Military Review

Poet partisans. Denis V. Davydov

12



“Not jokingly, although it is indecent to talk about myself, I belong to the most poetic persons of the Russian army, not as a poet, but as a warrior; the circumstances of my life give me the right to do this ... "
D.V. Davydov


Denis Davydov was born 16 July 1784, in the city of Moscow. The Davydov family belonged to one of the oldest noble families. Many of his ancestors for the faithful service of the kings were granted by patrimonies, served as voivods and stolniki. Denis's grandfather, Denis Vasilievich, was one of the most enlightened people of his era, had a huge library, knew several languages, and made friends with Mikhail Lomonosov. Denis's father, Vasily Denisovich, served as commander of the Poltava Light Regiment and was married to the daughter of Kharkiv and Voronezh Governor General Evdokim Shcherbinin. The Davydov family owned a number of estates in the Orenburg, Oryol and Moscow provinces. Vasily Denisovich was famous for his wit and cheerful character and often met with prominent public and military figures of the Catherine period. Elena Evdokimovna was fifteen years younger than her spouse, but she always looked at him with adoration and rarely separated from him. In total, they had four children: sons Denis, Evdokim, Leo and daughter Alexander.

Denis's childhood years were beautiful - his father loved and pampered his eldest son, and he looked at all the leprosy and mischief. Most of Davydov's childhood was spent in Ukraine, in the military camps of Poltava region. Almost every evening, regimental officers, including veterans of the Suvorov campaigns, gathered in his father’s office. Their conversations were often confined to discussing battles won by the legendary commander, as well as personal memories of him. During these friendly conversations, the eldest son of Davydovs was always present - a snub-nosed and brown-eyed boy, with eager curiosity listening stories about Alexander Vasilyevich.

Together with his brother Evdokim, Denis had two educators - adopted by the mother of a small and plump Frenchman Charles Fremont and assigned at the insistence of the father of an elderly and sedate Don Cossack Philip Yezhov. The Frenchman taught the boys his language, noble manners, dancing, music, and drawing, while Philip Mikhailovich introduced them to military affairs, and taught them to ride horses. Denis grew up a quick and inquisitive boy, quickly learned to write and read, was distinguished by an excellent memory, he danced not badly, but the manner in which Fremon taught him was not given to him. The mentor told his mother: “A capable boy, however, he has no endurance, no patience.”

In the autumn of 1792, Vasily Davydov received unexpected news - the commander-in-chief of the entire Ekaterinoslav Corps, which included his Poltava Light Regiment, was appointed General-General Alexander Suvorov. In May of the next year, Poltavians, as usual, moved to the summer camp on the Dnieper. Battle marches and exercises were held here around the clock. Denis, who dreamed of Suvorov, persuaded his father to take him and his brother to his camp. They did not have to wait long, one night Alexander Vasilyevich arrived at them. After checking the regiment, Suvorov had dinner with the senior Davydov. When the colonel’s sons were introduced to the commander, he crossed them with a kind smile and suddenly asked, turning to Denis: “My friend, do you like soldiers?” Denis did not lose his head: “I love Count Suvorov. Everything is in it: the victory, the glory, and the soldiers! ”The commander laughed:“ How daring! A military man will be ... "

Soon after the memorable visit of Suvorov, Davydov Sr. received the rank of brigadier and was already preparing to take under his leadership the cavalry division, stationed near Moscow. However, in November 1796 passed away Catherine II, and her son Pavel ascended to the throne, referring to the favorites of the mother extremely hostile. Anyone who was associated with the figures of the deceased Empress - acquaintance, friendship, kinship - also suffered opal. Vasily Denisovich received sad news almost every day. His brother Vladimir was exiled from Petersburg, another brother Leo was dismissed from service, his nephew Alexander Kakhovsky was arrested, his nephew Alexey Ermolov was imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress. Davydov Sr. felt that his thunderstorm did not pass. And do not be deceived. In his part was carried out a thorough audit. The auditors counted for the regimental commander of almost one hundred thousand government money, removed him from office and determined to put on trial. The position of the Davydov family deteriorated sharply. From the old way of life, from most of the old habits had to be abandoned. Having lost most of the estates, their family moved to Moscow.

Denis at the time was already the fifteenth year. Despite his small stature, the young man was firmly built, he hardened himself in every possible way - he poured cold water over him, he got up a little light, slept on a hard bed. He dreamed of a military career, he learned to shoot straight, and he rode on horses no worse than experienced cavalrymen. Even the stern father often admired his daring landing.

Ivan Turgenev, a real Privy Councilor, stood out among the Moscow friends of Vasily Denisovich with his education and intelligence. Denis, on the other hand, made good friends with his eldest sons, Alexander and Andrey, who were studying at the Moscow university boarding school. The brothers were sociable, they liked to debate on philosophical and literary topics, Derzhavin, Dmitriev and Chemnitzer read by heart, showed Denis the almanacs of Karamzin. Andrei Turgenev himself tried to compose, and once Denis was introduced to a young but already well-known poet Vasily Zhukovsky. The glory of the modest boy - his peer - hurt Denis Vasilievich's pride. He first aroused interest in poetry, there was a passionate desire to try his hand in this field. For two weeks he diligently comprehended the poetic wisdom. As he himself admitted, sometimes it seemed to him that there was nothing simpler than putting words into smooth stanzas, but all he had to do was take a pen in his hands, and thoughts disappeared somewhere, and the words fluttered before my eyes like butterflies.

Denis Vasilievich strongly doubted the quality of his first poems, composed about a certain shepherdess Lisa, and therefore he was ashamed to submit them to the strict court of the Turgenev brothers. After much deliberation, he decided to show them to one Zhukovsky, with whom he was already firmly friends. After reading the poems, Vasily Andreevich sadly shook his head: “I don’t want to upset you, but I cannot turn my heart. Not a single poetic line in them. But listening to your stories about the war, I clearly see that poetic imagination is not alien to you. Dear Denis, you need to write about close things, not about lambs ... ”. Poet Davydov hid, Zhukovsky took advice and secretly continued to compose from everyone. In addition, he did not stop stubbornly replenish their own military knowledge. I read and talked a lot with veterans of past wars, who often visited his father.

In May, 1800 passed away Alexander Suvorov. This news stunned Denis Vasilievich. The young man’s grief was immense, and his military career no longer seemed so enticing as before - he never dreamed of prancing on Tsarskoye Selo parade ground in front of dignitaries in German uniforms. However, at the end of the same year Davydov Sr., having been in St. Petersburg, managed to enroll his eldest son as a guard, and in the spring of 1801, Denis went to the Northern capital.

28 September 1801 Davydov was accepted into the cavalier guard regiment in the rank of standard-cadet, a year later they were made into cornets, and in November 1803 - as lieutenants. The white cavalier's uniform, embroidered in gold, was attractive and handsome, but it was not easy to wear it to a nobleman, limited in means and connections. Comrades Denis mostly belonged to rich and noble families, lived indiscriminately and carelessly, had beautiful apartments, trips, boasted revels and women. Denis Vasilievich had to live only on his salary. Possessing a hot-tempered character, troubles waited for him at every turn, but Davydov himself was well aware of this. From the very beginning, he firmly established certain rules of behavior for himself - he did not borrow money, avoided gamblers, drank a little at parties and captivated his comrades with anecdote stories, as well as the independence of his judgments. Pavel Golenishchev-Kutuzov, who was the regimental commander, spoke of him as an "executive officer." Other horse guards also adhered to the views that their "little Denis", albeit too thrifty, but in general, a glorious fellow.

In 1802, Vasily Denisovich died, and all the worries about the house, as well as the father’s private and public debts, fell on Denis’s shoulders. The only village of Davydov, Borodino, brought very little income, and no one in the family thought to ask for help from wealthy relatives — no pride allowed. After some thought, the Davydovs found another way out - the middle son Evdokim, who works for a penny in the archive of foreign affairs, agreed to get a guard. In this case, the brothers hoped to jointly pay off over time the debts, while Lev, Alexandra and their mother had to live on Borodino’s income.

Simultaneously with the service, Davydov continued to compose poems. In the autumn of 1803, Denis Vasilievich wrote the first fable entitled “Head and Feet”. With incredible speed, his work, which ridiculed the first persons of the state, scattered throughout the city - it was read in the guards' barracks, in the grand salons, in government chambers. The literary success inspired the twenty-year-old cavalier guard, his second work - the fable "The River and the Mirror" - was scattered even faster, prompting broad rumors. But the fable Eagle, Turukhtan and Grouse, written in 1804, became the most accusatory and audacious, containing hints of the murder of Pavel offensive to Emperor Alexander I. The action of the third fable in the society was overwhelming, disciplinary action fell on Davydov one by one. In the end, the sovereign thunder broke out - 13 of September 1804 Denis Vasilievich was expelled from the cavalry regiment and sent to the rank of captain in the newly formed Belarusian army hussar regiment, stationed in the Kiev province. It is curious that with the horse guard in this way they acted extremely rarely and only for major faults, for example, for embezzlement or cowardice in battle. Fables, written in his youth, for life have secured for Denis Vasilyevich the reputation of an unreliable person.

Service among the hussars liked the young poet. In the autumn of 1804, he wrote a verse “Burtsova. Summoning to the punch ", who became the first of the" hussar poems "Davydov, who glorified him. Bortsov, the daring hussar-poves, very remotely resembling its prototype, became a new literary hero of Denis Vasilievich. No one better than Davydov was able to poetize the hussar life with its carefree boldness, good companionship, dashing run-ins and ukharskim leprosy. The “Burtsov” cycle marked the beginning of the “hussar theme” not only in Russian literature, but also in everyday life and culture. In his subsequent “zachashnyh” and “stray” verses, Denis Vasilyevich sang the feats of kings and commanders in light and unconstrained style, preserving various shades of lively speech, and created pictorial images of military people — straightforward, alien to secular conventions, devoted to simple joys of life and patriotic to duty.

The only thing that did not suit Davydov among the dashing hussars was that his part did not take part in the battles during the first war with Napoleon. In the 1805 year, the Russian emperor, after effectively eliminating Mikhail Kutuzov, together with the Austrian general Franz von Weirother, gave a general battle at Austerlitz. Despite the valor and heroic efforts of the Russian troops on the battlefield, the battle, thanks to the incompetent leadership, was lost. Napoleon, having seized the initiative, began to crowd the Russian forces, trying bypass maneuvers to cut them off from communications with Russia and supply lines. By the way, Denis's brother - Evdokim Davydov, who left the civil service, fighting in the ranks of the Horse Guards near Austerlitz, covered himself with glory. He was seriously wounded, receiving five saber, one bayonet and one bullet wound, but survived and, after being in captivity, he returned to the army.

In July, 1806, Davydov was notified that he was transferred to the Guard, namely, to the Leib Hussars in the former rank of lieutenant. However, fate continued to laugh at him. The new war, and the Belarusian regiment, from which Denis Vasilyevich had just emerged, was sent on a campaign to Prussia, and the guard, where he found himself, this time remained in place. All requests to send him to the army were in vain.
The poet’s desire to get on the battlefield came true only in January, 1807, when he was appointed adjutant to Prince Peter Bagration - the best general of our army, according to Napoleon Bonaparte. 15 January 1807 Denis Vasilievich was promoted to headquarters and arrived in the town of Morungen at the time of the Russian army’s campaign. It is curious that at one time in one of the poems the young poet ridiculed the long Georgian nose of Peter Ivanovich, and therefore was justly afraid of meeting him. The fears were fully justified as soon as Davydov entered the tent, Bagration introduced him to his surroundings in this way: "But the one who was laughing at my nose." However, Denis Vasilievich did not blur, he immediately replied that he wrote about the nose of the prince only out of envy, since he himself has practically no nose. Davydov's answer was liked by Bagration, which determined their good relations for a long time. Later, when Peter Ivanovich was told that the enemy was “on the nose,” he smiled and asked: “On whose nose?” If on my own, then you can still have dinner, but if on Denisovoi, then by horse. ”

The first baptism of fire took place for Davydov on January 24 in a skirmish under Wolfsdorf. There, for the first time, in his own words, he was “fumigated with gunpowder” and was nearly captured by the Cossacks who had come to the rescue. In the battle of Preisish-Eylau 27 in January, Denis Vasilievich fought at the most responsible and at the same time the most dangerous sections. One moment of the battle, according to Bagration, was won only thanks to the actions of Davydov, who alone rushed to the French lancers, who, pursuing him, missed the moment of the attack of the Russian hussars. For this fight, Peter Ivanovich granted him a burka and a trophy horse, and in April Denis Vasilyevich received a rescript about awarding him with the Order of St. Vladimir of the fourth degree.

24 May Davydov participated in the Battle of Gutstadt, 29 May - in the battle of the Prussian city of Geilsberg, and 2 June - in the battles of Friedland, which ended in a crushing defeat of the Russian army and accelerated the signing of the Peace Treaty of Tilzi. In all battles, Denis Vasilievich was distinguished by exceptional courage, recklessness and inconceivable luck. He was awarded the Order of St. Anne of the second degree, as well as the golden saber, on which was written "For courage." At the very end of the campaign, the poet warrior saw Napoleon himself. When in Tilsit they made peace between the Russian and French emperors, Bagration, referring to the illness, refused to go and sent Denis Vasilyevich instead of himself. Davydov also seriously experienced the events that were taking place, which, in his opinion, strongly affected the national pride of the Russian people. He recalled how, at the very beginning of the negotiations, a certain Perigoff, a messenger of the French, arrived at our headquarters, who, in the presence of Russian generals, did not take off the headdress and generally held himself with defiant impudence. Davydov exclaimed: “My God! What a feeling of indignation and malice poured over the hearts of our young officers - witnesses of this scene. At that time there was not a single cosmopolitan between us, we were all Orthodox Russians, of an old spirit and upbringing, for whom insulting the honor of the Fatherland was the same as insulting our own honor. ”

As soon as the thunders crashed on the fields of East Prussia, as the war began in Finland, Denis Vasilievich and Bagration went there. He said: "It still smelled of burnt powder, that was my place." In the spring and summer of 1808 in northern Finland, he commanded the vanguard of the detachment of the famous General Yakov Kulnev, who said, “Mother Russia is so good that in some place it’s fighting.” Davydov went to dangerous raids, set up pickets, supervised the enemy, shared harsh food with the soldiers, and slept on the straw in the open. At the same time, for the first time, his work was published on the pages of the Vestnik Evropy magazine, an elegy “Treaties”. In February, the 1809 High Command decided to transfer the war to the territory of Sweden itself, for which the Bagration detachment was ordered to cross the ice of the Gulf of Bothnia, seize the Aland Islands and go to the Swedish coast. In search of fame and battles, as well as seeking to be as close as possible to the enemy, Davydov hastened to return to Bagration, distinguishing himself during the seizure of the island of Bene.

The war ended in Finland, and 25 July 1809, Denis Vasilievich, as adjutant of Prince Bagration, went with him to Turkey to the Moldavian army and participated in the battles of the capture of Girsov and Machin, in the battles of Rasevat and Tataritsy, during the siege of Silistra. At the beginning of the next year, having been on vacation in Kamenka, already the guard, the captain, Denis Davydov, asked the authorities to transfer him again to General Yakov Kulnev. Their relationship, according to the poet himself, "reached a true, one might say, intimate friendship," which lasted a lifetime. Under the leadership of this brave and experienced warrior, Davydov completed the “course” of the advance service, started back in Finland, and also learned the price of Spartan life for everyone who dared “not to play with the service, but to bear it”.

In May, 1810, Denis Vasilievich took part in taking the fortress of Silistria, and 10-11 June distinguished himself in a battle under the walls of Šumly, for which he was awarded diamond signs to the Order of St. Anne. July 22 Davydov participated in the unsuccessful assault on Ruschuk, and soon after that he returned to Bagration again. All this time Davydov continued to write poems. He said: “In order to write poems, a storm is necessary, a thunderstorm, it is necessary that our boat be beaten”. Denis Vasilievich wrote his works both before the battle, and after the battle, at the fire and “at the glow of fire”, wrote with such enthusiasm, like, probably, none of the poets of that time. No wonder Peter Vyazemsky compared his "ardent poems" with traffic jams, escaping from bottles of champagne. Davydov's works inspired and amused the military, made even the wounded smile.

With the advent of 1812, when the new war with Napoleon had already become apparent, the guard captain Davydov asked him to transfer him to the Akhtyrka hussars, as this part belonged to the advanced ones preparing for future military operations against the French. His request was granted, in April of the same year, Denis Vasilyevich, with the rank of lieutenant colonel, arrived in the Akhtyrsky regiment, stationed in the vicinity of Lutsk. There he received his first regimental battalion, which included four squadrons. All summer Davydov spent participating in the rearguard operations of the second Western army. The Russian forces, retreating from the Neman, united under the city of Smolensk and continued their retreat to Borodino. Seeing himself useful in rearguard affairs of no more than an ordinary hussar, five days before the battle of Borodino, Denis Vasilyevich presented to Peter Bagration a report in which he asked to give one thousand cavalrymen at his disposal in order to attack the rear of Bonapart’s army, to select and eliminate the enemy’s food transports, to destroy bridges. By the way, the first partisan detachment during World War 1812 of the year was organized thanks to Barclay de Tolly on July 22. The idea of ​​Mikhail Bogdanovich borrowed from the Spanish partisans, with whom Napoleon could not cope until they decided to join the regular army. Davydov's idea of ​​creating a partisan detachment appealed to Prince Bagration, he reported it to Mikhail Kutuzov, who also agreed with the proposal, however, instead of thousands of people, because of the danger of the enterprise, he allowed to use a little more than a hundred horsemen (80 Cossacks and 50 hussars). Order Bagration about the organization of the "volatile" partisan detachment was one of his last orders before the famous battle in which the commander received a mortal wound.
25 August Davydova, together with his cavalry departed to the enemy rear. Many considered his “flying” squad to be doomed and escorted as to death. However, the partisan war turned out to be a native element for Denis Vasilievich. His first actions were limited to the space between Vyazma and Gzhatyu. Here he was awake at night, and during the day, hiding in the woods and gorges, he was engaged in the extermination of transports, carts and small detachments of the enemy army. Denis Vasilievich hoped for the support of local residents, but he did not initially receive it. Seeing the approaching cavalrymen Davydov, local residents either fled from them into the forest, or clutched at the pitchfork. On one of the first nights, his people got into an ambush arranged by the peasants, and the squad leader almost died. All this happened because in the villages we did not very easily distinguish similar Russian and French military uniforms, besides many of our officers preferred to speak among themselves French. Soon Denis Vasilievich decided to change his military uniform to a peasant army armor, removed the Order of St. Anne, let go of his beard. After that, mutual understanding improved - the peasants helped the guerrillas with food, gave them the latest news about the movements of the French, and worked as guides.

The attacks of Davydov's partisans, aimed primarily at enemy communications, had a strong impact on his offensive capabilities, and then, after the onset of frost, and at the end of the entire campaign. Davydov's successes convinced Michal Kutuzov of the importance of the guerrilla war, and soon the commander-in-chief began to send them reinforcements, which gave Denis Vasilievich the opportunity to carry out larger operations. In mid-September, at Vyazma, partisans attacked a large transport convoy. Several hundred French soldiers and officers were captured, captured by 12 artillery and 20 provisions vehicles. Another great deed of Davydov was the battle near the village of Lyakhovo, in which he, together with other partisan detachments, defeated the two-thousand French brigade of General Jean-Pierre Augereau; destruction of the cavalry depot under the town of Kopys; disperse the enemy unit near Belynichy and the occupation of the city of Grodno.

The French emperor hated Davydov’s partisans, and ordered Denis Vasilyevich himself to be shot on the spot. However, his squad was elusive. Striking a blow, he instantly crumbled into small groups, which after some time gathered in a designated place. In order to capture the legendary hussar, the French created a special squad consisting of two thousand horsemen. However, Denis Vasilyevich happily avoided a collision with the strongest opponent. October 31 1813 daring warrior for the differences made the colonels, and on December 12 the sovereign sent the Order of St. George of the fourth degree to Davydov and the third degree of St. Vladimir.

After the enemy was thrown out of the borders of our Fatherland, the "flying" detachment of Davydov was seconded to the corps of General Ferdinand Wintzingerode. However, now it was no longer a partisan detachment, but one of the vanguards preceding the movement of the advanced corps. The sharp turn from the free movement to the measured transitions along the charts, together with the prohibition to fight the enemy without special permission, did not appeal to Davydov. As part of the Wintzingerode forces, his detachment participated in the Battle of Kalisch, and in March 1813, invading Saxony, occupied the suburb of Dresden - Neustadt. Three days after that, Denis Vasilievich was put under house arrest, since he conducted the operation without an order, without permission. Soon the field marshal ordered Davydov to be released, but by that time his detachment had already been disbanded, and Denis Vasilievich remained in the position of captain, who had lost his ship. Later, he was appointed commander of the Akhtyrka Hussars, the regiment of which he completed the 1814 campaign of the year.

In the operations of 1813-1814, Davydov was different in every battle, confirming his own words: "My name sticks out in all wars, like a Cossack peak." During these years he did not write poetry, but legends throughout Europe were made up of his luck and courage. In the liberated cities, many citizens came out to meet the Russian soldiers, wishing to see the very "Hussar Davydov - the French thunderstorm."

It is noteworthy that Denis Vasilievich - a hero of the Patriotic War and an active participant in the battles of Laratier, Leipzig and Craon - for all the campaigns abroad did not receive a single award. He even had an unprecedented incident when, during the battle of Laratier (20 in January of 1814), he was sent to major general, and after a while they announced that this production had taken place by mistake. Davydov had to put on the colonel's epaulettes again, and the general's rank was returned to him only on December 21 1815.

After the end of the war in the military career of Denis Vasilievich troubles began. At first he was put in charge of the dragoon brigade stationed near Kiev. The poet called the dragoon infantry, mounted on horses, but was forced to obey. Some time later, a too independent chief was transferred to the Oryol province to serve as commander of the cavalry-jaeger brigade. For a war veteran who had been on the verge of death many times, this was a tremendous humiliation. He refused this appointment, arguing in a letter to the emperor that he was not supposed to wear a mustache to the huntsmen in uniform, but he was not going to shave off his own. Waiting for the king to answer, Denis Vasilievich was preparing for his resignation, but the sovereign forgave him these words, returning the rank of major general.

After returning from Europe, Denis Vasilievich became the hero of a whole series of poems. "Poet, sissy and fun" he was a suitable object for expressive effusions. The poems of the very same “swordsmen”, on the contrary, became more restrained and lyrical. In 1815, Davydov was accepted into the literary circle “Arzamas”, but the poet himself, apparently, did not take any part in his activities.

Starting from 1815, Denis Vasilievich changed many duty stations, he was at the head of the second cavalry division, the head of the second hussar division, was the brigade commander of the first brigade of the same division, head of the seventh infantry corps, head of the third infantry corps, head of the third infantry corps, chief of the third infantry corps, chief of the third infantry corps, chief of the third infantry corps, and the third infantry unit of the building and the third infantry building of the third building infantry unit. And in the spring of 1819 Davydov married with the daughter of Major-General Chirkov - Sophia Nikolaevna. It is curious that their wedding was almost upset after the bride's mother learned about the “sweet songs” of the future son-in-law. She immediately ordered to deny Denis Vasilievich, as a cardholder, a mess and a drunkard. The situation was safely resolved thanks to the comrades of her late husband, who explained that Major General Davydov did not play cards, drank a little, and everything else was just poetry. Subsequently, Denis Vasilievich and Sophia Nikolaevna had nine children - five sons and three daughters.

In November, 1823, due to illness, Denis Vasilyevich was dismissed from service. He lived mainly in Moscow, taking up the compilation of memories of the guerrilla war, trying to show its value to the success of the strategic operations of entire armies. These notes resulted in real scientific works under the title "Guerrilla Diary" and "Experience of the theory of guerrilla actions." By the way, Davydov's prose is no less peculiar than his poems; besides, he was also a strong satirist. The Russian writer Ivan Lazhechnikov said: "He will throw a lasso into his mockery, that one rolls over from his horse." Nevertheless, Denis Vasilievich did not become a written writer, he did not see his vocation in this and said: "I am not a poet, I am a partisan-Cossack ...".

However, there was no new war on the horizon. Twice Yermolov asked to appoint Denis Vasilyevich commander of the troops in the Caucasus, but he was refused. Meanwhile, people who knew Davydov, said that this was an important slip. The Caucasian line demanded a resolute and intelligent man, capable not only of fulfilling other people's designs, but of creating his own behavior. Denis Vasilievich’s civil life lasted until 1826. The new Tsar Nicholas I on the day of the coronation invited him to return to active service. Of course, the answer was yes. In the summer of the same year, Davydov left for the Caucasus, where he was appointed as interim chief of Russian troops on the border of the Erivan khanate. On September 21, his troops in the Mirak tract defeated Gassan Khan’s four-thousand-strong squadron, and on September 22 entered the lands of the Khanate. However, due to the impending winter, Davydov turned back and began building a small fortress in Jalal-Ogly. And after the snow fell in the mountains and the passes became inaccessible for the Persian gangs, Denis Vasilyevich’s detachment was disbanded, and he went to Tiflis.

Returning from the Caucasus, the poet lived with his family in his estate in Simbirsk province. He often visited Moscow. Months of agonizing inaction flowed out again for him, even more responsive to him, because after the Persian war the Turkish war began, and he was deprived of participation in it. Only in 1831, he was once again called to the military field in connection with the rebellion that broke out in Poland. March 12 Davydov arrived at the main apartment of the Russian troops, and was deeply moved by the reception he was given. Old and young, familiar and unfamiliar officers and soldiers greeted Davydov with undisguised joy. He took the leadership of the three Cossack regiments and one dragoon. 6 April, his detachment took the attack Vladimir-Volynsky, destroying the forces of the rebels. Then he, along with the detachment of Tolstoy to the fortress of Zamost, pursued the corps of Khrzhanovsky, and then commanded the forward detachments in the Ridiger corps. In September, 1831 he returned to Russia and already forever "hung his sword on the wall."

The last years of his life Denis Vasilievich spent in the village of Verkhnyaya Maza, which belonged to his wife. Here he continued to write poetry, read a lot, hunted, was engaged in housekeeping and raising children, corresponded with Pushkin, Zhukovsky, Walter Scott and Vyazemsky. 22 April 1839 Denis Davydov died on the fifty-fifth year of his life from an apoplexy. His ashes were buried in the cemetery of the Novodevichy Convent in the capital of Russia.

According to the materials of the books of N. A. Zadonsky "Denis Davydov" and A.G. Makarov "Russian in the Caucasus. Epoch of Yermolov and Paskevich "
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  1. borisjdin1957
    borisjdin1957 31 July 2014 09: 13 New
    +2
    from the Don.
    When mentioning the name Denis, I would like to add Davydov, although the person has a different surname. D.V.Davydov deserved the name of this surname with his whole life and his memory will always live.
  2. drop
    drop 31 July 2014 09: 18 New
    +1
    I published a story about Count M. Miloradovich, who loved Davydov. The fact that at one time Dayvydov was the commandant of Pavlovsk was missed. Miloradovich even took Davydov with him to a meeting with Murat, when after the battle of Borodino he managed to conclude a truce with the French for 2 days. Kutuzov’s army was saved. Another distinctive feature of Davydov was that he did not teach his young hussars to kill the enemy in groups of retreating Frenchmen. Miloradovich forbade him to do this, and the rest of the commanders secretly used such techniques to develop composure and hatred of the enemy. I have the honor.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 31 July 2014 10: 00 New
    +1
    Meanwhile, people who knew Davydov said that this was an important blunder.
    But really, with the partisans, partisans had to fight ..
  4. Dragon-y
    Dragon-y 31 July 2014 11: 49 New
    +1
    In one of the documentary films about special forces, a book is mentioned by Davydov - about the methods of partisan warfare. It is said to be still "secret". If so, then for some reason they did not mention this in the article. "Vulture" interfered?
    1. Gato
      Gato 31 July 2014 16: 20 New
      +1
      Quote: Dragon-y
      It is said to be still "secret".

      No, not a secret one. Although it is considered the first serious theoretical work on guerrilla tactics.
      I have the "Diary of Partisan Actions of 1812" on my flash drive.
  5. xan
    xan 31 July 2014 13: 12 New
    +6
    and where in the article about the fact that he despised the hypocrisy of Europe, laughed at their allegations of the victory of winter over Napoleon, and promised on occasion to once again bury the trap in the fields of Russia. I tried to argue with European correspondence journalists, until I realized that there was no question of truth and reality.
    Our he, the Mordovian, the Mongolian-kats.ap, a padded jacket well and further on the list.
    If Davydov and Pushkin are for us, then who is against us?
    Monsters like Makarevich and Akhedzhakova, fit
  6. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 31 July 2014 19: 21 New
    0
    They shot a beautiful film about him, one of my favorites. Only he is not about Davydov, but rather on the topic ... a young, cheerful lad picked up for war. But the partisan is a hardened, iron veteran. Member of many campaigns. experienced, smart, cunning like foxes ... and yes, undisciplined. Like all the best soldiers.
  7. Ols76
    Ols76 1 August 2014 06: 17 New
    +1
    Eternal glory to the hussar Davydov and the storm of the French!
  8. HAM
    HAM 1 August 2014 19: 47 New
    +1
    THERE IS A TRUE HERO, SOUL it is PLEASANT THAT I AM HIS COMPLETE!
  9. papont64
    papont64 5 August 2014 10: 52 New
    0
    For God's sake, give me the phone!
    Put the bottles in front of us
    Call all riders
    With a twisted mustache!
    To rattle here in chorus
    Hussar Squadron Volatile,
    So that I flew to heaven
    I am in their mighty arms;
    To the walls from cheers
    And trembling and trembling! ..
    It would be better if they screamed in the field ...
    But others throated:
    "And the time will come before us!"
    Burtsev, brother, what a vast expanse!
    The punch is cruel! .. Chorus rattles!
    Burtsev, I drink your health:
    Be a hussar, a century drunk and full!
    Pont how you pont
    Flank as you flank;
    Cheer up in peace days
    And in battles download-play!
    Life flies: don't be ashamed
    Don't wake her flight
    Drink, love and have fun! -
    Here is my friendly advice.
  10. papont64
    papont64 5 August 2014 10: 53 New
    +2



    Full text of the poem:

    I love the bloody fight
    I was born for royal service!
    Saber, vodka, hussar horse,
    I have a golden age with you!
    I love the bloody fight
    I was born for royal service!
    I'm glad for you
    Our mother Russia!
    Let the Frenchies rotten
    Come back to us!
    I'm glad for you
    Our mother Russia!

    Let's live, brothers, forever
    Around the lights, under the huts,
    In the afternoon - to be cut well done,
    In the evening - drink the burner!
    Let's live, brothers, forever
    Around the lights, under the huts!

    Oh how scary death to meet
    On the bed mister
    Waiting for the end under a canopy
    And die hourly!
    Oh how scary death to meet
    On the bed mister!

    Whether it is in the midst of swords!
    There you only dream of glory
    You get death in claws
    And not thinking about her!
    Whether it is among swords:
    There you only dream of glory!

    I love the bloody fight
    I was born for royal service!
    Saber, vodka, hussar’s horse,
    I have a golden age with you!
    I love the bloody fight
    I was born for royal service!
  11. Temer
    Temer 10 August 2014 08: 41 New
    +1
    Denis Vasilievich is a true hero of Russia! It’s only a pity that he doesn’t study his poems at school, and they mention only in passing at history lessons.