How to prepare the collapse of the Soviet Union
The process of the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was launched as early as 1982, or rather, its active phase began, while the degradation processes were started under Khrushchev, only then they were able to “freeze”. The gray cardinal Suslov died, and then Brezhnev. The USSR, for many quite unexpectedly, was headed by Andropov, the former head of the KGB.
He rather actively took up the consolidation of the state, planned large-scale reforms, but since he didn’t actually do anything, it was difficult to judge them whether they would strengthen the Union or not. His idea of restoring order in all levels of government, including the “top”, could be called correct, if not its organization. They attacked the "specific principalities" already formed in the Union, the local clans of the nomenklatura - they began the "Uzbek", "Sochi", "fish" and a number of other cases. But it was a mistake that the cases were not advertised, did not make them indicative, so that the people could see that they were being punished by the “top”. An example had to be taken from the epoch of I.V. Stalin or China, where senior corrupt officials were shot, moreover publicly. The USSR, not wanting to “wash the dirty linen in public”, made itself only worse. Yes, and did not continue the good work, the nomenclature, especially the national sense, it was necessary to "clean" and further, because it was she who became one of the "shock troops" of the "democratic revolution" 1991 of the year.
Another mistake was the methods of organizing “strengthening discipline,” catching shirkers, since they did not frighten anyone, and their effect was rather the opposite. At the same time, the centralization of planning and distribution began to weaken, more and more liberal pricing mechanisms were introduced, and as a result, prices went up. Andropov also pushed Gorbachev up. More Andropov did not have time to do anything, he was seriously ill and in February 1984, he died.
Chernenko, who was still considered his “heir” under Brezhnev, also didn’t really have time to do anything, since he was a man almost incapacitated and already in March 1985 of the year “moved” to the cemetery. Here came M. Gorbachev's finest hour, here the interests of the “young reformers” and the West coincided. Man he is absolutely driven and driven. It was during his time that all the processes of the collapse of the Union were launched in full force.
In addition, the "world backstage" organized a successful sabotage - brought down the price of oil, and the USSR at that time was already sitting on the "oil needle". Gorbachev himself dealt a blow at the second financial source of the Soviet budget - the wine monopoly, having begun the anti-alcohol campaign. This was an excellent provocation - the second most powerful blow to the budget and the “buildup” of the population.
To get out of the crisis, they began a campaign of "restructuring and acceleration." True, the “acceleration” was soon forgotten, after all, it wasn't Stalin and Beria who were at the helm, who could lead the “ship” into the heaviest storm, but a complete “dummy”. For some reason, “perestroika” did not start in the economy, with the goal of eliminating dependence on oil sales, but in politics. Again they began to “expose” Stalin and his era, the rehabilitation of all kinds of Tukhachevskys, Bukharins, Zinovievs, etc., began. Trotsky, however, did not dare to rehabilitate, but he did use his works and arguments in the fight against “Stalinism”. His own models were used to suppress resistance in the party-state apparatus, destroying opponents of perestroika under the slogan “struggle against bureaucracy”. Gorbachev himself counted himself among the "revolutionaries", a brochure was even published with the eloquent title: "October and Perestroika: the revolution continues. 1917-1987.
In the same period, “publicity” began - they printed what had been accumulated for decades in the editorial offices and the authors, what was previously unacceptable. Began to print and various white immigrant literature. There was propaganda of "cooperation", it was proclaimed the legacy of the NEP, which Stalin had turned, violating the "Leninist way." As a result, the “gray economy” was legalized, which had already been created in the previous period, a muddy jumble of cooperatives swept the country - the NEP-2 program. Govodars, public sector profits are being pumped into this system. At the same time, the gold reserves of the USSR “left” to the West, like the gold of the Russian Empire at one time.
Gorbachev wrote off the colossal debts of the Third World countries to the USSR and at the same time received a lot of loans in the West. They all went "in the sand", or rather, back to the West, because they were not used for the modernization of the country, but simply "eaten."
In the field of foreign policy, the era of complete surrenders has come - Gorbachev behaved as if the USSR had been defeated in a terrible war, surrendering everything and everyone. Troops were withdrawn from Afghanistan, from Eastern European countries, bases, towns, infrastructure were abandoned, which cost our people billions of full-weight rubles. The GDR was surrendered, all the pro-Soviet regimes, there was a "hunt" for the Communists and the "pro-Soviet elements." There were endless "restructuring" in the army, associated with the reduction and destruction of military programs, the production of equipment ("conversion"), the reduction of personnel. True, with skillful managers the freed finance, resources could have been used skillfully, but everything stopped simply on destruction. At the same time, they launched programs to lower the authority of the army, poured “slop” tubs onto the army, undermining its psychological stability and faith in their state.
Inside the USSR abolished Art. 70 of the Criminal Code is anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda, in 1987 all “political” prisoners were released. As a result, all sorts of nationalists, separatists, dissidents, activists of the NTS (People’s Labor Union of Russian Solidarists), etc. received freedom of activity, etc. Naturally, they immediately engaged in activities aimed at the collapse of the Union.
The cinema quickly “restructured”, and with fervor began to “liberate” the minds of people, as did the journalism, which was filled with “progressive” materials. At the same time, a wave of "ridicule" of the Union, its achievements, generally Russian, their "stupidity", "laziness", "ineptitude", "backwardness" swept, and the whole cohort of humorists made a name for it.
After the rain, all sorts of parties, movements, and unions appeared like mushrooms. They skillfully played the card of nationalism - they organized provocations with “popular” unrest in Kazakhstan, Armenia, Lithuania, Latvia, Azerbaijan, Georgia. Moreover, the attempts of the army and the special services to restore order were hesitant, overly zealous. Nationalists and separatists actually encouraged, rather than suppressed, their activities in the bud.
In place of Gorbachev they prepared a shift - B.N. Yeltsin, an even more radical figure. They had a good preparation - they created the image of “offended” Gorbachev, who was already suspected among the people of “bad”, for this they made several scandals for the purpose of “promotion”. Then, skillfully, as before the February 1917 revolution of the year, they organized a shortage of products, causing popular discontent.
And finally, they played a “performance with the State Emergency Committee” - although all the “rebels” were brought into power by Gorbachev himself. 18 of August, on the eve of the “putsch”, they came to Gorbachev, talked, received the last instructions. And already 19 of August declared themselves the State Committee on the State of Emergency. By “oversight,” Yeltsin goes on the air calling for resistance. Yes, even, like Lenin on an armored car, Yeltsin from an armored personnel carrier, which was a spectacle of pure water. Thousands of people believed and went to the White House, the army and special services, already disintegrated by "democratic" propaganda, were left behind, some even supported the crowd. And those parts that would fulfill the order to restore order, did not receive it. Although the experience of China says that given the political will, such “p-revolutionaries” have no chance of winning. On August 21, the “putschists” capitulated, people exulted, not realizing that they were destroying their own state with their own hands.
They didn’t even judge the “putschists”, they were soon released, only some who apparently knew too much, “committed suicide”. 8 December 1991, Yeltsin, Kravchuk and Shushkevich signed the famous Belovezhsk agreements - on the dissolution of the USSR and the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Although these figures had no legal rights to this action. Gorbachev could order to arrest them, and for the treachery they could be boldly sent for execution. But he did not do this and declared the liquidation of the USSR, voluntarily yielding power. As a result, the USSR collapsed, emanating from the "worms", like the Russian Empire at one time ...
Kara-Murza S. G. Soviet civilization: from the beginning to the present. M., 2001.
Mukhin Y. Code Yeltsin. M., 2005.
- Alexander Samsonov
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