but the Russian detachment was only in name. Of the roughly 30 people who fought in the Russian unit, there were less than a third.

In addition to the Russian Johannesburg residents, there were also volunteers who arrived directly from Russia, whose society supported the Boers. The most distinguished lieutenant colonel Evgeny Maximov, who, thanks to his merits, rose to the rank of “combat general”, and during the battles in the Orange Republic even became deputy commander of all foreign volunteers - Vilbua Morel. Subsequently, the “military general” Maximov will be seriously wounded and evacuated to Russia, he will meet his death in 1904 already during the Russian-Japanese war.

It is also worth noting the Italian volunteers Captain Richiardi, who, however, were perceived by the Boers as a predatory gang rather than a combat detachment. Captain Richiardi himself became known for conducting a search of the captive Winston Churchill and found in him the “dum-dum” bullet prohibited by the Hague Convention. It was during the Boer War that Winston Churchill became widely known to the British public thanks to his captivity and escape. Later, at the age of 26, he will be elected to the British Parliament. By the way, the British Dum-Dum bullets will continue to be used, despite their official ban on the Hague Peace Conference in 1899.

Winston Churchill on horseback while working as a journalist in South Africa. 1896 year. Photo: Popperfoto / Getty Images /

Omitting the numerous robberies and robberies perpetrated by this formation, it should be noted the significant contribution of the Italians to the implementation of the sabotage war. They greatly helped the Boers, covering their retreat through the explosions of bridges and the attack on British troops to divert the attention of the latter.

Partisan concentration camps

Already by the autumn of 1900, after the defeat of the main units of the Boer militia and the transfer of the war to the Boer republics, the war passes into a partisan phase that will last two years. Raids of the Boer guerrillas inflicted significant losses on the British. Tactical superiority due to good knowledge of the terrain and the best individual training of the fighters remained with the Boers until the end of the war, but this could not compensate for the overwhelming superiority of the British in men and weapons. In addition, the British used a lot of know-how, including the notorious concentration camps.

They drove the civilian population, whose farms were burned by the British, and cattle and crops were destroyed. Ironically, these camps were called refugee camps - refugee camps. Then they began to send those families that helped the Boer resistance to food, medicine, etc. In total, about 200 thousands of people were gathered in concentration camps - roughly 120 thousands of Boers and 80 thousands of black Africans, for whom separate camps were created.

Unsanitary conditions reigned in all the camps without exception, food was delivered to prisoners irregularly, about a quarter of the inhabitants of these camps died, of which the overwhelming majority were women and children. British men were sent to other colonies in conclusion: to India, to Ceylon, etc.

Another element of the counter-guerrilla war was the large-scale use of blockhouses. The Boers, using classical partisan tactics, made deep raids to the enemy's rear, destroyed communications, carried out sabotage, attacked garrisons, destroyed small British troops and with impunity left.

To counteract such activity, it was decided to cover the territory of the Boer states with a whole network of block-houses. Blockhouse is a small fortified point, involved in covering the most important areas or objects.

The Boer General Christian Devet described this innovation in the following way: “Many of them were made of stone, usually had a round shape, sometimes quadrangular and even multi-faceted. Holes were made in the walls for shooting at a distance of six feet one from another and four feet from the ground. The roof was iron. ”

In total, about eight thousand blockhouses were built. The British began to use telephone communications at the front, and many blockhouses supplied telephones in case of an attack by commandos. When the telephone wires were broken, the staff of the blockhouse reported on the attack using a signal flare.

The use of armored trains played a role in the victory over the Boer partisans who were actively attacking the British routes. These "blockhouses on wheels" consisted of cars of two types - open roofless and with roofs. Also used conventional cars with sides, which are made of steel sheets with embrasures.

The shelter of locomotives was made of two types - either from steel ropes or from steel sheets. Usually the armored train consisted of three or four cars. The conning tower of the commander of the armored train ran into the locomotive tender. To disguise such a train painted in the color of the area. It was very important to provide an inspection of the area from an armored train. For this purpose, special observation towers or even balloons were used. The balloon was attached to the train with a cable that was wound on a winch shaft.

Armored train of the British Army. Between 1899 and 1902 for years. South Africa. Photo: Imperial War Museums

Final and the outcome of the war

Realizing that the map is no longer just a defeat in the war, but the death of an entire nation, the Boer warlords were forced to conclude a peace treaty on May 31. According to him, the Boer republics became part of the British Empire, receiving in return the right to broad self-government and three million pounds sterling in compensation for farms burned by the British during the war.

The magic of the date 31 in May will again affect the Anglo-Boer relationship: 31 in May 1910, Transvaal and Orange unite with the Cape Colony and Natal in the British dominion of the Union of South Africa (SAS), and 31 in May 1961 of the year SAS becomes a completely independent state - South -African Republic.

None of the British generals and military analysts suspected that the war would last so long and take so many lives of British soldiers (about 22 thousand people against eight thousand killed by the Boers), because the enemy of the British Empire was a "bunch of ignorant farmers", as it was declared by the English propaganda. The most interesting thing is that it was the lack of professional military training and basic ideas about the basics of military tactics and strategy that allowed the Boers to defeat the British, who had fought according to the old military canons that had outlived themselves.

However, the lack of a strategic war plan did not allow the Boer militia to achieve victory, although the time for the start of hostilities was chosen very well and the British forces in the region were not enough to repel the attack. The Boers, having no discipline, a proper level of organization and clear plans for the military campaign, failed to take advantage of the fruits of their early victories, but only delayed the war to the advantage of the British side, which managed to concentrate the required number of troops and achieve both a qualitative and numerical advantage over the enemy.

The war in Africa, along with the subsequent Moroccan crisis of 1905 and 1911 and the Bosnian crisis of 1908, had every chance of becoming a world war, as it once again exposed the contradictions between the great powers. Boers and their unequal struggle caused sympathy not only in the competing countries of Great Britain, such as Germany, the USA or Russia, but also in the most foggy Albion. Thanks to Englishwoman Emily Hobhaus in the UK, we learned about concentration camps and the cruel treatment of civilians in South Africa, and the country's authority was seriously undermined.

In the 1901 year, before the end of the war, in South Africa, the legendary Queen Victoria, who ruled the country of the 63 of the year, died, and with it the relatively prosperous Victorian era. The time of great wars and upheavals is coming.
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. fzr1000
    fzr1000 14 August 2014 09: 49
    Interesting. I am familiar with this war from thin. literature- "Captain Rip-head" Bussenar.
    1. BlackJack
      BlackJack 14 August 2014 12: 13
      I also read about ten years old, then I really liked it, unfortunately the book was completely fictional and overly romanticized, the author is still a Frenchman and understandably Englishwoman watered.
  2. omsbon
    omsbon 14 August 2014 10: 27
    The Boers, without discipline, an adequate level of organization, and clear plans for a military campaign, were unable to take advantage of their early victories, but only dragged on the war to the advantage of the British side, which managed to concentrate the necessary number of troops and achieve both qualitative and numerical advantages over the enemy.

    Everything as usual. Without a plan, organization and discipline, there is no victory!
    1. strannik1985
      strannik1985 14 August 2014 18: 37
      There were no options there, the British sooner or later isolated the theater of operations (around British possessions, Portuguese (you can put pressure on), or the Namib desert, through which you can’t carry goods).
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 14 August 2014 11: 27
    For several months, A.I. Guchkov, an honorary justice of the peace, subsequently a member of the Moscow city government, chairman of the State Duma of the Russian Empire, also fought in the ranks of the Boers. In March 1900, due to a serious wound near Johannesburg, he was unable to participate in further hostilities and returned to his homeland.
    For the Russian Ministry of War, the opinion of experienced military specialists was of great interest. Volunteers were sent to Transvaal - engineer of the sapper battalion M.A. Siegern-Korn, fortifier V. Shcheglov, staff captain of the mine company A. Shulzhenko (fought against the British near Blumfonteyn and Dornkop), who served as military advisers. Their reports contained many important technical details. “Military engineers should study all the technical means used to strengthen, defend and attack positions,” said Minister of War A.N. Kurapatkin in a letter to Lieutenant General V. Sakharov. Officers from Russia had a significant impact on the organization of the artillery business of the Boers, the intelligence system, the construction of defensive structures, and the restoration of railway communications. Their experience had a positive effect on the tactics of the use of modern weapons by the Boers, who are not familiar with European military art.
  4. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 14 August 2014 11: 36
    Described in the article is relevant for the English army
    in the next wars (and now). The British often entered
    in wars with outdated weapons and tactics, but after
    the first failures and defeats quickly shifted to
    go, introduced technical innovations and broke through the situation
    in their favor.
    1. 14 August 2014 18: 24
      Quote: voyaka uh
      The British often entered
      in wars with outdated weapons and tactics, but after
      the first failures and defeats quickly shifted to

      Armored trains, machine guns, is that obsolete? The number of crushed Boers.
      "Transvaal, Transvaal, my country
      You are all on fire.
      Under a spreading tree, a brooding brood sat.
      I have ten sons
      Three are already alive
      And they fight for freedom
      Seven young others ... "
  5. cobalt
    cobalt 14 August 2014 11: 55
    This is how the glorious warriors looked - the Boers, who defended their independence from the snickering and brazen English empire.
  6. BlackJack
    BlackJack 14 August 2014 12: 32
    the Boers themselves, as the losing side, and even the British, clearly evoke sympathy and sympathy.
    however, they were also far from angels and the expression "bunch of ignorant farmers" not far from the truth. don't believe ask blacks from south africa!
    The Dutch East India Company imported colonists from the Netherlands to develop and manage their lands in southern Africa. After the Napoleonic wars, these territories finally passed to Great Britain, which deprived the descendants of the Dutch and French colonists, who later formed the Boer people, of self-government, the opportunity to receive education in their native language and impose their ideological guidelines on them.

    In protest, many Boers leave the fertile lands of the Cape Colony. Moving north, they make a great track, or a large resettlement, as a result of which, not without conflict, they occupy the territory of local tribes and establish several states. However, all this happens under the vigilant eye of a "big British brother."

    gold and diamonds, 1000% of profits - this is the reason for this war.
    and the Dutch themselves are not a bit better than the British, especially since they
    The British rejected the ultimatum and on October 11 of 1899, Boer militia units crossed the border of the British provinces of Natal and the Cape Colony. The war has begun.
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 14 August 2014 16: 17
      BlackJack "ask the blacks from South Africa"
      More blacks did not have enough to ask.)))
  7. Analgin
    Analgin 14 August 2014 14: 25
    Impudent versus Slave-Boers. One scum destroys another ... And it's just wonderful! It’s always been like that, and, you see, normal people would have lived a little easier.
  8. Rastas
    Rastas 14 August 2014 17: 42
    The Boers in many countries of the world have always been treated with sympathy; volunteers from Russia, France, and Germany fought on their side. Even as a child, he read the famous story "Captain Daredevil" by Bussenar, which shows the romanticization of the image of the Boers. But everything is not so simple. In fact, the Boers were the same colonialists as the British, they just came to South Africa earlier. as the Americans destroyed the Indians, so the Boers, being fanatical believers and utter racists, destroyed the indigenous population - the Zulu. Yes, weaker than the British, the Boers aroused sympathy, but Conan Doyle, who was a military doctor in that war, and whose son died there, wrote: "It was a war of the bad with the worst."
    1. 14 August 2014 18: 28
      Quote: Rastas
      Conan Doyle, who was a military doctor in that war, and whose son died there, wrote: "It was a war of the bad with the worst."

      And the worst, "of the goats", were the Boers? How are the "terrible Russians who shot down a Malaysian Boeing" now?
  9. barbiturate
    barbiturate 14 August 2014 18: 17
    here you need to be more objective, because the Boers bought excellent weapons in Germany, including Krupp guns, shooting smokeless powder and inflicted several defeats on the British (which the Krupp guns helped a lot), but as soon as they understood who they were dealing with and how to fight, then it all ended very quickly. The order and the regular army, if they begin to REALLY fight, and not pacify or establish constitutional order there, get the upper hand very quickly, but the Boers, of course, were very good fighters and patriots
  10. Analgin
    Analgin 14 August 2014 18: 49
    Quote: Rastas
    Conan Doyle, who was a military doctor in that war, and whose son died there, wrote: "It was a war of the bad with the worst."

    And the worst, "of the goats", were the Boers? How are the "terrible Russians who shot down a Malaysian Boeing" now?

    Think what you are talking about. The comparison is absolutely incorrect, the Boers are essentially no better than the British, the same frostbitten colonialists, and even slave owners. And they got what they deserved. A slave owner, even if he is a patriot at least three times and a sincere believer, still for me remains a scum that should be eradicated. For others to be discouraged.
    1. 14 August 2014 19: 38
      Quote: Analgin
      Think what you are talking about.

      Didn't you drink at brotherhood? Then do not "you" -kite. You can define your "jab" in the "causal place".
      Quote: Analgin
      A slave owner, even if he is a patriot at least three times and a sincere believer, still for me remains a scum that should be eradicated.

      According to your "logic" all Russian monarchs from Fyodor Mikhailovich to Nikolai Alexandrovich, inclusive, would be subject to extermination, making no exceptions for Catherine I, Elizabeth Petrovna and, of course, "Mother Catherine". According to your logic, the Decembrists should also be subjected to the "highest measure of social protection." Alexander Sergeevich himself would not have escaped your punishing hand, too, after all, the peasant woman "used".
      Quote: Analgin
      the Boers are essentially no better than the British, the same frostbitten colonizers,

      Then why on earth did volunteer volunteers fight against the British? (And, most interesting, for the Boer slave owners?).
      1. Rastas
        Rastas 14 August 2014 22: 38
        Why fought on the side of the Boers? It's simple, the volunteers fought not so much because of sympathy for the Boers, but because of hatred of the British, there were, of course, revolutionary warriors who seemed to be going to fight against the British colonialists for the freedom of the people, but they quickly became disappointed, when they realized that the Boers in this regard were no different. Then, do not forget such a factor as sympathy for the weaker. So, for example, during the Polish uprisings in Russia, the sympathies of many Europeans, who did not go too far into the details of what was happening, were also on the side of the weaker Poles.
  11. bionik
    bionik 14 August 2014 22: 27
    Quote: fzr1000
    Interesting. I am familiar with this war from thin. literature- "Captain Rip-head" Bussenar.

    In my youth, I also read on this topic "Peter Maritz, the young drill from the Transvaal"
  12. miv110
    miv110 15 August 2014 08: 53
    This war has long been of interest, but somehow my hands did not get to the literature on this topic. Thanks to the author for the review on this topic!