Figure instead of card

Only geographic information systems ensure the continuity of data acquisition in a changing environment.

The change in the nature of warfare in the 21st century could not but affect the control of military formations in the preparation and conduct of hostilities. The Armed Forces of leading foreign countries, primarily the United States, are not abandoning their topographic map systems, are developing a new direction - geo-information systems, including geospatial intelligence. The published study was prepared by specialists of the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

Such a complex process, as the management of military formations in the preparation and conduct of hostilities, includes many components, including getting, collecting, processing, studying, summarizing, analyzing, evaluating and displaying the data of the situation.

Figure instead of cardFor many centuries, paper maps have been used to assess the terrain and the work of officials on it. In the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (RF Armed Forces), topographic maps systems issued by the General Staff have historically been used.

The main difference of such a new direction as the creation of geographic information systems, including geospatial intelligence, is the requirement of continuity of obtaining, summarizing, analyzing and communicating information about the terrain in peacetime, during the immediate threat of aggression, during preparation and during hostilities. . The significance of these works is evidenced by the fact that the expenses of the American government on the purchase of images obtained by means of remote sensing of the Earth, from 2005 to 2010, amounted to about 800 million dollars. In total, the development of the program “Intellectual approach to solving problems of processing, using and providing consumers with geo-information” is planned to cost about two to three billion dollars, and 75 percent of this amount will be invested in commercial projects of private firms. Powerful investment allows you to accumulate in advance huge amounts of information about the entire globe, which greatly increases the effectiveness of the US Armed Forces.

The whole range of possibilities

Since March 2013, the United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) has launched a project to create a weekly updated digital map of the world. Its presence dramatically increases the combat capabilities of the US Armed Forces, especially when they use highly accurate weapons long range.

In the RF Armed Forces, the digital card system was used more than ten years ago and during this period a great experience has been gained in its use. However, in the military administration to ensure the management of military formations, the most widely used system of electronic maps.

To work with electronic maps are needed tools, which are used as geographic information systems (GIS).

GIS operates on spatial data. In the work of the military authorities (OVU), they began to be actively used from 2004, when the GIS “Integration” was adopted to supply the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. From that moment on, the SEM began to use not only paper, but also electronic maps. In the same year, the governing documents of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation determined that the software of automated military systems should include the GIS “Integration”. The Unified GIS Directive was issued for the first time in stories The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

In modern conditions, the use of GIS to ensure the management of military formations is implemented using several approaches.

The first is the use in the workplaces of officials (DL) of the SIS GIS, which are not part of the INSI. The second is the use at the workplaces of the DL OVU GIS that are part of the InSI.

Analysis of the activities of operational training and daily activities shows that today both approaches are used in the work of the DL SLL and the GIS “Integration” of various versions is mainly used. It provides an autonomous mode of operation and requires quite a lot of effort to master it. The complexity of the user interface, limited capabilities (for example, the lack of simultaneous work on the map of several DL) and a number of other shortcomings caused the development and further adoption of the more advanced GIS “Operator” in 2013.

The capabilities of this GIS are greatly expanded: it allows you to work with the map over the network, the list of sources for obtaining electronic maps is increased, the approach to creating and storing electronic conventional symbols is changed, and a number of suggestions and comments are received based on the results of the operation of the GIS “Integration”.

Practice and further development

However, the practical experience of using GIS shows that there are real significant difficulties in exchanging data from electronic cards that have been worked out at workplaces of DLs that are not part of SPLI (in fact, they are PCs) and electronic cards that have been worked out at workplaces of military information systems. If the exchange of electronic conventional symbols (user layers), as a rule, is carried out correctly, then using the characteristics of conventional symbols as initial data for modeling or solving design problems causes great difficulties or is not implemented.

In addition, there are difficulties in obtaining electronic maps for new areas. At the present time, such maps are provided by the topographic services of the respective military formations, but they are delivered, as a rule, by means of mobile communications, which adversely affects the speed of command and control.

All this creates certain difficulties in the implementation of GIS in the work of the DL SLL. The experience gained should be taken into account during the development of promising INSI.

It should be noted that the existing scientific and technical potential of the organizations of the military-industrial complex allows creating an effective GIS VN in accordance with the tactical and technical requirements for it developed in 2012.

Using foreign companies as a GIS VN core can lead to a dramatic decrease in the level of national security. And such cases were. In particular, an attempt was made to use a GIS based on ArcGIS software by ESRI Inc (USA).

Such an approach can be used in the development of IP private companies. It allows you to shorten the development of IP, although it does not always save money. However, it is unacceptable to use it for the introduction of IP VN. This can lead to extremely serious consequences for the information security of the Russian Federation.

The main directions of development of GIS are:

-creation and coordination at all levels of military control of the standard composition of digital cartographic information;
-Further detailing of the components of the metadata in the GIS HV;
- determination and approval of the standard composition and metadata of digital cartographic information used in the GIS INS;
-processing by means of GIS images obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles.

Measures in these areas will increase the capacity of GIS to process spatial data in the interests of modeling military operations, solving design tasks, visualizing the situation, simplifying data exchange both between different levels of control of heterogeneous groups of troops (forces) and in the interests of interaction between military units of various departmental affiliations .
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  1. +7
    18 July 2014 14: 50
    In this direction, of course, it is necessary to use the development of exclusively Russian companies.
    1. suomi76
      18 July 2014 14: 55
      But at the moment, the domestic GIS Operator uses 3g graphics accelerators from AMD Radeon.
  2. Big den
    18 July 2014 14: 52
    The enemy prepares for battle in a certain area, and ours change the landscape manually, and all the opponents of the skies are .from fm DMB laughing
  3. +1
    18 July 2014 15: 15
    Everything we have and is effectively used, do not hesitate.
    1. +1
      18 July 2014 15: 41
      I'm also sure that the LATEST defense developments are VERY carefully MONITORED !!!
  4. 0
    18 July 2014 15: 16
    Must have opportunity use cartographic information from various sources, both reliable and not very
  5. +6
    18 July 2014 15: 36
    An abstract-level article, when you no longer know what to write, but you need volume. Flaunting terms from empty to empty. All the "scientific" thought presented here could fit into one paragraph.
    And if on the topic of the article, then the good old paper card cannot be replaced by an electronic one under any "high technologies". These are two completely parallel directions. It is convenient to plan combat operations using a paper map (theory), and control of hostilities, operational correction of a decision made, reconnaissance and notification (practice) - in a common network using electronic maps. Moreover, not everyone has the patience to pick up a large-scale combat plan before a battle, pointing a finger at a "military tablet". Everyone will put the same object on their solution with a certain topographic error, and the technique will distinguish them as several different objects and also indicate them in the general network, there will be chaos and confusion. Therefore, it will be, as always: the commander transmits, the rest only receive. But the higher-ranking commander will not get his hands on detailing the task to the level of the platoon and company commander, and for them such a "toy" will be useless. We must not forget that it must be "charged" and be constantly "online", since during the period of hostilities I would not like to get into a situation where the main information about the actions would be transmitted electronically, and at this time "the satellite is turned off or is out of network coverage ". So the paper map still lives and will live for a long time.
  6. +6
    18 July 2014 15: 45
    - Sanya, 2415-3, there they are, loop !!!

    Who-thread remembers such phrases?
    Orientation and target designation on the map ... square 24-15 on the snail "3" ...
    And so they lived ...

    But we, the tankers, still had a great TNA, helped out well.

    So topographic location and cartography are a great thing.
    And to develop "digital", but do not shun "paper" either.
    1. +3
      18 July 2014 17: 46
      Quote: Aleks tv
      , but do not shun "paper" either.

      Gold words! If, when preparing "serious documents", typewriters were resumed, then in case of serious troubles it is better to use paper media! In extreme cases, you will burn with him!
    2. +4
      18 July 2014 19: 25
      Knowledge of cartography and the ability to navigate the terrain live day / night and with strong clouds are required. hi-tech hi-tech but if "suddenly something" then have to crawl out on foot with a minimum body kit.
    3. +2
      18 July 2014 22: 48
      Quote: Aleks tv
      square 24-15 on the snail "3" ..

      I remember finger-digging (orientation on the map during the flight), no one canceled!
  7. +3
    18 July 2014 16: 56
    I would like for new developments to reach the army faster as they are developed and implemented ...
  8. +1
    18 July 2014 19: 22
    Does this need to be discussed ?! It’s obvious that real-time monitoring is more objective than receiving information via a landline telephone and drawing on a card with a pencil .... only there is a downside, real-time monitoring is collecting data from the beacon signal of all significant units, or each combat unit, that is, knowing the frequency and selecting the code, you can see all the forces of the opposing enemy and their movement with a slight delay in data processing, and if you look at the structure of packet data transmission, then the whole other amount of information transmitted to hacknu I’ll repeat that Network up to every beacon, I think I’ll have to play radio games with fake emissions or manage to change the carrier frequency or something else, but this is already a technical part. The very essence of what is indicated in the article is definitely needed on a huge detailed map of the area where military operations are or are planned.
    1. 0
      18 July 2014 22: 53
      Quote: Roman_999
      Does this need to be discussed ?! It’s obvious that real-time monitoring is more objective than receiving information via a landline telephone and drawing on a card with a pencil

      How to say! For me, pencil and GSH-23 are best friends!
  9. +1
    18 July 2014 21: 09
    I speak specifically, responsibly. In Figs, such a system is needed. It was just a case, That and that. I speak back and forth and explain on the mnemonic diagram. Chief-. Dima-you show something on your fingers = This is there, and this is here. All ....... Showed-done-On the fingers. So tell me later why we are all "fingers"
    1. suomi76
      18 July 2014 21: 50
      Ah, I had a funny incident too. Our foreman comes to the new bread-baker in the dining room. The bread maker, I must say dag, distributes the oil. Well, the foreman says to him, give me oil, I sasu. That is naturally reset to zero. Then the head of the galley explained to him, that I mean sasu from the center of automatic control systems, briefly ACS.
      Humor, of course, but in the topic of the article. drinks
    2. 0
      18 July 2014 21: 59
      Signalman SU  Today, 21:09 PM

      ,,, as in a bearded joke lol

      A Russian merchant ship is sailing on the sea. Then, a Russian submarine also emerges overboard, an overgrown, bearded bumpkin climbs out of the hatch, and yells in a hoarse voice: “Hear, navigator, how can we sail to the Caribbean?” - Zuid, West, Nord! - You leave me to bend the mats here, you can show with your finger?!?! winked
  10. 0
    18 July 2014 21: 12
    In catch-up.
    People just grow. Life is changing, but the bosses ..... always. Like flint, they sit in place. From here and all the hardships. He is white, but he calls everything black, and vice versa. That's how we live.
  11. +2
    19 July 2014 00: 20
    I was engaged in GIS at the university (specialty Geographer), despite the socio-economic geography (direction) The topography was serious, but the GIS technology was very fascinating (it's a pity the capacity of university machines is not enough for online processing)
    so what I want to say is that the University (ONU) worked and is working on digitizing and creating electronic maps of the area (in particular, its work, maps and digitizations are immediately incorporated into programs)
    And besides just creating an electronic map, we worked on changing it over time (so that others could study processes or simulate)
    I think such maps can be used in any medium in order to strike clearly in any year, without even updating the data on the terrain (because technologies allow automatically "adjusting the terrain with" future "natural and anthropogenic processes) which is impossible on paper maps.
    The military was also interested in such works, however, great interest in such maps was revealed by customers for the Danube basin (floodplains, the Danube itself, southern Ukraine)
    In general, changing maps would also help the military, although you need to be able to do everything manually.
    In general, there were a lot of ideas ... even if you go over the graduation topics ..
    conclusion one - paper cards quickly become obsolete ... however, as a spare, they are very necessary.
    1. +2
      19 July 2014 00: 26
      Quote: Cristall
      conclusion one - paper cards quickly become obsolete ... however, as a spare, they are very necessary.

      It's like paper money - in principle, it is no longer needed, but you can not do without it.
  12. +1
    19 July 2014 02: 23
    As a sailor, I can say that now electronic cards are intensively used in the Navy. Already now, subject to the conditions, they allow you to abandon paper cards. The International Maritime Organization (IMO), long ago developed the principle of creating ECDIS (Electronic Chart Display and Information System) - electronic vector cards + software for working with them. The bottom line is that each IMO member country is responsible for publishing and updating electronic maps for the waters of its region. (Russia for its waters, Turkey for its own, etc.) according to a single model. The display of marine electronic cards is unified and regulated by the standards - IHO S? 52, S57, S63. (depending on the data encryption from copying- (s)).

    Anyway, the essence of the article - For our warriors, we need to unify the standard for displaying an electronic map on the screen, and so that the interested person can encrypt the information received by him and transmit it to the recipient, for display on the screen according to a single model! + Develop a unified software for electronic cards.

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