Light and sorrow. Day of partisans and underground fighters

17
Since 2010, Russia has been celebrating the day of partisans and underground fighters. It was in 2010 that the presidential decree of 10 of April 2009 of the year No. 59-ФЗ came into force. The full version of the text of the presidential decree is as follows ("Consultant Plus"):

Include the Federal Law 1.1 March 13 of the Year N 1995-ФЗ in Article 32 “On Days of Military Glory and Memorable Dates of Russia” (Collection of Laws of the Russian Federation, 1995, N 11, 943 Art. 2005, N 30, 3109 Art. 2007 , N 10, Art. 1149; N 44, Art. 5279) change, stating it as follows:

"Article 1.1. Memorable dates of Russia
The following Russian memorable dates are set in the Russian Federation:
January 25 - Russian Students' Day;
April 12 - Cosmonautics Day;
June 22 - Day of Remembrance and Grief - the day of the start of World War II (1941 year);
29 June - Day of the partisans and underground fighters;
September 3 - Solidarity Day in the fight against terrorism;
November 7 - October Revolution Day 1917;
December 9 - Day of the Heroes of the Fatherland;
December 12 - Constitution Day of the Russian Federation. ".

Article 2
The cost of carrying out events dedicated to the memorial of Russia, provided for by paragraph five of the 1.1 article of the Federal Law of March 13 1995 of the year N 32-ФЗ "On Days of Military Glory and Memorable Dates of Russia" (as amended by this Federal Law), is funded by the federal budget, the budgets of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and local budgets, as well as extrabudgetary funds and voluntary (including earmarked) contributions and donations from individuals and legal entities in accordance with Article 6 of the said Fe the law of the act.

Article 3
This federal law enters into force on January 1, 2010.
President of the Russian Federation D. MEDVEDEV.

The appearance of this day in the calendar of military dates of Russia - restoration historical justice, because partisans and underground workers during the years of World War II made an invaluable contribution to the defeat of the enemy who entered our land.

The date of June 29 was not chosen by chance. It was on this day 73 a year ago (already a week after the start of World War II - 29 June 1941) that the directive of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (B) came into being, which directly concerned the formation of a partisan movement on Soviet territory.

From directive:

... to form guerrilla groups and sabotage groups to fight parts of the enemy army, to incite guerrilla war everywhere and everywhere, to blow up bridges, roads, damage telephone and telegraph communications, arson warehouses, creating intolerable conditions for the enemy and all his accomplices, to pursue and destroy them at every turn, tearing down all their activities.


And 5 September 1942 of the year appears the order of I.V. Stalin, which regulates specific tasks for partisan and underground movements.

From the order of Stalin:

I order:
1. In order to disrupt rail traffic and disrupt regular transportation in the enemy's rear, arrange railway accidents by all means, undermine railway bridges, blow up or burn station facilities, blow up, burn and shoot locomotives, wagons, and tanks at stations and sidings. At railway wrecks, destroy manpower, equipment, fuel, ammunition and other goods, as well as the surviving locomotives and wagons. On highway and unpaved roads to undermine and burn bridges, viaducts, destroy gati and other artificial structures. Destroy transports that transport ammunition and fuel. Horses to steal. If it is impossible to use weapons, transports and goods, make them useless by all possible means.
2. Whenever possible, exterminate military garrisons, headquarters and institutions, detachments of troops, separately the following officers and soldiers, guard transports and warehouses.
3. Destroy warehouses and bases of weapons, ammunition, fuel, food and other property, garages and repair shops.
4. Destroy communication lines on railways, highways and dirt roads, destroy communications equipment, cut and carry away wires, cut down and burn telegraph poles, destroy radio stations and their service personnel.
5. Attack enemy airfields and destroy airplanes, hangars, bombs and fuel depots, as well as destroy the flight-technical structure and protection of airfields.


In total, the order contains 10 points, at the end of which literally the following is said:
The combined actions of the Red Army and the partisan movement, the enemy will be destroyed..

The role of the partisan and underground movement during the Great Patriotic War was simply enormous. Thanks to the activity of the partisans, the Hitlerite units could not feel safe, being even hundreds of kilometers from the front. Partisan detachments in the Bryansk region, in Belarus, in the Ukraine, and in other territories inflicted on the German fascist troops substantial damage both in manpower and in military equipment. The activity of the partisans did not allow for an unimpeded supply of the troops of Nazi Germany and its allies.

For the German soldiers, policemen and their minions, the partisans turned out to be a real Damocles sword, which not only was brought over their heads, but also often delivered devastating blows.

Light and sorrow. Day of partisans and underground fighters


Hungarian paramilitary units were actively involved in anti-partisan punitive operations. Hungarian infantry brigades together with the German battalions from September 17 to October 3 1941, participated in the battles against the Bryansk partisans and the Soviet fighters who failed to leave the encirclement. Punitive operations were also carried out in relation to the civilian population suspected of having links with partisans, up to the liberation of these territories from invaders.

From the stories of residents of the Bryansk region, caught up in the zone of occupation. A resident of the Sevsky district V. Mazerkova (GARF materials, L-564) (the style, punctuation and spelling of the original source are preserved):

When they saw the men of our village, they said that they were partisans. And the same number, i.e. 20 / V-42 seized my husband Maserkov Sidor Borisovich and 1862 and my son Maserkov Alexey Sidorovich, 1927 was born and tortured, and after these tortures they tied their hands and threw them in a hole, then lit the straw and burned them in a potato pit. On the same day, they are not only my husband and son, they also burned 67 men.

A resident of the Sevsky district of the Bryansk region E. Vedeshina (GARF materials, L-488) (the style, punctuation and spelling of the original source are preserved):

That was in May of the 28 Day 42 of the year. I and almost all the inhabitants went to the forest. There were these thugs following. They are in our place where we (unintelligible) with our people shot and tortured 350 people including my children were tortured, daughter Nina 11 years, Tonya 8 years, little son Vitya 1 year and son Kohl of five years. I stayed alive under the corpses of my children.


In the period from 17 of September to 3 of October 1941, indicated above, the punitive detachments of Hungarians and Germans lost more than 3,5 thousands of servicemen in the battles against the Bryansk partisans. The total losses of the fascist German troops as a result of the activities of the Bryansk partisans is estimated at tens of thousands.



248 guerrillas both in the years and after its completion received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. Two (Sidor Kovpak and Aleksey Fedorov) became Twice Heroes of the Soviet Union. More 9 people who participated in the activities of partisan detachments were awarded the titles Hero of Russia (many - posthumously) in the period from 1994 to 2007 year.

In 2014, the 95 anniversary of the birth of Vera Voloshin, the Hero of Russia. Vera Voloshin in 1941, as part of a reconnaissance group, was abandoned in the German rear in the Volokolamsk area, along with Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya. Both girls accepted death at the hands of the Nazis on the same day 29 in November 1941 of the year in different localities: Vera in Golovkovo, Zoya in the village of Petrishchevo.

From the book of G. Frolov and I. Frolova “Muscovites-partisans - Heroes of the Fatherland”:

They brought her, poor, by car to the gallows, and there the loop dangles in the wind. Around the Germans gathered, there were many. And our prisoners who worked behind the bridge were driven. The girl was in the car. At first it was not visible, but when the side walls were lowered, I gasped. She lies, poor thing, in one underwear, and even then it is torn, and covered in blood. Two Germans, thick with such black crosses on their sleeves, got into the car, wanted to help her up. But the girl pushed the Germans away and, clinging to the cabin with one hand, rose. Her second hand was apparently slaughtered - hung like a whip. And then she started talking. At first she spoke something, see, in German, and then, became in our way.

“I,” he says, “do not fear death.” My comrades will take revenge for me. We will still win. You will see!

And the girl sang. And you know what song? The one that is sung at meetings every time and played on the radio in the morning and late at night.

- Internationale?

- Yes, this very song. And the Germans stand and listen silently. The officer who commanded the execution shouted something to the soldiers. They threw a noose around the neck of the girl and jumped off the car. The officer ran up to the chauffeur and gave the command to touch. And he sits, turned white all, you see, not used to hanging more people. The officer grabbed the revolver and shouted something to the chauffeur in his own way. Apparently, he swore very much. He seemed to wake up, and the car started off. The girl still managed to shout, so loudly that my blood froze in my veins: "Goodbye, comrades!" When I opened my eyes, I saw that she was already hanging.

She was 22 of the year.



100 years this year marks the birth of the guerrilla detachment in the Bryansk region, Belorussian and Ukrainian SSR Vladimir Bondarenko. Vladimir Illarionovich - Hero of the Soviet Union, holder of the Order of Lenin (titles were given posthumously). Vladimir Bondarenko took part in the destruction of a total of 16 German military echelons. In July-August 1943 alone, the Bondarenko squad destroyed the enemy's 250 soldiers. Vladimir Illarionovich died in a battle near the village of Berezichi in Volyn. He covered the retreat of his comrades in the detachment, who was ambushed by the enemy.

In the town of Orekhovo-Zuyevo (Moscow region), where Vladimir Bondarenko lived before the war, the street and the roadway are named in his honor.



The day of the partisans and underground fighters is at the same time a bright and sorrowful page of the calendar. Honoring the living, we do not forget about those who laid down their heads for the freedom and independence of our country, who defended the right to live on their land.



On this day, the information portal "Military Review" heartily congratulates veterans of the Great Patriotic War, who were fighters of partisan detachments and activists of the underground. I wish all these heroic people and their close relatives good health and well-being!
17 comments
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  1. +15
    29 June 2014 08: 16
    My grandfather Gregory rescued the commander of the partisan detachment, for which he received the Order of the Red Star, went to Berlin. Glory to the Soviet soldiers !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
    1. +3
      29 June 2014 08: 40
      Glory to the Soviet people !!! The broken Nazi RIDGE !!!
      1. +3
        29 June 2014 12: 54
        Quote: Armagedon
        Glory to the Soviet people !!! The broken Nazi RIDGE !!!

        A new page is being written in Donbas!
        1. +1
          29 June 2014 13: 48
          My maternal grandfather received a permanent fragment from the spine in Finnish, so he worked under the Germans underground in RONA (biography allowed). The front met in a Gestapo prison. Typically, in this prison no one betrayed anyone, even quite young, although there were shootings. The city with the prison stood on the first line of the Kursk Bulge, and when the front went on the offensive, the Germans tried to hastily liquidate the prison. The camera door opens, a line from a schmeiser, a grenade. On the camera, where he was sitting incl. and grandfather, this Nazi procedure broke off. Part of the prison was saved.

          Father, in order not to go to this RONA, a couple of months before the execution of 16 years went to the partisans. (In the literature I meet that they called in the RONA at the age of 17, or even at 18. Where did they get it.) By the time the front approached, all large formations (Kovpak, Naumov, Saburov) left our forest west. But the Kursk Bulge stood from April to August and the remaining partisans in the front-line forest strained the Germans so much that they threw units at the blockade of the forest, including tank, many times greater than the number of remaining partisans, in fact creating another front around the forest. Then the front, the calculation of 82mm mortar, then 45mm guns - not the best tools for self-survival in that war - but survived and won, reaching Batov’s 65th army and the Rokossovsky front to the Berlin operation. In the end, however, this front was turned to the German Baltic. But, nothing, it's good there too.
    2. 0
      29 June 2014 16: 17
      Quote: mig31
      My grandfather Gregory rescued the commander of the partisan detachment, for which he received the Order of the Red Star, went to Berlin. Glory to the Soviet soldiers !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

      And my grandfather Gregory when the partisan received from the sniper in his hand and could not cut bread until the end of his life.
  2. +6
    29 June 2014 08: 29
    from the Don.
    Not everyone will dare to take weapons behind enemy lines and fight with their regular units! At all times, the Slavs did not cave in under the enemies of the country, no matter what the government was at the head of the country. And it will always be so! Glory to the patriots of the motherland!
  3. +3
    29 June 2014 08: 36
    Yeah. Although in our days there are partisans. Someone pulled the train waiting for Kharkiv.
    1. +10
      29 June 2014 08: 43
      Quote: Zomanus
      Although in our days there are partisans.

      There are partisans and the underground in Ukraine. True patriots. It's just not the time to talk about them. But this time will come!
      In the meantime, remember those who fought the enemy in the occupied territories, their eternal memory! We wish success and good luck to those who are fighting the fascists now.
  4. +2
    29 June 2014 08: 37
    We know a lot about the glorious deeds of the partisans, but it seems to me that even more feats of the people's avengers remained in the shadow of the unknown.
    Eternal memory to everyone who died for their homeland!
  5. +5
    29 June 2014 08: 40
    But the girl pushed the Germans away and, clinging to the cabin with one hand, got up.
    - LIKE THIS! already breaks me old! I probably wouldn’t be able to, no matter how patriotic I consider myself ...
    Glory to you daughter! Glory in the memory of all US RUSSIAN men and women !!!
  6. +3
    29 June 2014 09: 04
    My grandfather, was captured near Myasniy Bor, in the summer of 1942, fled, got to Italy, fought in the Italian partisan brigade .. He returned to his homeland, being from Siberia, was exiled to Poti for 3 years, there he was under supervision and worked as a shoemaker ..
  7. sleepy
    +3
    29 June 2014 09: 32
    Reminder of the partisan from 1942.

    Partisan's companion, 1942. Destroy enemy tanks!
    "In the fight against tanks, remember: a brave man is not afraid of a tank.
    The bolder you encounter an enemy machine, the easier it is to destroy it.
    Look for the fascist tanks yourself and destroy them. "

    Partisan's companion, 1942. How to deal with an air enemy.
    “Know that from rifles and light machine guns the most effective fire on an aircraft is obtained when the aircraft is at an altitude of no more than 800 meters.
    If you are acting alone, fire a cold-blooded target ... "
    How and by which aircraft to shoot is described in this chapter, which we do not fully publish.
    http://bulochnikov.livejournal.com/1477952.html

    Training film of the Soviet Army: military operations in the city. 1955 year.
    Defense in the city:
    http://bulochnikov.livejournal.com/1485079.html

    Guide to the survival and defense of the city.
    http://apotime.ru/publ/rukovodstvo_po_vyzhivaniju_i_oborone_goroda/7-1-0-4402
  8. +3
    29 June 2014 09: 38
    So, from the time of Denis Davydov to the present day ...
    To be in occupied territory, often in a hostile
    surrounded! And do your thing for fear of exposing each
    give me a sec. Not being able to relax and rest.
    Being an underground is a lot harder psychologically than serving
    in regular parts. Life without the right to make a mistake! How many them
    remained unknown, brutally murdered ... Those heroes whose names
    we will never know. I think this day is not just a holiday,
    and first of all, a day of remembrance of the partisans and
    underground workers who laid down their lives and their feat in
    our common Victory!
    Bright memory to them! And alive, good health!
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. +2
    29 June 2014 11: 42
    Glory to the partisans of that war! This decree celebrating a pleasant exception for the Medvedev government. In the territories with Russophobic politics, these heroes are called traitors to the motherland, everyone saw the destroyed monuments and memorial plaques. I don’t know, apparently, it’s easier and safer to fight with the memory of real heroes — the monument will not give change, but it's a pity.
  11. +1
    29 June 2014 12: 09
    But isn't the "partisans and underground workers", that part of them that acts for the good of the motherland against the external enemy, are not the same "Defenders of the Fatherland"? Something seems to me that it's just for the sake of "financing costs for events dedicated to the memorable date of Russia, carried out at the expense of the federal budget, the budgets of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and local budgets, as well as extrabudgetary funds and voluntary (including earmarked) contributions and donations from individuals and legal entities ...."
    The local authorities do not take the holiday seriously, but "the money is allocated and used."
    Here! Just realized: since 2010, I have never heard of this holiday! belay
    1. +1
      29 June 2014 15: 30
      I think you are wrong. Even if this MEMORY DAY, rather than a holiday, was not there before, it is fair to establish it. Because, nevertheless, in their ranks there were a lot of ordinary people, including children, and the society probably does not know about the EXPLOIT of many people, their names.
      So everything is right!
      Eternal GLORY to everyone who fought against the Nazis, including in the occupation, known to HEROES and UNKNOWN! Earth rest in peace, and THANKS that they did not spare their lives, defending the Fatherland!
  12. +1
    29 June 2014 15: 19
    Well, today in Ukraine mattress moths are once again convincing themselves in the shoes of their missing mercenaries, fried in downed planes and helicopters, torn into bloody spray with bursts of heavy machine guns, that it’s impossible to defeat Russians in battle - not a single army in the world could withstand the Russian bayonet attack and the following hand-to-hand combat ...
  13. +2
    29 June 2014 15: 37
    My uncle, who was surrounded in 1941, fought in a partisan detachment in the Bryansk forests. He brought a gift to his brother, my father, which my father, who had not fought and worked in the evacuation, eventually threw it into the toilet. Uncle brought to Moscow his second wife, with whom he lived in a partisan detachment. After the war, he drank and died. Before the war, he did not drink alcohol.
  14. +1
    29 June 2014 19: 38
    Masherov would recall the one-sided article, Zaslonov was also the heroes of the Soviet Union. And as Wilhelm Cuba was destroyed, there were few partisans in Ukraine, there were almost no in western Ukraine
  15. KIRON
    +1
    29 June 2014 19: 46
    Ruslan. It is necessary to recall many. In schools about the war only 15 hours. For three classes. With respect to all-
  16. 0
    29 June 2014 20: 52
    The new fascists in their vile skin and in our time come to know WHO such a Russian Partisan soldier

    Soulful holiday!
  17. The comment was deleted.