Figure instead of card
The change in the nature of warfare in the 21st century could not but affect the control of military formations in the preparation and conduct of hostilities. The Armed Forces of leading foreign countries, primarily the United States, are not abandoning their topographic map systems, are developing a new direction - geo-information systems, including geospatial intelligence. The published study was prepared by specialists of the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
Such a complex process, as the management of military formations in the preparation and conduct of hostilities, includes many components, including getting, collecting, processing, studying, summarizing, analyzing, evaluating and displaying the data of the situation.
For many centuries, paper maps have been used to assess the terrain and the work of officials on it. In the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (RF Armed Forces), topographic maps systems issued by the General Staff have historically been used.
The main difference of such a new direction as the creation of geographic information systems, including geospatial intelligence, is the requirement of continuity of obtaining, summarizing, analyzing and communicating information about the terrain in peacetime, during the immediate threat of aggression, during preparation and during hostilities. . The significance of these works is evidenced by the fact that the expenses of the American government on the purchase of images obtained by means of remote sensing of the Earth, from 2005 to 2010, amounted to about 800 million dollars. In total, the development of the program “Intellectual approach to solving problems of processing, using and providing consumers with geo-information” is planned to cost about two to three billion dollars, and 75 percent of this amount will be invested in commercial projects of private firms. Powerful investment allows you to accumulate in advance huge amounts of information about the entire globe, which greatly increases the effectiveness of the US Armed Forces.
The whole range of possibilities
Since March 2013, the United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) has launched a project to create a weekly updated digital map of the world. Its presence dramatically increases the combat capabilities of the US Armed Forces, especially when they use highly accurate weapons long range.
In the RF Armed Forces, the digital card system was used more than ten years ago and during this period a great experience has been gained in its use. However, in the military administration to ensure the management of military formations, the most widely used system of electronic maps.
To work with electronic maps are needed tools, which are used as geographic information systems (GIS).
GIS operates on spatial data. In the work of the military authorities (OVU), they began to be actively used from 2004, when the GIS “Integration” was adopted to supply the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. From that moment on, the SEM began to use not only paper, but also electronic maps. In the same year, the governing documents of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation determined that the software of automated military systems should include the GIS “Integration”. The Unified GIS Directive was issued for the first time in stories The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
In modern conditions, the use of GIS to ensure the management of military formations is implemented using several approaches.
The first is the use in the workplaces of officials (DL) of the SIS GIS, which are not part of the INSI. The second is the use at the workplaces of the DL OVU GIS that are part of the InSI.
Analysis of the activities of operational training and daily activities shows that today both approaches are used in the work of the DL SLL and the GIS “Integration” of various versions is mainly used. It provides an autonomous mode of operation and requires quite a lot of effort to master it. The complexity of the user interface, limited capabilities (for example, the lack of simultaneous work on the map of several DL) and a number of other shortcomings caused the development and further adoption of the more advanced GIS “Operator” in 2013.
The capabilities of this GIS are greatly expanded: it allows you to work with the map over the network, the list of sources for obtaining electronic maps is increased, the approach to creating and storing electronic conventional symbols is changed, and a number of suggestions and comments are received based on the results of the operation of the GIS “Integration”.
Practice and further development
However, the practical experience of using GIS shows that there are real significant difficulties in exchanging data from electronic cards that have been worked out at workplaces of DLs that are not part of SPLI (in fact, they are PCs) and electronic cards that have been worked out at workplaces of military information systems. If the exchange of electronic conventional symbols (user layers), as a rule, is carried out correctly, then using the characteristics of conventional symbols as initial data for modeling or solving design problems causes great difficulties or is not implemented.
In addition, there are difficulties in obtaining electronic maps for new areas. At the present time, such maps are provided by the topographic services of the respective military formations, but they are delivered, as a rule, by means of mobile communications, which adversely affects the speed of command and control.
All this creates certain difficulties in the implementation of GIS in the work of the DL SLL. The experience gained should be taken into account during the development of promising INSI.
It should be noted that the existing scientific and technical potential of the organizations of the military-industrial complex allows creating an effective GIS VN in accordance with the tactical and technical requirements for it developed in 2012.
Using foreign companies as a GIS VN core can lead to a dramatic decrease in the level of national security. And such cases were. In particular, an attempt was made to use a GIS based on ArcGIS software by ESRI Inc (USA).
Such an approach can be used in the development of IP private companies. It allows you to shorten the development of IP, although it does not always save money. However, it is unacceptable to use it for the introduction of IP VN. This can lead to extremely serious consequences for the information security of the Russian Federation.
The main directions of development of GIS are:
-creation and coordination at all levels of military control of the standard composition of digital cartographic information;
-Further detailing of the components of the metadata in the GIS HV;
- determination and approval of the standard composition and metadata of digital cartographic information used in the GIS INS;
-processing by means of GIS images obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles.
Measures in these areas will increase the capacity of GIS to process spatial data in the interests of modeling military operations, solving design tasks, visualizing the situation, simplifying data exchange both between different levels of control of heterogeneous groups of troops (forces) and in the interests of interaction between military units of various departmental affiliations .
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