Foundation Day of Naval Aviation of Russia
In Russia, naval aviation began to develop with the 1911 of the year with seaplanes, with the first cars being purchased abroad. However, soon domestic designers created several types of flying boats that took part in the First World War. Russian seaplanes were used to fire and bombard ports and naval bases, ships at sea, and also to destroy enemy aircraft in the air.
In July, 1917 was created in Russia, the Office of Naval Aviation and Aeronautics, and in the fleet for the first time appeared two separate air divisions - one on the Black Sea, the other on the Baltic. After 1917, a separate special air brigade began to form in the Baltic Fleet. Later, individual squadrons of seaplanes appeared in the Caspian, Volga and other flotillas. All in all, 19 of naval aviation detachments was used on all fronts of the civil war.
In the 1930s, when the whole country was “sick” with the Arctic and followed the fate of the Cheliuskites, it was the sea pilots who took an active part in the rescue of the polar expedition. For the rescue of polar explorers, the Golden Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union was presented to Anatoly Vasilyevich Lyapidevsky, who was a graduate of naval aviation.
During the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945, the Soviet fleet aviation was the first to strike at Berlin. She became the main threat to the Nazi invaders in the war at sea. During the Great Patriotic War, naval pilots flew more than 35 thousands of combat missions on various missions. In air battles with the enemy and at airfields, they destroyed more than 5,5 thousands of enemy aircraft. From the strikes of naval aviation pilots, Germany and its allies lost 407 battleships to the sea, as well as 371 transport with troops and cargo. This is 2 / 3 total enemy losses from the impact of the Soviet Navy. Since then, the role of naval aviation of the Russian Navy has only increased.
Already in the postwar years, naval aviation continued to improve, honing its combat skills and mastering new equipment coming into service. It was the North Sea Pilot pilot in 1961 who first laid the path of humanity to the stars. At the same time, new types of naval aviation appeared in the country - naval anti-submarine and missile-carrying, and maritime reconnaissance aviation was being improved. A fundamentally new direction for the fleet was the appearance in its composition of ship-based vertical take-off and landing aircraft, as well as the construction of the first aircraft-carrying cruisers Minsk, Kiev and Novorossiysk. In the future, the appearance of carrier-based fighter aircraft, the main purpose of which is to cover fleet groups in the sea, was a landmark event in the development of Russian naval aviation.
At present, the Russian Navy has in its composition combat-ready fighter aircraft pilots, as well as crews of ship-based helicopters. The traditions of renowned sea veteran pilots carefully preserve and multiply the current generation of sea aviators, who continue to serve and dedicatedly work to strengthen the combat readiness of the national navy.
Today, modern jet planes and various helicopters are in service with naval aviation of Russia. All 4 fleets of our country have their own aircraft: Northern, Baltic, Black Sea and Pacific. At the same time, naval aviation continues to be one of the most maneuverable branches of the military as part of the Russian Navy, which can act both in cooperation with other branches of the military and fully independently.
Naval aviation is a separate branch of the Russian Navy. It is intended for search and subsequent destruction of the enemy assault detachments, its fleet combat forces, sea convoys and single vessels both at sea and in naval bases. In addition, naval aviation provides cover for fleet objects and groupings of ships from enemy air strikes, is engaged in the destruction of air targets: aircraft, helicopters and cruise missiles of the enemy. Also, naval aviation carries out aerial reconnaissance, guidance to the enemy ships of their own strike forces and issue them the necessary target indications. Maritime aviation can be engaged for setting minefields, carrying out mine action, air transportation and landing of troops and cargo, electronic warfare (EW), search and rescue operations at sea. Its basis today consists of airplanes and helicopters for various purposes.
Functionally, Russian naval aviation is subdivided into aviation types: fighter, naval missile-carrying, anti-submarine, reconnaissance and auxiliary purposes (EW, radar detection and guidance, control and communications, anti-mine, transport, search and rescue, sanitary, aircraft refueling with fuel in the air ). Naval aviation can be based on aircraft carriers and airfields. According to its location, it is divided into coast-based aircraft and carrier-based aircraft.
The overwhelming part of Russian naval aviation is coastal based. Currently, only one aircraft carrier is part of the Russian fleet - the heavy aircraft carrying cruiser Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov. As of 2014, Russian ship aviation is represented by four types of aircraft: Su-33 and MiG-29K fighters, as well as Su-25UTG training aircraft and MiG-29KUB combat-training aircraft. All of them during trips can be based on the deck of a Russian aircraft carrier, along with the Ka-27 and Ka-29 helicopters.
At present, Russian naval aviation is replenished with new products, which include MiG-29K aircraft, which must completely change the Su-33 aircraft aboard the Kuznetsov. In addition, 15 July 2014, the Russian Navy was transferred to the first production aircraft IL-38H, which is a modernization of the patrol and anti-submarine aircraft still of Soviet production. The upgraded IL-38Н was equipped with a new aim-navigation complex "Novella-P-38". IL-38H was built under the first contract, which was concluded between the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation and the KLA. In total under the contract Russian military should receive 5 of such planes. The first production aircraft of this type was transferred to the center of combat training and retraining of flight personnel of naval aviation, located in Yeisk. Currently, there is already a training of onboard operators and pilots for the Il-38H.
Unlike the original car, the updated IL-38H is equipped with modern digital equipment, which significantly expands the capabilities of this aircraft. The machine can be used to track enemy surface and submarine ships, patrol the Russian economic zone, conduct search and rescue operations at sea. The equipment of the modernized aircraft has an open architecture, which makes it possible at any time to supplement it with various kinds of equipment, depending on the tasks facing the aircraft. During the modernization of the IL-38H, the overhaul was also carried out, which made it possible to extend the service life of the aircraft by another 20-25 years. In total, the Russian Navy currently has about 40 aircraft of this type in service, of which it is planned to upgrade 28 to 2020.
Based on open source materials.
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