Franco will come, the order will bring
78 years ago, the Spanish generals revolted against the republican government of President Manuel Asana; political confrontation escalated into civil war
Spain entered the twentieth century in a state of deep crisis, both economic and political. King Alfonso XIII in 1900 was only 14 years old, national minorities demanded autonomy, anarchists preferred words and killed prime ministers they disliked.
The World War I did not have time to end, as the anarcho-syndicalists of Catalonia provoked the strike movement. From 1917 to 1923, Spain experienced 13 government crises, and neither the monarch nor the ruling conservative and liberal parties were able to stabilize the situation.
Captain-General of Catalonia Miguel Primo de Rivera volunteered to restore order in the country, who carried out a coup d'etat in September 1923 and established a military dictatorship. However, Rivera was unable to resolve the main problems facing the country, and he resigned in 1931 year. King Alfonso XIII, with the tacit consent of which the general seized power, was accused of aiding the dictator and left the country, but did not abdicate the throne.
In April, 1931 of the year in all major Spanish cities was won by Republicans in the municipal elections, and a Revolutionary Committee was formed, which assumed the functions of the Provisional Government. Niceto Alcala Zamora became its first chairman. The Constituent Cortes 9 of December 1931 of the year elected in the summer adopted a new constitution that granted Spanish citizens a wide range of rights and freedoms: universal equality, freedom of conscience and religious belief, inviolability of home, secrecy of correspondence, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, freedom of trade, etc. By The constitution of the church was separated from the state, which had very sad consequences for the Spanish Catholics.
Back in the spring, a wave of pogroms swept across the country — pogrom-mongers set fire to monasteries, beat priests and raped nuns. War Minister Manuel Asana did not see anything wrong with what was happening and did not take any measures against the rioters. In October, Zamora resigned, not wanting to agree with a similar attitude towards the church, and Asanya took the post of prime minister.
The interim government could not bring the country out of crisis. The Republican majority was afraid to make too radical decisions in order not to completely lose the support of the nationalists. Despite the fact that the political forces in Spain could be divided into two large camps - left and right, within each of them there were many parties that disagree with each other.
While throughout the country there were strikes, the army elite, clerical circles, landowners and monarchists united in the Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right (CEDA) and received the most mandates in the Constituent Cortes. However, at the end of 1935, the government of the right was forced to resign.
In the next parliamentary elections of February 16, the coalition of the Left Front, Social Democratic and Communist forces, the Popular Front, gained a numerical advantage in the Cortes. Asana, who was listed in the front row of the union, became the president of Spain in a few months.
The Popular Front government began to carry out the nationalization promised by the Republicans as early as the beginning of the 1930s. The sluggish agrarian reform inspired the peasants to seize the landed estates on their own, and the workers continued to live in poverty and strike.
The top army had long disliked Asana’s anti-militarist policy of reducing military spending, reducing military pensions, closing the Zaragoza military academy, and canceling service advantages for the military serving in Morocco and in other African territories of Spain.
Political clashes (sometimes fatal) between Republicans and nationalists escalated into a popular confrontation between workers and Catholics. In Madrid, a rumor was spread that the priests were treating the children of the proletarians with poisoned sweets, after which the angry mob set off again to burn the monasteries and kill the clergymen.
The organizers of the looming rebellion against the Republicans were Generals José Sanhurho, Emilio Mola and Francisco Franco. Sanrurho still in the 1932 year, tried to raise a rebellion against Asanya, for which he was expelled to Portugal. This did not prevent him from uniting conservative-minded officers into the Spanish Military Union (ITT). The rebel coordinator became the commander of the Navarre Maul, who drew up a detailed action plan, according to which right-wing forces would simultaneously rise in all major cities in 17: 00 17 in July 1936. The main mission was entrusted to the Moroccan troops and the Spanish Legion, assisted by the militia of Castilian and Navarre monarchists, as well as the Spanish Phalanx party founded by the son of former dictator José Antonio Prima de Rivera and the National Guard.
In the Moroccan city of Melilla, the uprising began an hour earlier, because the officers were afraid that their plans would be revealed. In the Canary Islands, anti-government speeches were led by General Franco. On the morning of July 18, 1936, he spoke on the radio, explaining the motives and goals of the conspirators. “The unconscious revolutionary ideas of the masses, deceived and exploited by Soviet agents, are imposed on the evil intent and disorder of the authorities at all levels,” said the future dictator, promising the Spaniards social justice and equality of all before the law.
In the meantime, the control of the Carabinerés Gonzalo Keipo de Llano, who had suddenly joined the nationalists, established control over Seville. By July 19, 14 thousands of officers and about 150 thousands of soldiers had already taken the side of the rebels. The putschists successfully captured Cadiz, Cordoba, Navarre, Galicia, Morocco, the Canary Islands and some other southern territories.
Prime Minister Casares Quiroga had to resign, but the leader of the Republican Party, Diego Martinez Barrio, who had taken his place, only lasted eight hours at the post, and before the end of the day the head of government changed again. Left liberal José Giral immediately authorized the issuance of free weapons all supporters of the Republic. The previously helpless militia finally managed to resist the rebellious military, and the government was allowed to retain control over many important cities: Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Bilbao and Malaga. Republicans were supported by 8500 officers and more 160 000 soldiers.
General Sanhurho was to return to Spain on July 20 and lead the rebellion, but his plane crashed over Portuguese Estoril. The main reason for the catastrophe is considered to be excessively heavy baggage, which the general loaded the plane with - Sanhurho was going to become a Spanish leader and wanted to dress well.
The uprising needed a new leader, and the nationalists established the National Defense Junta, chaired by General Miguel Cabanellas. The junta ruled to endow General Franco with all military and political power. By the end of July, the newly-minted Generalissimo enlisted the support of Portugal, fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Republicans turned to France for help, but she declared her non-intervention. In August, the majority of European countries came to the same decision. When is German aviation broke through the naval blockade of Morocco, many thousands of African army surged in to help the nationalists.
After a series of defeats, Giral 4 September resigned. His place was taken by the head of the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), Largo Caballero. He formed a new “Government of Victory”, announced the creation of a regular People’s Army, and also established contacts with the Communists abroad. The result of these negotiations was the creation in October 1936 of the international teams, which were formed from foreign volunteers. 80% of them were communists and socialists from France, Poland, Italy, Germany and the USA. The actual commander of the international teams became the Frenchman Andre Marti. Active military-technical support to the legitimate government of Spain provided the Soviet Union.
In February, 1937, Franco, with the support of the Italians, captured Malaga and began to prepare for the siege of Madrid. The battle for the capital began in November, but the republican army and the Soviet aviation fought hard. Even after winning the battle of Guadalajara in March 1937, and numerous attempts to besiege the city, there was no hope of a quick takeover of Madrid. Then the nationalists decided to deal with the industrial north for the time being, and General Mola led his troops to the storming of Asturias, Bilbao and Santander. 26 April 1937, the Spanish nationalists on German aircraft bombed the ancient capital of the Basque Country - Guernica. News that the Franco destroyed the peaceful city could have deprived Franco of the last support, and in the future his actions were more cautious.
At the beginning of June, the jetty crashed into a mountain, and the general was killed. Franco was the only leader of the uprising. Taking into account the similar circumstances of the death of Sanhurkho, some historians believe that both catastrophes were not accidents, but no evidence was found for this.
After a heavy bombardment and shelling of Navarre 19 on June 1937, the Basque Republic fell. After the capture of the capital of the province of Cantabria, the port of Santander, the Francoist army began to attack Asturias. By the end of October, the entire north coast was in the hands of the Franco.
In April 1938, the nationalists reached the Mediterranean, dividing Republican troops into two parts. Republicans did not give up their positions for more than three months, but 1 of August forced them to retreat. By mid-November, they were completely driven back across the Ebro River. During the battles, francists lost 33 thousands of people killed and wounded, while supporters of the republic lost 70 thousands killed, wounded and captured. The efficiency of the government, now headed by the moderate socialist Juan Negrin, was undermined.
At the end of January 1939, the nationalists seized Barcelona, and with it all Catalonia. A month later, France and England recognized the government of Franco. On March 26, an anti-communist uprising began in Madrid, and this time the republican forces were no longer able to resist. The Spanish Civil War ended with the entry of Franco forces into Madrid and the official recognition of the new government by the United States. Having come to power, Francisco Franco banned all parties except the Spanish Phalanx, and established a dictatorship in the country for decades.
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