Military Review

Submachine gun Bergman-Schmeiser MP-18 / 1 (Bergmann / Schmeisser MP 18.1), Germany

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Submachine gun Bergman-Schmeiser MP-18 / 1 (Bergmann / Schmeisser MP 18.1), Germany



The Bergmann / Schmeisser submachine gun MP.18, I or otherwise Maschinen Pistole Modell 1918 was developed by the German arms designer Luis Schmeisser (Louis Schmeisser, father of another famous designer, Hugo Schmeisser) in 1917-18, commissioned by the Imperial German Army. Schmeiser was working at that time armory the company Theodor Bergmann AG, which established in 1918 the release of the world's first "real" submachine guns. Of the 50 thousand ordered by Reichswehr submachine guns, Bergman's company released almost 30 thousand, of which about 10 thousand fell into the army before the armistice. In the postwar period, the MP.18, I submachine guns were in service with the police forces of the Weimar Republic

Like the "Fedorov Avtomat", the German pistol - MP machine gun - 18 / 1 (Maschinenpistole18 / 1) was originally designed to arm the police and special assault squads, each compartment of which consisted of two people. One of them was armed with an MP - 18 / 1, the second was armed with a Mauser 98 rifle and carried a supply of ammunition. The total ammunition of this compartment was 2500 cartridges 9xNUMX Parabellum. After the defeat of Germany in the First World War, under the terms of the Versailles Treaty of November 19 on November 11, the production of certain types of weapons in Germany was prohibited. The MP - 1918 / 18 also got on this list, but it was produced before 1 as a weapon for the police, the production of which was not so significant. After 1920, the production of MP - 1920 / 18 under license continued in Switzerland at the Swiss Industrial Company (SIG) in Nyhausen.



The automatic MP-18 / I submachine gun works by giving back the free shutter. Locking the barrel at the time of the shot is carried out by a massive shutter, pressed against the breech section of the barrel return-combat spring. The firing-type trigger mechanism allows only continuous firing. Drum-type magazine of the TM-08 system of the Blum system on the 32 cartridge, which is attached to the left in a long neck. The idea of ​​this store in an improved form was used in stores for Thompson, Degtyarev, Shpagin and Suomi submachine guns. The sighting devices of the open type consist of a front sight and flip-pillar on the 100 and 200 m. The fuse is made in the form of a groove on the gate box, in which the shutter handle is turned. The stock is wooden, carbine type, with a short forearm and a pistol protrusion on the neck. Already in 1919, the submachine gun was slightly modernized, the disk magazine was replaced with a straight box-type container with a cartridge on 20 and 32, arranged in two rows in a staggered manner.

In 1928, the model MP-28 / II appeared, which was a further development of the first serial submachine gun MP.18, I, developed by Louis Schmeisser at the end of the First World War. The submachine gun MP.28, II was produced by CG Haenel, whose chief designer was Schmeiser at the time, with the bulk of the supplies going abroad. In addition, a significant amount of MP.28, II was released under license from the Belgian company Pieper. The MP.28, II was supplied to South America, Africa, China, Spain, in Belgium this submachine gun was in service under the designation Mitrailette Modele 1934. Schmeisser MP.28, II submachine gun was produced in a wide range of calibers - from 7,63X25 Mauser, 7,65x22 Luger, 9x19 Luger, 9x23 Bergmann / Largo, 925 Mph Art



The distrust of the top leadership of Germany to the machine pistols led to the fact that each type of armed forces decided to take them into service in their own way. The Luftwaffe ground units were armed with MP-34 submachine guns (0). The tank crews and paratroopers of the Wehrmacht had submachine guns Mp-28 / II, and the SS troops and their subordinate police adopted the MP-35 / I, which was the latest example of this type of weapon, released under the name of Theodore Bergman. Structurally, it represents a further development of the MP-34 / I submachine gun, produced from 1932 by the Danish company Schulz and Larsen and from 1934 by the German company Karl Walter. In connection with the mass production of the MP-1938, which became the standard weapon of all German armed forces, which began in 38, the MP-35 / I submachine gun was produced in a relatively small series of 40000 units.

Modifications of the Bergmann MP - 18 / 1 submachine gun:

Bergmann MP-20 - modification of the MP-18 / 1, manufactured by the Swiss Industrial Company to arm the Japanese army. It differs from the MP-18 / 1 store receiver, located at the bottom, not the left.

Bergmann MP-28 / II - modification of the MP-18 / 1 with the ability to conduct single and automatic fire. The fire interpreter is located above the opening of the trigger guard.

Tallinn Arsenal is a modification of the MP-18 / 1 with minor changes (sector-wise sight, another form of the loading handle head), which was produced in Estonia, at the Tallinn Arms Factory.

Tactical – technical characteristics of the MR - 18 / 1:
caliber: 9 mm; cartridge: 9x19 “Steam”;
length: 815 mm;
weight with magazine: 4,7 kg;
initial speed of a bullet: 380 m / s;
sighting range: 122-200 m;
Sterlba Rate: 550 rds / min.
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  1. bunta
    bunta 31 August 2013 09: 13 New
    +1
    1 Author in the studio!
    2 What confirms the fact that the author was not Hugo but Luis?
    1. bazilio
      bazilio 31 August 2013 14: 43 New
      0
      Quote: bunta
      2 What confirms the fact that the author was not Hugo but Luis?

      I agree with the question posed. In most sources, the author of MP-18 is Hugo. In addition, the MP-18 was developed in 1917, adopted for service in 1918. Although Luis Schmeiser was also a gunsmith and worked for Bergmann. Give a prov.
      1. sub307
        sub307 31 August 2013 19: 26 New
        +1
        And Louis died in 1917.
      2. Chicot 1
        Chicot 1 1 September 2013 02: 37 New
        +2
        Quote: bazilio
        Give a prov

        And if possible, the same thing, but in Russian. And then we did not finish the McDonalds ...
      3. bunta
        bunta 1 September 2013 23: 44 New
        0
        Quote: bazilio
        Give a prov.

        Hardly wait. But in reality, doubts about the authorship of MP-18 Hugo are not groundless. Until 17, there were no outstanding merits for Hugo, unlike his father. In 17, the father is just dying, for whom else to register a patent?
    2. Chicot 1
      Chicot 1 31 August 2013 20: 41 New
      +1
      M-ya ... However, the confusion ... The sources contradict each other ... Even the photo below is signed and commented in different ways - where they write that this is Louis, and where that it is Hugo ...

      Either Louis, or Hugo ... request But the fact that in the photo MR-18, that's for sure ...
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 1 September 2013 02: 54 New
        +2
        Vasily welcome, in your photo Hugo.
        1. Chicot 1
          Chicot 1 1 September 2013 17: 01 New
          +1
          Quote: Alex 241
          Vasily welcome

          Good day, Alexander! drinks Do not blame me for the belated answer ...
          Quote: Alex 241
          in your photo Hugo

          Quite possible...

          In principle, in any case, whether Schmeisser Sr. (Louis) is related to the development of the MP-18 or not, his merit is already (in addition to his other own inventions) that he raised and educated Schmeissers Jr. (Hugo and Hans) ...
  2. Klim podkova
    Klim podkova 31 August 2013 11: 23 New
    +2
    Wikipedia claims:

    In 1917 — 1918 Hugo Schmeisser developed an automatic weapon that allows you to conduct automatic fire at a distance of 200 meters. This MP-18 was the main weapon of the battle groups that broke through the 1918 front in March.

    The submachine gun MP-18 / 1 (Maschinenpistole18 / 1) was originally intended for the arming of special assault troops and the police. Patented in December by 1917, the designer Hugo Schmeiser, financial support to which in the development of its new submachine gun had Theodor Bergmann.
    Someone is mistaken.
  3. Bosk
    Bosk 31 August 2013 14: 15 New
    +2
    MP-18 is also known as MP-18.L-numbers in the designation indicate the number of the financial document on the basis of which the development of this model was made. PP designed by Hugo Schmeiser and named after the manufacturer Theodore Bergman. Adopted as an experimental weapon of special assault squads in the summer of 1918
  4. bazilio
    bazilio 31 August 2013 14: 47 New
    +2
    What can be said about this trunk? The ancestor of the PP family. Although Villar-Perosa appeared earlier, it is difficult to call it full-fledged PP, except for the applied pist. cartridge. But MP-18 was the first full-fledged PP in history, adopted for service.
    1. Chicot 1
      Chicot 1 31 August 2013 20: 31 New
      +2
      PP "Vilar-Perosa" M15 was created precisely as a light machine gun (without any claims to a new type of small arms). This predetermines its design features ...
  5. bunta
    bunta 31 August 2013 23: 58 New
    +3
    Like the "Fedorov Avtomat", the German pistol - MP machine gun - 18 / 1 (Maschinenpistole18 / 1) was originally intended for arming the police
    Another glitch. And why the Fedorov assault rifle in quotation marks?
    1. Alex 241
      Alex 241 1 September 2013 03: 06 New
      +3
      .............................
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 1 September 2013 03: 06 New
        +5
        The Finnish company is an engineering company.
  6. Klim podkova
    Klim podkova 1 September 2013 10: 49 New
    +2
    Fedorov's gun was originally created directly for the army, and the initial run-in during the First World War was held in army units. I didn’t come across any information about the armament of Fedorov with any police / police units (which, however, doesn’t exclude anyone, maybe I was just unlucky).
    1. pasha1713
      pasha1713 1 September 2013 13: 40 New
      +1
      Totally agree with you. In the summer of 1916, military trials of the Fedorov assault rifle began. Machine guns were issued to a special company and the 10th aviation detachment. The special company conducting the tests was assigned to the 189th Izmail Infantry Regiment and in December 1916 was sent to the Romanian Front. Their serial production was set up only in the spring of 1921, and until October 1925, 3200 machine guns were manufactured, with which the Moscow regiment of the Proletarian Division was armed (until 1928)
    2. Sour
      Sour 2 September 2013 21: 17 New
      +1
      Fedorov assault rifle was used in the Soviet-Finnish war. This was facilitated by a large number of Japanese cartridges captured at Khalkhin Gol. It was these cartridges that the machine gun fired.
      There are photos of the soldiers of the Red Army armed with these machine guns. Used by assault groups to break through the Mannerheim Line. The machine is stored in the Finnish Museum as a sample of captured weapons.
      http://www.opoccuu.com/af.htm5.jpg
  7. pasha1713
    pasha1713 4 September 2013 23: 16 New
    +1
    He studied in Kovrov as a gunsmith engineer and have never been given this machine gun, either they were guarded from our crooked hands, or were not in a gun room. But the MR-18 was, and the most interesting thing is that it has a trigger mechanism. The originality lies in the presence of the “accelerator” of the drummer, which has never been seen anywhere else.