The torpedoes SET-65E with the sapphire homing system, SET-53МЭ with the passive homing system 2050 and the torpedo with the homing system “Ceramics” in the Indian Navy Training Center (c) Maxim Klimov
Domestic torpedo weapon on the world market
Deliveries of domestic torpedoes for export began (except for the Spanish episode of 1936-1937) with the transfer in the mid-1950s. Allied and friendly countries (China, Indonesia, Egypt, Syria, North Korea, ATS countries) submarines, surface ships and boats equipped with torpedo weapons. There are no open data on the type of torpedoes transmitted then with the ships, but it can be assumed that the submarines had their standard armament - 533-mm anti-ship combined-cycle torpedoes 53-39 and electric torpedoes - direct-going ET-46 and homing SAET-50. Special export modifications have not yet been developed. In addition, a serial production license was supplied and transferred to China. aviation anti-ship torpedo missile RAT-52.
End of 1960's It was marked by two qualitative breakthroughs in the military exports of the USSR (including in terms of torpedo weapons) - the supply of modern weapons to India and Yugoslavia.
At the beginning of the 1960's The government of Yugoslavia has requested to supply torpedoes for submarines under construction of its own project. As a result, the first export version of the 53-56В (“air”) was developed on the basis of the Soviet oxygen (traceless) 53-56 anti-ship torpedo. Unlike the model of the Navy of the USSR, the 53-56В was vapor-gas (that is, trace) and with significantly degraded tactical and technical characteristics (TTH). But its most unique modification was the 53BA - “air acoustic”, equipped with a passive acoustic homing system (CCH). To reduce the level of interference, the 53BA speed was limited, and it fully provided for the detection of target noise and guidance to it. Torpedo 53-56В had extremely high reliability and low cost of manufacture and shot, as a result, it was widely supplied not only for export, but also for the Soviet Navy. The 53-56В torpedo is still in service and is being used in a number of countries (including Egypt, repair and extension of their service life was carried out at the Tivat plant in Montenegro).
A new stage in the export of our torpedo weapons and ships was contracts with India, the first of which was signed on 1 in September of 1965. For the first time, our ships and marine underwater weapons were supplied under conditions of direct comparison and competition with similar Western models. A characteristic feature of these contracts was that when they were being prepared, not only issues of differences in export and domestic specimen of technical characteristics were considered, but also a comparison with what Western countries supply (or can deliver) to Pakistan. The idea was clearly traced that domestic weapons should surpass similar Western models from the "likely enemy" of India, since the arms trade is not only a business, but also a means of maintaining the authority of the Soviet Navy and the state.
It must be emphasized that for the time the supplied weapon models were worthy of the performance characteristics sufficient for the recipients of the “special products”. High reliability allowed to provide mass torpedo training (firing) and high-quality mastering of weapons in the Navy customers.
In the middle of 1960's. An export modification of the SET-53M antisubmarine torpedo with a passive acoustic SNR was developed. As part of its performance characteristics, this torpedo was quite effective, both when used from a surface ship and from submarines. Submarine detection distances for hydroacoustic stations (GUS) of the 1960-s. (“Titan”, “Vychegda”, “Hercules”), were several kilometers long - that is, they were in the zone of effective use of both rocket launchers and torpedoes SET-53МЭ. Moreover, the possibility of evading a target from a torpedo with a passive CLO by reducing speed was countered by increasing the efficiency of RBU for low-speed targets, while increasing the target’s speed for “evacuating RBU” led to an increase in the effectiveness of the SET-53МE torpedoes — that is, torpedoes were an integral part of the fully effective ( in those conditions) and a balanced anti-submarine armament complex of export surface ships of projects 159АE, 61МЭ and others. For submarines (for example, the I641 project) with a medium-frequency MAS MG-10E, the detection of submarines-targets also occurred at distances effective for SET-53МЕ, and the presence of the GUS contact in the direction-finding mode in this case guaranteed a reliable detection and capture of the submarine's noise by a torpedo . It should be noted that the passive mode of operation of SSN SET-53МЭ ensured its effective use at shallow depths.
In the middle of 1970's, with the transfer to foreign customers of ships equipped with 400-mm torpedo tubes, an export version of the 400-mm torpedoes SET-40UE was developed, equipped with an export modification of the active-passive SSN Sapphire. By this time, the initial “childhood illnesses” of the torpedoes SET-40 were eliminated, and the simple and reliable CLS “Sapphire” was the result of the development of domestic high-frequency CLS with equal-signal method of direction finding. Despite the fact that in its performance characteristics it was formally inferior to new foreign ones, the preservation of the high-frequency range in it made it possible to ensure good performance at shallow depths (which was a problem for the new low-frequency CCH). Part of many domestic torpedoes, this SSN is still in service with many countries. The last time a torpedo with SSN "Sapphire" was presented at the International Navy Salon IMDS-2005 (TEST-71МЭ).
At the same time, an export version of the 533-mm anti-submarine torpedoes SET-65 III with SSN Sapphire (SET-65E), supplied by the Indian Navy, and the anti-ship torpedo SAET-60МЭ (information on export supplies of the latter is missing) was developed.
In the same years, with the transfer of Ka-25PLE helicopters and Il-38E aircraft to foreign customers, their aviation weapons were also transferred, which included AT-1МЭ anti-submarine torpedoes (for Ka-25ПЕ) and АТ-2Э (for Il-38E) , originally from AT-1ME), respectively.
Of course, when compared with Western counterparts, their significant weight and size characteristics were striking. However, something else was unattainable at that time - both due to the lag of the Soviet machine building from the world level, and according to the stringent requirements imposed on our torpedoes by the Soviet Navy, in particular, in the mass of the warhead that provided (unlike Western torpedoes) when hit, guaranteed defeat targets.
The next stage were the 1980-ies. As noted above, issues of military-technical cooperation were considered by the government of the USSR and the Navy not only from the economic side, but also as an important factor in ensuring the international authority of the state and its Armed Forces. Therefore, at the end of 1970, at the final stage of the development of the APR -2, it was decided to create its export version. APR-2E had a high-performance, state-of-the-art, phase-correlation CCH with high noise immunity. From the middle of 1980's APR-2E began to be exported, where the submarine missile itself and its SSN confirmed their high performance (including in comparison with Western models), laying the subsequent long export history of the APR family.
In comparison with aircraft torpedoes, performing a circulatory search on the go and with CCH turned on, the APR plunged into circulation without the engine running, and, finding the target, turned on the engine and hit it after a few dozen seconds. According to testers who were on submarines, when the APR attacked, the crew was in a state close to shock — a few barely audible impulses, with the APR turning to the target, then a powerful message followed, a powerful roar of a rocket engine, and after a few tens of seconds, only a specially established spacing limit the depth of the course of the APR and the depth of the target did not allow the APR to "fly" into the board of the submarine-target.
At the same time, a large over-burdening of the APR-2E led to a significant “failure” of the rocket in depth at each circulation, limiting the minimum depth of use. This deficiency was eliminated in the APR-3E, equipped with a dual-mode turbo-jet engine and a new CCH with elevated performance characteristics. At 1991, it was the most perfect domestic CLO, which looked decent against the background of foreign analogues.
An important milestone that played a crucial role in the subsequent history of the development of our shipbuilding and weapons was the creation of diesel-electric submarines (diesel-electric submarines) of the 877EKM and 636 projects. In the development of the project 877 initially planned mass deliveries of such ships for export. In the following years of reform, this project almost saved our submarine shipbuilding.
The armament complex of the 877ECM project consisted of the means of lighting the situation (GUS MGC-400E Rubicon and GAS minisampling Arfa-ME), information processing tools (CIO Uzel-E), 533 mm remote-controlled anti-torpedoes TEST-71МЭ and 53-65КЭ anti-ship torpedoes (along with the old ones - 53-56В, СЭТ-53МЭ, СЭТ-65Э, which were provided with a unified mechanical data entry system for the shot). The low noise of the boat in combination with the anti-hydrolocation coating ensured a high concealment, and the SJC with a large-sized antenna - long detection ranges of surface targets and preemption in the detection of most submarines.
However, at the turn of 1980-1990-ies, the time of the “simple weapon” began to pass. It is interesting to compare the capabilities of the armament complex of the diesel-electric submarines of the 877EKM project (SJC MGC-400E, UUS B-EUS, torpedoes 53-65КЕ and TEST-71МЕ) and also used by the Indian Navy DEPL of the German project 209 / 1500 / 83E) torpedoes SUT Mod 1).
When attacking surface targets within the effective 53-65K torpedo distances, due to the SSN with guidance over the wake, the armament complex of the Russian boat is highly effective (more than the submarine of the 209 / 1500 project), but with increasing combat distances over 10 km, the effectiveness of the torpedoes The 53-65K drops sharply, while the effectiveness of the German remote-controlled torpedoes SUT continues to be high, up to almost twice the long distances.
In dueling situations of submarines, the ratio of noise and the effectiveness of submarine hydroacoustics directly influenced the results of a military collision - because in real conditions, the results were small, the first to receive significant advantages. Repeatedly demonstrated superiority in anticipation of the detection and use of weapons in the 877EKM project cannot in any way eliminate the obvious shortcomings of the TEST-71МЭ torpedoes (outdated CLN and telecontrol system, noise). Nevertheless, taking into account the telecontrol of TEST-71МЭ and the possibility of using GAS “Arfa” for the classification and precise guidance of TEST-71МE of the 877EKM submarine boat, there was a definite advantage over the SJC of the 209 / 1500 project.
Perestroika and the collapse of the country put the once mighty Soviet defense industry in an extremely difficult situation. A number of torpedo enterprises (Fizpribor, which became TNK Dastan (Kyrgyzstan), the Kirov Machine-Building Plant (Kazakhstan), and the Petrovsky Kiev Plant (Ukraine) remained outside the Russian Federation. Orders from the Russian Ministry of Defense have practically stopped.
The actual condition for the survival of enterprises was military-technical cooperation. During this period, the Central Research Institute "Gidropribor", based on the results of previously executed and "frozen" ROC, presented a new generation of export torpedoes marching under the cipher "TT" (thermal torpedo) and "TE" (electric torpedo):
The TT-1 is a thermal universal torpedo of mm 533 caliber with an axial-piston engine (APD).
TE2 - electric universal torpedo caliber 533 mm.
The TT-3 is a thermal torpedo of the caliber 533 mm with a power plant turbine (TSU).
TT-4 - small-sized thermal anti-submarine torpedo caliber 324 mm.
TT-5 - thermal anti-ship long-range torpedo caliber 650 mm.
The Dvigatel plant, which mass-produced the TEST-71М torpedo, in order to supply the 877EKM and 636 submarine ammunition sets with the aid of the 65M and XESTUM 71M universal anti-submarine torpedoes with the installation of the anti-ship canal with in-place ample and no-one-one-one-one-one-one-one-one-one-one-one-one-one-one-one-one-one-one-quarter treatment system with the anti-ship torpedo set XT-XNUMX and XNUMX. antisubmarine SSN "Sapphire" on SSN "Ceramics".
SRI "Morteplotekhnika" offered power propulsion modules for torpedoes TT-1 and TT-3 and torpedoes UGST.
TNK "Dastan" (Bishkek) serially producing the torpedo SET-65, carried out its modernization taking into account the wishes of the Indian Navy (with the installation of an Indian rechargeable battery and the replacement of SSN Sapphire with SSN of "Ceramics" type, and later on its profound modernization - " KM ").
Machine-building plant named after SM. Kirov (Alma-Ata) proposed upgrading the oxygen torpedo 53-65КЭ (version 53-65КМЭ).
GNPP “Region” offered the APR-2E, APR-3E, APR-3МЭ anti-submarine missiles, the new MTT compact torpedo and was the developer of the SSN and the UGST torpedo control system.
The Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering presented for export the Medvedka-E anti-submarine missile with a warhead — the anti-submarine torpedo 294UM. Unfortunately, this development has not been completed. It is also regrettable that in the 1990-ies. such a high-performance production model of anti-submarine weapons like the Waterfall anti-submarine missile (PLR) was not presented for export. Instead, the Novator Design Bureau (developer) in the middle of the 1990s. presented new developments - two versions of anti-submarine missiles from the Club complex (for surface ships - 91РТЭ2 and submarines 91РЭ1), the development of which was just beginning.
Heat torpedoes caliber 533 mm
The torpedo 211TT1, also known as TT-1 (head executor of the Central Research Institute Gidropribor), was developed under a contract concluded between the Chinese shipbuilding foreign trade association China Shipbuilding Trading Company and the Rosvooruzhenie 26 Group of Companies May 1994 in the 1998 in China factory in China. brake testing of the power plant (ESA) a final act was signed on the complete fulfillment of all obligations assumed by the parties. ”That is, not whole torpedoes were put under this contract, but“ individual compartments of the products ”—in fact, A sliding module (EDM) with an axial-piston engine. The SSN and the control system of the new Chinese torpedo were their own (Chinese). The appearance of 211ТТ1 (water cannon, folding steering wheels) is easily guessed today in the Chinese Y-6 torpedo (which has become virtually the “Physicist of China”) An interesting feature of the Y-6 is the telecontrol hose reel (as opposed to the 211TT1 towed torpedo coil presented in the Rosoboronexport catalog).
Information about the reasons for the refusal of the Chinese side of the Russian SSN and SU was not reported, however, in the anniversary edition of 60 years of the Central Research Institute Morphyspribor, there were problems with the completion and obsolescence of the electronic components of the promising UGST torpedo developed by the Central Research Institute Gidropribor. This led to the beginning in 1997 of work on the development of an actually new UGST torpedo, with an onboard integrated control system developed by the SNNP "Region", which had significantly higher performance characteristics and halved mass-dimensional indicators. State tests of the updated UGTS torpedo took place on September 2006 - December 2007.
The torpedo TT-3 also had a thermal unit-controlled power system, but unlike the TT-1 (with ADF), a turbine one (TSU). The advantage of the ADF are good depth characteristics, at the same time, the TSU allows it to have significantly more power at shallower depths. As with the 211 TT-1, the TT-3 torpedo was put into practice in the form of exporting its propulsion system under the symbol TPS-53.
The UGST torpedo and the TPS-53 propulsion system by 2 decree of the President of Russia of September 2003 were included in the list of weapons intended for export. An advertising passport for them was approved at 200 4. The media referred to the contract of the Scientific Research Institute of Marine Technology, with the Chinese shipbuilding corporation China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) for the development of the latest torpedo power plant with a turbine engine, concluded in 2009.
Small and aircraft torpedoes
As noted above, with the 1980's. strong positions in the Russian torpedo export took aviation anti-submarine missiles. The APR-2E rocket was supplemented with the APR-2МE modification, which ensured effective work at shallow depths (from 40-60 m). The APR-3E missiles (and its subsequent modification of the APR-3МЭ) provided a sharp increase in the performance characteristics, both in terms of transport characteristics and the SNR capabilities.
The export capabilities of the UMGT-400МЭ 1 torpedoes were hampered by their significant mass-dimensional characteristics, as well as by the CLO limitations developed for use in oceanic areas with a depth of application of at least 100 m (although the customers on the offshore area were interested in zone).
The MPT-324UME 1-mm torpedo was developed as a warhead of an anti-submarine missile system and was not available for export in the version for aircraft carriers and surface ships. This should be recognized as a big mistake of the 1990's. - instead of the MPT-1UME, the Gidropribor presented for export a new small-sized torpedo TT-4 of the 324 caliber mm. There is no detailed information on it, but the situation with it is fully characterized by the fact that after 2007, it was no longer mentioned by “Gidropribor”, and on the official website of the group it was replaced by the outdated UMGT-1МЭ.
Insufficient TTH MPT-XNUMHUME led to the fact that in 1, according to the results of a meeting in Kaspiysk, the heads of three leading torpedo enterprises, the Research Institute of Marine Technology (Zhukov), SNPP Region (Shakhidzhanov) and the Dagdizel plant (Pokorsky) decided to carrying out the initiative research and development work “Malyshka” on the development of MTT small-scale torpedoes with significantly improved performance characteristics. The lead contractor (and the developer of the hardware module) —SNPP Region, the Research and Development Institute of Marine Technology, developed the torpedo energy propulsion module, the Dagdiesel plant was assumed to be a torpedo manufacturer.
Very promising results (for example, the possibility of forcing the power of a new ESA twice as high as specified) was confirmed by the initiative research and development “Malyshka” led to a custom-made R & D “Mill”. OCD "Package", "Answer". September 2 The MTT torpedo 2003 was included in the list of weapons allowed for export by decree of the President of Russia. An advertising passport for MTT was approved in 2006.
Electric torpedoes caliber 533 mm
The traditional developer of electric torpedoes in the USSR was the Central Research Institute Gidropribor (St. Petersburg), with the subsequent revision and modernization of torpedoes by the design bureaus of factories that carried out mass production.
The torpedoes SET-65, USET-80 and UMGT-1 were manufactured at the “Fizpribor” plant (now TNK “Dastan”, Kyrgyzstan). There also produced SSN for most domestic torpedoes. Torpedoes TEST-71М were produced at the Dvigatel plant (St. Petersburg), and USET-80 torpedoes at the Dagdizel plant (Kaspiysk). Kiev Petrovsky Plant of Automatics (Ukraine) produced control devices for most domestic torpedoes (including electric ones).
In 1990-s. for delivery to the export of the Central Research Institute Gidropribor, an export modification of the USET-80 torpedo, the ТЭ2 torpedo, was proposed. Based on its studies at the end of the 1990-x - the beginning of the 2000-x. The development of the UETT torpedoes for deliveries of 636 project (with mechanical data entry and remote control) as part of the armament of diesel-electric submarines was carried out, and these torpedoes were delivered to China. In total, no less than 66 WETT torpedoes were delivered (with disposable water-activated B410MI rechargeable batteries), and probably some practical ones for combat training.
Due to the fact that the manufacturer of torpedoes 53-65K, which were part of the diesel-electric submarines ammunition of the 877EKM project, remained outside of Russia, in the 1990-ies. The Dagdizel plant design bureau carried out a modernization of the TEST-71ME torpedoes (with the Sapfir SSN) with the installation of the antisubmarine Ceramika SSN and the anti-ship CLS VLKS (vertical wake of the wake), that is, the torpedo became universal in targets. Depending on the customer's requests, the torpedo was delivered with or without a remote control. In 2000's modernized torpedo TEST-71MKE-NK serially exported, in particular, according to available information, for the Algerian Navy.
However, the lag of TEST-71MKE-NK on TTX torpedoes from TE2 torpedoes, and most importantly - the production of its battery outside the Russian Federation, led to the termination of the development line of TEST-71 torpedoes in favor of TE2. The last torpedo of TEST-71MKE-NK was presented on the website of the Concern of the sea underwater weapon “Gidropribor” in 2008, and was not mentioned further.
Torpedo ТЭ2, presented for the first time at the International Navy Salon IMDS-2003, continues the torpedo line USET-80 - UETT and is actually its localization for serial production at the Engine plant. In the Rosoboronexport 2003 catalog, the torpedo had three options — two “base”, differing only in the firing data: TE2-01 — mechanical (spindle), TE2-02 — electronic, and the third option (TE2-03) with elevated TTH. due to the use of a more powerful power plant and the new CCH and SU. In the subsequent modification ТЭ2-03 was not mentioned. Serial shipments of torpedoes ТЭ2 to India under the contract 2005 were mentioned in the reporting documents of the Engine plant for 2009.
Export torpedoes of enterprises of the CIS countries
Presented by the SM Machine-Building Plant. Kirov on MVMS-2003 533-mm universal thermal torpedo UTT-2000 "Pelikan" was made on the Soviet backlog on the ROC "Magot" (the development of cheap universal oxygen torpedoes), but the insufficient level of the enterprise and the difficult situation on it excluded the possibility of bringing this topic to practical result. Unlike Pelikan, the modernization of the 53-65КE oxygen torpedo (53-65КМ variant) aroused interest among foreign customers, and this theme (as well as the supply of spare parts for 53-65К repair) largely fed the company in the following years.
TNK "Dastan" at the end of 1990's upgraded the torpedoes SET-65E (with the installation of SSN "Ceramics" and the Indian battery), subsequently performing serial deliveries of updated torpedoes for the Indian Navy (in 2006 - 36 pieces, in 2011 - 14 pieces, in 2012, - 8 pieces). It should be noted that the deep modernization of the ceramics system “Ceramics” (in fact, the development of the new CES) carried out by the TNK “Dastan” with the help of Russian developers, ensured a sharp increase in its performance characteristics.
The post-war development of marine underwater weapons and means of underwater warfare in the leading countries of the world marked a number of generations (“jumps”) of torpedoes, with a dramatically different technical level and tactical capabilities.
We can assume that, in terms of their performance characteristics, the new Russian export torpedoes UGTS and MTT as a whole are at the level of modern requirements. A certain lag in the transport characteristics of the UGST torpedoes from the modern American 533-mm torpedoes Mk 48 is associated with extremely stringent requirements for fire and explosion safety, imposed on domestic torpedoes, and measures for their implementation. Data on the cost of UGST torpedoes are not available, however, for its domestic counterpart “Physicist-1” in 2008, prices were quoted from 49,8 million rubles to 50,6 million rubles. Even taking into account the subsequent price increase, the price of the UGTS should be within the “bar” of 2,8 million for the product indicated in the Indian tender for torpedoes for the submarine of the 75I project.
However, the UGST torpedo can be attributed only to the generation “6 +”, while the seventh generation torpedoes have already been created in the West. The main disadvantage of the UGTD is the outdated telecontrol system. Obviously, the modernization of UGST torpedoes (advertising passport approved in 2004) and MTT (advertising passport approved in 2006) are necessary to ensure their high efficiency and export attractiveness in the coming years.
It is particularly necessary to note the possibility of a significant increase in the speed of the MTT torpedo (due to forcing the ESA to effectively solve the tasks of anti-torpedo protection - that is, the implementation of the anti-torpedo regime). The development of the modern torpedoes ssn extremely harshly raised the issue of anti-torpedo protection (PTZ). The seventh generation of torpedoes with ultra-wideband SSNs sharply reduced the effectiveness of hydroacoustic suppression tools (including such modern complexes as C-303). In these conditions, anti-torpedoes begin to play a large role in PTZ.
It is also obvious that the Russian torpedoes TE2 and UMGT-1МЭ in TTX are far behind the world level. These torpedoes, according to the possibilities of CLS and telecontrol, belong to the fourth or fifth generation, that is, they are morally obsolete. For this reason, the main role in the Russian torpedo export in the near future should be taken by the UGST, MTT, APR-3МЭ and their upgraded versions. There is also the possibility of a significant increase in the performance characteristics of the TE2 torpedoes through the use of powerful rechargeable batteries (for example, western batteries) and the modern valve motor VDPM (developed by Dagdizel OJSC).
Currently, developers of different countries have declared antitrust companies - ATT (USA), SeaSpider (Germany), MU-90NK (Italy) and Pack-NK (Russia). Of course, the task of defeating an attacking torpedo is very complicated, as evidenced by the insufficient probabilities of defeating the anti-torpedo MU-90NK, and the considerable development time (with a significant change in the appearance of the product already at the testing stage) of the anti-torpedo SeaSpider. Under these conditions, the anti-torpedo of the Russian package complex may become one of the brands of the global torpedo market. At the same time, it is necessary to develop and “underwater modification” of the complex, for use, primarily with the diesel-electric submarines.
The promotion of domestic anti-torpedoes and small-sized torpedoes (MTT) can be extended by proposing the use of customers' serial ships using standard Western type Mk 324 and ILAS types of 32-mm TA (with GAS target designation). The principal possibility of firing from the Western TAs of the Mk 32 type with “heavy” small-sized torpedoes is confirmed by their refinement under the American torpedo Mk 50 (having a similar weight to MTT).
In the future, aviation anti-submarine missiles will not only maintain their positions, but also significantly strengthen them. When using weapons by anti-submarine aircraft with modern search and targeting systems, targeting errors are small and completely overlap with the range of the APR (i.e., the range of conventional small-sized torpedoes is excessive). At the same time, the significantly higher APR speed not only reduces the time of hitting the target, but also reduces the effectiveness of the complexes of active anti-torpedo protection of submarines, whose adoption should be expected in the near future.
Thus, despite a number of difficulties, the most modern export models of Russian torpedo weapons (324-mm anti-submarine torpedoes MTT, 533-mm universal torpedoes UGST, anti-torpedoes Packet-E, anti-aircraft missiles APR-3МE) have significant prospects in the world market .