Cossacks in the late XIX century

By the beginning of the reign of Emperor Alexander II, the position of Russia, both externally and internally, was difficult. Finance has been brought to extreme stress. In the Crimea and the Caucasus were bloody wars. Austria occupied Moldova and Wallachia, entered into an alliance with Britain and France and was ready to oppose Russia. Prussia hesitated, not joining either side. The Sardinian king took the side of the Allies and sent a corps to the Crimea. Sweden and Spain were ready to follow his example. Russia found itself in international isolation. 8 September 1855, the allies took Malakhov barrow and the Russian army left Sevastopol. Among the failures of the Crimean Front, a report came from the Caucasian Front about the capture of Kars and the surrender of the large Turkish army. The Cossacks of the legendary Don General Baklanov played a decisive role in this victory. By this time, all the opponents were tired of the war and there was a lull on all fronts. Negotiations began, which ended with the Paris Peace Treaty, which was signed in March 1857. According to it, Russia regained Sevastopol, returned Kars to the Turks, withdrew its fleet from the Black Sea, which was declared neutral, and the Bosporus and Dardanelles were closed to warships of all countries.

In the Caucasus for many decades, there was also a war that was considered endless. However, in the 1854-1856 years, very successful expeditions were made against non-peaceful mountain villages, and the entire left coast of the Sunzha River was inhabited by Cossack villages. Tired of the endless war, the Chechens at the end of the 50s began to swear allegiance to Russia. Shamil fled to Dagestan in the mountain aul Gunib, where he was surrounded and 25 August 1859, gave up. After the capture of Shamil in the Caucasian War a turning point came.

After the end of the Crimean War and the conquest of Chechnya and Dagestan, internal reforms began in Russia, which also affected the Cossacks. There were different points of view regarding the internal situation and status of the Cossacks in the government. The liberal part of society had the idea of ​​dissolving the Cossacks in the general mass of the Russian people. This point of view was also adhered to by the Minister of War Milutin. He prepared and 1 January 1863 of the year sent a note to the troops, which suggested:
- to replace the Cossack general service with a set of eager people who love this business
- set free access and exit of people from the Cossack state
- enter personal land tenure
- to distinguish in the Cossack regions a military unit from a civil one, a judicial one from an administrative part, and to introduce the imperial law into judicial proceedings and the judicial system.
On the part of the Cossacks, the reform met with sharp opposition, because in fact it meant the liquidation of the Cossacks. In response, the Chief of Staff of the Don Army, Lieutenant-General Dondukov-Korsakov, indicated to the Minister of War three unshakable beginnings of Cossack life:
- public land ownership
- Caste isolation of the Troops
- the custom of electing and self-government
Decisive opponents of reforming the Cossacks were many grandees and, above all, Prince Baryatinsky, who had subdued the Caucasus mainly with Cossack swords. Emperor Alexander II himself did not decide on the reform proposed by Milyutin. After all, even 2 of October 1827 of the year (9-years old), he, then the heir and Grand Duke, was appointed the august chieftain of all Cossack troops. Military atamans became his governors in the Cossack regions. All his childhood, youth and youth were surrounded by Cossacks: uncles, orderlies, orderlies, instructors, trainers and educators. In the end, after many disputes, a letter was declared confirming the rights and privileges of the Cossacks.

The emperor paid special attention to the situation of military settlements. Briefly recall history this question. The brilliant victories of the Cossacks in the war against Napoleon attracted the attention of all of Europe. The attention of European nations was drawn to the internal life of the Cossack troops, to their military organization, to training and economic structure. Cossacks in their everyday life combined the qualities of a good farmer, cattle farmer, business executive, they lived comfortably in the conditions of people's democracy and, without looking up from the economy, could maintain high military qualities in their midst. Combat qualities and good military training were developed by life itself, passed down from generation to generation over the centuries, and thus the psychology of the natural warrior was formed. The outstanding successes of the Cossacks in the Patriotic War of 1812 of the year played a cruel joke in the theory and practice of European military construction and over the entire military organizational thought of the first half of the XIX century. The high cost of numerous armies, which tore off large masses of the male population from economic life, once again aroused the idea of ​​creating an army on the model of Cossack life. Landwehr, landsturm, Volkssturm and other types of militia began to be formed in the countries of the Germanic peoples. But the most stubborn implementation of the organization of the army on the Cossack model was manifested in Russia and most of the troops, after World War II, was turned into military settlements for half a century. This experience lasted not only in the reign of Alexander I, but also during the next reign of Nicholas I and ended, both from a military and economic point of view, with complete failure. A well-known Latin proverb says: "what is allowed to Jupiter, not allowed to the bull", and once again this experience proved that it is impossible to transform men into Cossacks by an administrative decree. Through the efforts and efforts of the military settlers, this experience turned out to be extremely unsuccessful, the productive Cossack idea was perverted and turned into a parody, and this military-organizational caricature became one of the weighty reasons for Russia's defeat in the Crimean War. Possessing on paper more than a million-strong army, the empire could hardly put on the front only a few truly combat-ready divisions. In 1857, General Stolypin was commissioned to audit the military settlements and establish their real importance in the state’s defense system. The general submitted a report to the sovereign with the conclusion that military settlements were materially disadvantageous and did not achieve their goal. The system of military settlements did not produce a soldier-soldier, but reduced the quality of a good farmer. 4 June 1857 was approved the Regulation on the new structure of military settlements with the treatment of their population in state peasants. The destruction of military settlements freed from abnormal living conditions until 700 000 people of the Russian population. The Cossack and Irregular troops remained under the jurisdiction of the military settlements department, and 23 in August 1857 was transformed into the Cossack Forces Directorate, for the Cossacks demonstrated a completely different situation. Their experience of the formation of new Cossack settlements, through the relocation of part of the Cossacks to new places, was also not easy and smooth, but had extremely positive results for the empire and the Cossacks themselves. We illustrate this with the example of the creation of the New Frontier Line in the Orenburg Cossack Army. In July 1835, the Orenburg military governor V.A. Perovskiy proceeded to set up this line and outlined 32 locations for Cossack settlements, numbered from No. XXUMX to No. XXUMX. The way of life of the Cossack warriors, plowmen and herdsmen, was formed among the nomads, in the age-old struggle with them and was adapted for service on the troubled, dangerous and remote border. Their age-old way of life taught with one hand to drive a plow in a furrow or to save herds, and with the other to hold a gun with a cocked hammer. Therefore, first of all, the Cossacks of the inner cantons of the old frontier lines and the remnants of the Volga Cossacks of the Zakamsk line, the Samara, Alekseev, Stavropol baptized Kalmyks (meaning Stavropol on the Volga, renamed Togliatti in the 1964 year) were asked to move to the New Line, or go to military settlements The Cossack population of the old lines was accustomed to discipline and law-abiding, so the relocation to new places passed without great excesses. In spite of the great government and military assistance, the transfer to the New Line and the separation from the inhabited places for most of the immigrants became an ordeal and great sorrow. Thousands of people, plunging a part of their belongings to the carts, reached out with long wagons through the Ural range. The order for the relocation to the New Line was carried out quickly and abruptly. They were given 24 hours for gathering, the hostesses did not have time to take the rolls out of the oven, as all the families loaded the carts on carts and together with the cattle they drove hundreds of miles into unknown lands. By 1837, Cossack villages were built and settled on 23 on the New Line, 1140 houses and barracks for local garrisons were built in them. But there were not enough Cossacks for resettlement. Therefore, the military governor V.A. Perovsky disbanded the 4,6,8 and 10 infantry battalions stationed in the Orsk, Kizil, Verkhneuralsk and Trinity Fortresses and, having turned them into Cossacks, expelled everyone to the New Line with their families. But what was possible for the Cossacks, it turned out to be very difficult for infantry soldiers. At the new place, many were simply helpless and became a burden for the troops and the state, 419 families did not build houses and did not start farms, languishing idle in poverty, waiting for their return to their former places of service. The experience with the relocation of soldiers' battalions has once again shown that the Cossacks are the only suitable military contingent for the border troops and settlements. The situation was even worse with the peasants. According to the Regulations on the Orenburg Cossack Army adopted in 1840, all the lands of the New Line, as well as the lands of the state peasants of Verkhneuralsk, Troitsky and Chelyabinsk counties, entered the territory of the army, and all the peasants living on these lands became Cossacks. But the 8750 peasants of the Kundravinskaya, Verkhneuvelskaya and Nizhneuvelskaya volosts did not want to put on the Cossacks and rebelled. Only the arrival of the Cossack regiment with two guns humbled and convinced some of them to go up to the Cossacks, the rest went to Buzuluksky district. Unrest spread to other peasant villages. The whole 1843 year Nakaznaya chieftain N.E. Tsukato with the regiment of Colonel Timler, where persuasion, where with promises, where with flogging pacified the peasants in other villages and put them in the Cossacks. This is how the "powerless" peasants were driven into a "free" Cossack life. It turned out that Russian peasants were not easy. It’s one thing to blindly dream, tinker and strive to “get Don” and Cossack orders of people's democracy. It is another thing to live in this very democracy, bearing full responsibility for the service, the Fatherland and the border. No, the Cossack share was not sweet, she gave bitterness to the majority of serving Cossacks. Only courageous, patient and strong in spirit and body warriors could withstand the restless, difficult and dangerous service on the line, and the weak could not endure, died, served in the race or went to prison. By 1844, 12155 male souls were relocated to 2877, including 7109 Nagaibak Cossacks (baptized Tatars) and XNUMX white farmer peasants and soldiers, the rest were Cossacks from the old lines. weapons or by the name of those places in Russia, France, Germany and Turkey, where the Cossacks won major victories. Thus, villages and villages with the name Rome, Berlin, Paris, Fershampenoise, Chesma, Varna, Kassel, Leipzig, etc., have appeared and still exist on the map of the Chelyabinsk Region. In this or similar way, without using a crook like that, for a short period of time, by historical standards, eight new Cossack troops were created along the borders of the empire.

Since 1857, other reforms have been taking place in the Cossack troops, but they were closely associated with the reform of Russia as a whole. After the liquidation of military settlements, military service was reduced from 25 to 15 years, during navy up to 14 years. 5 March 1861, the manifesto on the liberation of the peasants from the dependence of the landlords was made public and it began to be enforced. With 1862, judicial reform began. The judicial part was separated from the executive, administrative, and legislative branches. Glasnost was established in civil and criminal proceedings, the legal profession, the institution of jury lawyers and jurors, the court of cassation and the notary were established. In foreign policy in these years there was no significant misunderstanding with foreign powers. But in the domestic politics in Poland there were unrest. Taking advantage of the weakening of power, the Polish gentry provoked and caused riots, which grew into insurgency. 30 was killed and more than 400 of the Russian military were wounded. Troops and Cossacks were sent to Poland, and after the change of several governors, General Barsoy was seized by the ruling “Jon” rebellion and by May 1864, the rebellion was over. European yards were indifferent to the Polish insurrection, and Bismarck even offered Prussia’s suppression services. He wrote: “Possession of the Polish provinces is a heavy burden, both for Russia and for Prussia. But the united Poland will break the state integrity of both Russia and Prussia, and the Poles will become the most zealous and predatory allies of any enemy of Russia and Prussia, intolerable neighbors, and their ambition will be continuously aimed at winning back the old Polish borders. On this issue, the disengagement between Russia and Prussia is simply unthinkable. The Poles despaired of life itself, I fully sympathize with their situation. But if we want to preserve ourselves, we have nothing to do but how to destroy them. The wolf is not to blame for the fact that the Lord has created him, but this wolf itself is killed as soon as possible. " In order to cut off the Polish people from the corrupting influence of the 19 gentry on February 1864, a manifesto was issued, giving Polish peasants land. And in Europe at that time there were big military and political changes. 1866 year marked the beginning of the war of Prussia with Austria. The Prussians demonstrated to the world a new type of organization of war (Ordnung Moltke) and magnificent military art. In a short time they broke the resistance of the Austrians and occupied Saxony, then Bohemia, and approached Vienna. As a result, Prussia united all Germanic peoples (except Austria), and the Prussian king became the emperor of Germany. There was a reconciliation between Austria and Hungary, and they created a dual monarchy. Moldavia and Wallachia were merged into one state of Romania, and Prince Charles of Hohenzoltern was placed on the throne. A conflict was brewing between France and Germany over the legacy of the Spanish throne, with the result that France declared war on Germany in June 1870. Russia kept strict neutrality in this war. The complete defeat of the French at Verdun and Metz showed the superiority of the Prussian military doctrine and the army. Soon the French army capitulated, and the emperor Napoleon III was captured. Germany joined Alsace and Lorraine and France pledged to pay 12 billion francs in contributions in three years. After the Austro-Franco-Prussian wars, the attention of European peoples was drawn to Turkey, more precisely to the massacre of the Turks with the Christian peoples. In the summer of 1875, a rebellion broke out in Herzegovina. He was secretly supported by Serbia and Montenegro. The Turks used armed forces to suppress the uprising, there were huge casualties. But the uprising only grew. The efforts of the Austrian Chancellor Andrássy and international mediators to resolve the situation in Herzegovina were not successful. The situation was aggravated by internal turmoil in Turkey, the Grand Vizier was dismissed there and the Sultan was killed. Abdul Hamid entered the throne and announced an amnesty for the rebels. But in the provinces unauthorized and brutal massacres of the Turks with the Christian population began, in Bulgaria the Turks brutally killed up to 12 thousands of people. These atrocities caused indignation in Europe, Serbia and Montenegro declared war on Turkey, but were defeated. Montenegrin Prince appealed to the six powers to help stop the bloodshed.

By this time, reforms were made in the Russian army, conducted by their military minister, General Milyutin. The service life of soldiers was reduced to 15 years, in the fleet to 10 years. The number of the army was reduced. The reforms also affected the Cossack troops. October 28 1866, when he was appointed Ataman General Potapov, he was named the military ataman of the Don Army with the rights of the Governor-General and the commander of the military district. The ataman was given the right to appoint regimental commanders. Military duty was transformed into a military headquarters with the rights of the district administration. Similar transformations took place in other Cossack troops. In January 1869, the Cossack regiments were subordinated to the heads of the cavalry divisions in all military districts. In 1870, a disciplinary charter was introduced in the Cossack troops and a rapid-fire bolt weapon was introduced. In 1875, the "Charter of conscription of the Don Army" was approved. According to the new situation, unlike other classes, the Cossacks began service with 18 years. The first 3 of the year (from 18 to 21) were counted in the “prep level”, from 21 to 33 years, i.e. 12 years, the Cossacks were listed in the "drill discharge", after which 5 years (34-38 years) remained in the reserve at the place of residence, but with the obligation to regularly maintain horses, weapons and equipment. The service in the "drill" included 4, active service in the shelves and 8 years on the "rebate." Being in the preparatory discharge and on the benefits, the Cossacks lived at home, but were camp camps. Here are the stages of the Cossack service:

Cossacks in the late XIX century

Fig. 1 pre-draft preparation

Fig. 2 fist fight in the prep level

Fig. 3 on active service

Fig. 4 on the "break"

Fig. 5 in stock

In fact, the Cossacks, without coercion, served from a very young age to a very old age. Under the supervision and guidance of relatives and experienced Cossacks who were on the "privilege", young Cossacks (Cossacks), long before being enrolled in the preparatory discharge, participated in races, trained in jigit and order, horse breeding, masterly handling of cold and firearms. Year-round war games and competitions, wall-to-wall fisticuffs and wrestling fights were held. A ritual of recording a newly born Cossack in the registry and landing a young Cossack in the saddle wore a truly ritual character.

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Fig. 6,7 rite landing Cossack in the saddle

Fig. 8 young Cossack trooper

Cossack regiments were divided into three lines. The regiments of the 1 line, consisting of Cossacks 21-25 for years, served on the borders of Russia. The staffs and officers of the 2 and 3 regiments were in the Cossack regions. In the event of war, they were supplemented by Cossacks 25-33 for years and performed at the theater of military operations. The Cossacks of the “reserve” in this case made up individual hundreds and also fought in the war. In the extreme case, when declaring a spill (general mobilization), militia could be formed from Cossacks who retired from the “stock” by age. In 1875, the same situation was adopted for the Urals, then in 1876, for the Orenburg, later for the Trans-Baikal, Semirechensky, Amur, Siberian, Astrakhan. Last, in 1882, similar transformations took place in the Kuban and Terek troops. Military reform and management reform significantly influenced the life of the Cossacks. The burden of service has become much lighter, but not enough to give enough time to the au pair.

During the Balkan war, the Serbs suffered a complete defeat and the Turkish army moved to Belgrade. Russia demanded that Turkey stop moving, but the Turks did not obey the demand. Russia conducted partial mobilization and doubled the number of peacetime troops to 546 thousands of people. By the beginning of 1877, in the Danube army against Turkey there were 193 thousands of people, in the Odessa district to protect the coast - 72 thousands, in the Kiev district there were thousands more fighters in the reserve 72. The Caucasian corps had 79 foot battalions and 150 squadrons and Cossack hundreds. Russian mobilization made an impression, and European countries developed peaceful conditions for the preparation of a peace conference. But the Turks rejected these conditions. Bismarck was entirely on the side of Russia, Austria occupied a friendly neutrality. 19 March in London, representatives of the European powers put forward demands for Turkey to improve the position of Christian peoples. Turkey rejected them, in these conditions the war of Russia with Turkey became inevitable. The war ended in the world of San Stefano. Constantinople, Adrianople, Solun, Epirus, Thessaly, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina remained in the possession of Turkey on the European mainland. Bulgaria turned into a vassal princedom of the Turkish Sultan, but with very great autonomy. The independence of Serbia and Romania was proclaimed, Kars and Batum were ceded to Russia. But the peaceful conditions concluded between Russia and Turkey provoked protests from Britain, Austria and even Romania. Serbia was unhappy with the lack of pritsekom for her territory. A European Congress was convened in Berlin, at which all Russia's acquisitions were preserved. England's coherence was achieved by favorable conditions for it in Central Asia, by which it strengthened its prestige in Afghanistan.

At the same time, revolutionary ferment caused by the weakening of the central government in the period of reforms did not abate inside Russia. The most prominent leaders of the revolutionary movement were Herzen, Nechaev, Ogarev and others. They tried to attract the sympathy of the masses and their attention was paid to the Cossacks. They were praised by the Cossack leaders of the popular movements Razin, Bulavin and Pugachev. Cossack life served as the ideal of the party of populists. However, there was no sympathy among the Cossacks, which did not find support in them, the agitators declared the Cossacks hopeless, "royal satraps", gave up on the Cossacks and switched to other classes. To promote their ideas, the populists began to arrange Sunday schools, under the pretext of teaching ordinary people to read and write. Leaflets of seditious content were also distributed there, demanding the convocation of a constituent assembly and independence of Poland. At this time in St. Petersburg and several other cities there were fires. Sunday school students fell under suspicion, many schools were closed, and the investigation began. Several activists were put on trial, including Chernyshevsky. After some lull, a new movement began - Russia began to be covered with "circles of self-education" with the same goals. In 1869, in Moscow, a "secret society of massacre" was formed, headed by Nechaev. After an internal bloody showdown, the participants were arrested and convicted. Fermentation did not cease and his aim was to kill the sovereign. Several unsuccessful attempts were made on him. In 1874, revolutionary propaganda was sent to the villages, the revolutionaries moved to the people, but they were not understood. Moreover, the authorities received hundreds of applications for seditionaries. Thousands of Narodniks were brought to justice; an investigative commission was created whose chairman was appointed Loris-Melikov. 11 February 1881 was an unsuccessful attempt on his life, and on March 1 Emperor Alexander II was killed. The new emperor Alexander III was the second son of Alexander II, 26 was born on February 1845 of the year and came to the throne with established political convictions, with a powerful, decisive and open character. He did not like much in the control system of his father. He was a supporter of the national-Russian system in politics, the Russian patriarchy in everyday life and openly did not approve of the influx of the German element in the court and government circles. Even outwardly, he was very different from its predecessors. For the first time since the time of Peter the Great, he wore a powerful, voluminous, patriarchal beard, which was very impressed by the Cossacks. In general, the Cossacks gave a beard and mustache a very large, sacred, even sacral meaning, especially the Old Believers of the Ural army. Having resisted the will of Tsar Peter I to trim his mustache and beard in a European manner, rebelling and rebelling, the Cossacks defended their right to mustache and beard. In the end, the royal power resigned and allowed the Don, Terek, Kuban and Ural Cossacks to wear mustaches and beards. But the Orenburg Cossacks had no such right, until 50 years, while in the service, they were forbidden to have beards. Especially strictly was under Nicholas I, who "deigned to command not to allow any oddities in the mustache and whiskers ...". With the coming to power of Alexander III, the two-century obscurantism with forced marriages gradually faded away. In the political sphere, at the very beginning of his activity, the new emperor instructed Pobedonostsev to draw up a manifesto with a firm statement that he would not allow electing to begin because of the danger of dual power. The entire rule of the previous emperor was accompanied by a revolutionary movement and terrorist acts. The revolutionary ideas of the West penetrated into Russia and assumed peculiar forms under Russian conditions. If the economic struggle of workers in the West was in the nature of the struggle against the inhumanity of capitalism and for the improvement of the economic working conditions, in Russia revolutionaries demanded a radical breakdown of the existing social order, the complete destruction of the foundations of state and popular life and the organization of new social order based on the prism of their own imagination and unrestrained socio-political fantasies. The main feature of the Russian revolutionary leaders was the complete absence of constructive social principles in their ideas, their main ideas were striving for one goal - the destruction of social, economic, social foundations and the complete rejection of "prejudices", namely morality, morality and religion. Moreover, the paradox was that the main carriers and propagandists of seditious ideas in society were the privileged strata, the nobility and the intelligentsia. This environment, devoid of all roots among the people, was considered Russian, and yet both in the way of life and in their convictions they were, whether French, Germans, or British, or rather neither the one nor the other. The ruthless preparator of the Russian reality of that time, F.M. Dostoevsky brilliantly revealed in his novel "Demons" and christened this phenomenon as devilry.

The main purpose of the emperor Alexander III was the approval of autocratic power and the maintenance of state order. The fight against sedition ended in complete success, secret circles were suppressed and terrorist acts ceased. The reforms of Alexander III touched all aspects of state life and were aimed at strengthening the influence of the government, developing public (local) self-government and strengthening the authority of power. He especially paid attention to the implementation of reforms and their best application. In the inner life, class improvements were made. A noble land bank was established to issue loans to the nobles on the security of their land on preferential terms. A peasant bank was established for the peasants, which issued loans to the peasants to buy land. The means of struggle with the shortage of land was the resettlement of peasants at public expense on vacant land in Siberia and Central Asia. From 1871, in the Cossack regions, universal primary (4-x class) boys began to be introduced, beginning with the 8-9 of summer age, gradually spreading to all children. The results of such effective measures proved to be very successful: by the beginning of the 20th century, more than half of the population of the Cossack regions had primary education. To regulate the relations between workers and employers, factory legislation was created and factory inspectors were established to supervise order in factories. The construction of the great Siberian railway to the Pacific (Transsib) and to Central Asia (Turksib) was started. Alexander III's foreign policy was distinguished by the fact that he decisively evaded interference in European affairs. He strictly guarded the Russian national interests, while revealing an enviable peacefulness, which is why he received the title "Tsar-peacemaker". He not only did not lead wars, but also avoided a pretext to them in every way. Contrary to the policy of reckless "Pan-Slavism" based mainly on the lyrical fantasies of the educated classes, at the first manifestation of dissatisfaction with the policy of Russia on the part of the South Slavs freed from the Turkish dependence, they started mutual disassembly, he abandoned them, leaving Bulgaria and Serbia to their own fate. In this matter, he was absolutely in solidarity with the brilliant Dostoevsky, who wrote back in 1877: “Russia will not be there, and there has never been such haters, envious people, slanderers, and even obvious enemies, like all these Slavic tribes, Russia will liberate, but Europe will agree to recognize their liberation ... ". In opposition to the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary, Alexander III entered into a defensive alliance with France, taking the enemy in ticks. The only military clash in the reign of Alexander III was with the Afghans on the Kushka River, which did not cause any complications with either Afghanistan or the British. In relation to the Don Army in the reign of Alexander III, some changes were made. In 1883, the Don Cadet Corps was opened. 24 March 1884 was added to the army: Sal district, Azov district and Taganrog. In 1886, the Novocherkassk Military School was opened and a Cossack hundred junkers were established at the Nikolaev Cavalry School. In 1887, the emperor visited the Don and confirmed the rights and advantages of the Cossack troops. By the end of the 19th century, eleven Cossack troops were formed in Russia. Contemporaries called them the eleven pearls in the brilliant crown of the Russian Empire. Donets, Kuban, Tertians, Urals, Siberians, Astrakhans, Orenburg, Transbaikal, Semirechentsy, Amur, Ussurians. Each army had its own history - some are no less ancient than the Russian state itself, others short, but also glorious. Each army had its own traditions, united by a single core, permeated with a single meaning. Each army had its own heroes. And some had common heroes, such as Yermak Timofeevich - a legendary and glorious personality in all of Russia.

With the emperor's firm control, revolutionary illusions were forgotten, but despite the suppression of terrorism, its coals continued to fester. In 1887, a student 3 was detained in Petersburg and bombs were found on them. During interrogation, they confessed that they had the goal of killing the king. The terrorists were hanged, among them was Alexander Ulyanov. In the 1888 year, the royal train crashed when returning from the Caucasus, there were many dead and wounded, but the royal family was not injured. Possessing great physical strength and health, in the 50 year of his life, Emperor Alexander III fell ill with a kidney disease and died on October 20. All European governments have declared that, in the person of the deceased emperor, the support of the common European world, balance and prosperity has been lost. On the throne came Nicholas II and his reign was the end of the three hundred year Romanov dynasty. But this is a completely different, and very tragic, story.

Materials used:
Gordeev A.A. - History of the Cossacks
Mamonov V.F. and others. - History of the Cossacks of the Urals. Orenburg-Chelyabinsk 1992
Shibanov N.S. - Orenburg Cossacks of the XVIII - XIX centuries
Potto V.A. - Caucasian War
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  1. +4
    25 June 2014 10: 06
    Great article. The Cossacks created Russia in the form in which we got it. Politicians remembered them during the wars and quickly forgot when they ended. The meaning of a Cossack's life is service. The Cossacks for the most part did not recognize the February coup of 1917. The conspirators from among the Cossack generals did not find love from the Cossacks. The Cossacks did not follow L. Kornilov. The suicide of AM Kaledin showed that the "white" Cossacks were not on their way. But the Cossacks were also part of the people. They allowed themselves to be involved in a fratricidal war after May 9, 1918. Then the Bolsheviks issued the Decree on the food dictatorship. It was then that the inter-party squabbles grew into a CIVIL WAR
  2. +3
    25 June 2014 11: 33
    Competent article.
    The tsar's mistake was rendering the western borders of Russia. The Cossack environment did not develop there. The Cossack always lived on the border with active opponents. As soon as the opponents were conquered or defeated, then there was no need for Cossack lands at this line. Therefore, accustomed to a peaceful life, "Western Cossacks" could not demonstrate anything in the Crimean War. In the Siberian lines, in particular on the lands of the second division of the Siberian Cossack army, the Cossacks were always in good shape. There were constant raids of nomads. I remember my grandmother told me that back in 1900, even for agricultural work, women did not go out without an outfit, with the full combat load of 3 Cossacks. Plus, the constant Central Asian wars of the second half of the 19th century were won by the Siberian Cossacks.
    1. 0
      26 June 2014 08: 16
      Cossack Ermak "Plus the constant Central Asian wars of the second half of the 19th century were won by the Siberian Cossacks."
      Of course, the Urals and Orenburg have nothing to do with it.)))
      1. 0
        26 June 2014 08: 24
        Very much moreover, it was they and the Semirechensk Cossacks who held back the raids of the ancestors of the modern Kazakhs.
        And in the wars participated the Cossacks of all troops, both in the west and in the east.
    2. 0
      27 June 2014 10: 24
      You amaze me! belay
      Did you have Cossacks right in Siberia? :) request
      Eh ... how could I explain to you there that the Cossacks appeared, lived and live, and will live on their own land in the "western" lands)))
      My great-grandfather would have been surprised that he was a Siberian, not a Donetsk citizen! :) laughing
      1. 0
        27 June 2014 11: 30
        Nobody belittles the merits of the Don Cossacks, they just talked about wars in the east and deterring raids in the territory of present-day Kazakhstan.
        You will agree that the Don people did not participate in this.
        Don was, is and will be the homeland of the Cossacks, this land is holy for every Cossack.
        So do not get so excited.
        Look around, there are still many glorious sons of the Cossacks, and not all of them are from the Don.
  3. -4
    25 June 2014 11: 44
    "Fobos-grunt SU Today, 10:06 am
    Great article. The Cossacks created Russia in the form in which we got it. "... ??? There is not even a desire to enter into polemics. Another shriek of an unwise Cossack.
  4. +6
    25 June 2014 12: 39
    A very close topic to me. My paternal grandfather from the Kuban Cossacks, was a policeman, served, fought 1 world war. He was a village ataman in the village of Vasyurinsky in the Krasnodar Territory until 1924, when Trotsky began a raking-out campaign, fled to Azerbaijan with his family, and in 30 years moved to Makhachkala. He was buried there in 1965. Managed to save his whole family. A mighty old man! The kingdom be upon him.
    1. +1
      25 June 2014 13: 43
      Lucky you. And my great-grandfather, a Cossack of the second division of the Siberian Linear Army, had 6 sons. 4 were killed by the Bolsheviks during the civil war, and after as a result of resistance, 1 my grandfather managed to leave for America, then the child was still alive.
      1. +1
        25 June 2014 14: 18
        My ancestors are from Siberia, and after the atrocities that the White Cossacks repaired, they went en masse to the partisans, and the Red Army, and as grandparents said, there was a principle that Cossack women should not be taken alive! At work, you have to communicate with this modern "contingent". The ancestors were mostly right.
        1. xan
          25 June 2014 14: 58
          "The priests was a tall thin old man, in a faded greasy
          cassock. Out of stinginess, he ate almost nothing. Father raised him in
          hatred of Russians, however, this hatred vanished after a moment
          Russian retreat when Austrian soldiers came to the village
          army. They gobbled up all the geese and chickens that the Russians did not
          touched, even though he had shaggy Transbaikal Cossacks. ”
          Hasek. Adventures of the brave soldier Schweik.

          And the chieftain Semenov was simply hung with crosses for personal courage and military valor.

          You can’t deny yours.
          1. +2
            26 June 2014 08: 02
            xan "And ataman Semyonov is simply hung with crosses for personal courage and military valor."
            About hung ... He has George 4 tbsp. and St. George's weapons. And the order "For the Siberian Ice Campaign". And that order 2.
            1. 0
              26 June 2014 08: 03
              So he then hung himself up, in civilian clothes. After all, the "ruler" of Transbaikalia.
        2. +1
          25 June 2014 19: 37
          I will support.
          My ancestors also fought on the side of the Reds, and it was thanks to the Cossacks that hordes of interventionists were expelled from the Russian land.
          Many then stood on different sides, the civil war brought a lot of grief, and our task now, despite the old grievances, is to preserve peace on Russian soil. To prevent that madhouse that is happening now in Little Russia.
          "A united Poland will violate the state integrity of both Russia and Prussia, and the Poles will become the most zealous and predatory allies of any enemy of Russia and Prussia, unbearable neighbors, and their ambition will be continuously directed towards recapturing the old Polish borders." even then the vile soul of the Westerners was visible.
          1. +1
            25 June 2014 20: 54
            Shornikov "My ancestors also fought on the side of the Reds and it was thanks to the Cossacks that the hordes of interventionists were expelled from the Russian land."
            Sounds presumptuous. The Red Army at the end of the civil war 5,5 million people.)))) Is there anything that the Russian peasants helped them a little?
            1. +1
              25 June 2014 21: 05
              And before the advent of the Red Army, who let the blood to the Semenovites and interventionists? The peasants, in part, agree that those from the front have returned.
              And who was more prepared, a peasant from a plow, a worker from a machine tool or a Cossack? And the poor Cossack front-line soldiers who took over the soviets were no less than the warriors under the leadership of Semenov.
              1. 0
                26 June 2014 07: 36
                Shornikov] And who was more prepared, a peasant from a plow, a worker from a machine tool, or a Cossack? "
                The question is more than controversial.))) Cossack training, of course, was.)))) But "Krasnov rightly noted that the incoming reinforcements were not trained, the knowledgeable old Cossacks forgot their previous skills, the wartime officers were illiterate, the Cossacks were awake at night and slept during the day side by side, in equestrian battles, noise and jump. " p.385 A.V. Ganin On the eve of the catastrophe, Centerpolygraph 2008.
                There are many such examples. And about the poor shooting of the Cossacks, etc. I can bring it if you wish. And how was the Cossack cooler than the peasant who passed the front? Yes, nothing.)))
                1. 0
                  26 June 2014 10: 32
                  I don’t know how Krasnov is. But the Transbaikal people had no time to lose their skills, either the Chinese campaign, then the Russian-Japanese, then the German. The generation did not have time to change between wars.
                2. xan
                  26 June 2014 14: 46
                  Quote: Nagaibak
                  There are many such examples. And about the poor shooting of the Cossacks, etc. I can bring it if you wish. And how was the Cossack cooler than the peasant who passed the front? Yes, nothing.)))

                  Brad wrote. The Cossack is even cooler in that he can fight on horseback, and this is with the maneuverable nature of the Civil War a super advantage.
        3. 0
          26 June 2014 13: 18
          Tell you what the Reds did in the Cossack village of Lobanovskaya in Kokchetav Uyezd? Just talked to the surviving old women ..
          1. 0
            26 June 2014 15: 10
            There was a lot of blood in that war, brother went to brother. And on both sides there were heroes and scoundrels. History has already condemned the crimes of both red and white. And our task, if we do not want it to be repeated, is to study and understand the reasons, and not to repeat the mistakes of the past.
            And to look for the atrocities of one side or another, and throw to each other the pretensions, which by the way we have no right to, is the last thing.
            We must take the best from the past and try not to "dance on a rake."
        4. 0
          27 June 2014 10: 29
          And ... well, we are constantly faced with this ...
          You hang up labels right away!
          And then take offense!
          In general, a typical woman’s position: She herself came up with, she was offended, she scolded everyone! lol
  5. 0
    25 June 2014 16: 23
    "By 1844, 12155 male souls had been resettled to the New Line, including 2877 Cossacks-Nagaybaks (baptized Tatars) and 7109 white-arable peasants and soldiers, the rest were Cossacks from the old lines."
    In truth, the Nagaybaks moved with the rest of the OKW Cossacks — as you speak from the old lines. By that time, they had already been serving in the OKW for a hundred years. They are from the beginning of the founding of OKW in its composition.
  6. 0
    25 June 2014 19: 50
    Quote: vlad_pr
    My ancestors are from Siberia, and after the atrocities that the White Cossacks repaired.

    I dare to remind you that White Cossacks could not always be white, i.e. "pale-faced" The yellow stripe of the flag of the Don Cossacks symbolized the Kalmyks. In Siberia, the Cossack formations included many representatives of tribes related to the Mongol. In the Sedykh's novels "Dauria" "The Father's Land", the chahars and barguts of the fierce disposition of the warriors who participated in punitive actions are mentioned. You know Baron Ungern. But in the same story we should mention the "cyriots"
    Suchhe-BATORA: These comrades could sprinkle their red banners with blood from the cut out hearts of their enemies.
    Such a polemic ...
    1. 0
      25 June 2014 20: 01
      In addition to hereditary Cossacks, Semenov had enough rabble, from the Chinese to the Jews.
  7. -1
    25 June 2014 23: 48
    Quote: Fobos-grunt
    Cossacks created Russia in the form in which we got it.

    That is, the victories of our army and navy (I won’t tell you right away), the achievements of our scientists and engineers, the cities and factories built by the workers, the fields plowed by peasants, all this does not matter? The peoples of Russia have nothing to do with it?
    1. +1
      26 June 2014 06: 28
      All this they, scientists and engineers, workers, peasants did, and without interruption from "production" guarded the borders of never a small country.
      About cities, so google, read where, how many and which cities were founded by Cossacks, and at the same time, and what lands were explored and annexed, or maybe returned, to Russia by Cossacks.
      This is for starters.
      At the same time, read how many scientists, engineers, cultural figures and simply worthy people the Cossacks gave Russia. Ermak, Dezhnev, Poyarkov, Atlases, Platov, Zasyadko, Potanin, Karbyshev, Sholokhov ....
      1. +1
        26 June 2014 07: 40
        Shornikov "About cities, google duc, read where, how many and which cities were founded by the Cossacks, and at the same time, and what lands were explored and annexed, or maybe returned, to Russia by the Cossacks.
        This is for a start. "
        To begin with, it should be noted that not only the Cossacks discovered and mastered Siberia. Without diminishing their merits, it should be noted that Ustyuzh and Vyatka are still worth mentioning. Not only Cossacks roamed in those places.)))
        1. +1
          26 June 2014 07: 45
          It is one thing to wander, another to attach. You catch the difference.
          I do not want to belittle the role of hunter-wandering people at all.
          1. 0
            26 June 2014 07: 54
            [quote = Shornikov] It is one thing to wander, another to attach. You catch the difference.
            I do not want to belittle the role of hunter-wandering people at all.
            They mastered Siberia Ustyuzhans and Vyatka if not in the course read.
            1. +1
              26 June 2014 08: 09
              Yes, all together mastered. Some plowed up, others guarded.
              1. +1
                26 June 2014 09: 21
                Shornikov "Yes, they mastered everything together. Some plowed open, others guarded."
                That's right, together. Vyatka and Ustyuzhans in the teams were also in the development of Alaska, it seems. Ie it was not quite the farmers. Rather, fur hunters. Vyatka in spirit is very close to the Cossacks. They are from Novgorod earwaxes.
                1. +1
                  26 June 2014 09: 26
                  So in the 16-17 centuries the Siberian Cossacks were formed. The core was the donuts who followed the best, along the way to them "free" people, close in spirit and daring, grew up.
                  1. +1
                    26 June 2014 09: 49
                    Shornikov "So in the 16-17th centuries the Siberian Cossacks were formed."
                    All right. Only the concept of Siberian Cossacks is very loose. For example, in the Siberian Cossack army, the number of Cossacks from those very donors is small. The bulk of the peasants and soldiers rebelled into the Cossacks in the 19th century. The so-called attributed. And the Tatars by itself.))) In the Orenburg Cossack army there were descendants of the Ermak Cossacks - this is the so-called Iset Cossacks. But in Surgut, the descendants of the Cossacks pioneers were recorded in the middle class in the 19th century as they remained. Although they asked to return to the Cossacks.
                    1. +1
                      26 June 2014 10: 06
                      I agree completely.
                      What does it mean to ask? You feel like a Cossack, be it. If you are talking about that clownery "on the revival" of the Cossacks, Duc there is more than song and dance ensembles, it does not go. Himself ditched for 2 years.
                      Although there are organizations that really do business. But they do not rank themselves among the total mass.
                      1. 0
                        26 June 2014 10: 22
                        Shornikov "And what does it mean to ask? You feel like a Cossack, be one. If you are talking about that clownery" to revive "the Cossacks, it doesn't go further than song and dance ensembles. He himself ditched 2 years for it.
                        Although there are organizations that do business. But they don't count themselves among the general mass. "
                        They wrote petitions to the kings.))) They asked.))) You are right - you would like to move south, to the border and settle on the territory of the Siberian Cossack army.
                      2. 0
                        26 June 2014 10: 28
                        No, I'm talking about now.
                      3. 0
                        26 June 2014 11: 47
                        Shornikov "No, I'm talking about now."
                        Now even more so.
                      4. 0
                        26 June 2014 11: 48
                        What prevents?
                      5. +1
                        26 June 2014 13: 03
                        Shornikov "What's in the way?" I don't know what prevents people from being Cossacks. I'm not a Cossack.)))) According to the history of the Cossacks, it seems a little in the subject, just a little.))) I was present once at the discussion of problems.))) So there registration, re-registration brought the Cossacks to what they told the officials. We don't care about your registrations. We know that we are Cossacks and good. We will choose Ataman even without your registrations.))) And you, whatever you want. That's all.
                        "Although there are organizations that do business."
                        Everything is held by individuals there. On good people. One I know this.)))
                      6. +1
                        26 June 2014 13: 07
                        "We know that we are Cossacks and good. We will elect Ataman even without your registrations.))) But whatever you want. That's all."
                        In my opinion, this is enough.
                        If you do not call your eyes to the authorities, then there will be no problems.
      2. 0
        27 June 2014 11: 19
        Well, you can add: Dovator, Swan, Efimov, Baklanov, Budanov, Solzhenitsyn, Simonov. :)

        Well and in addition the list of Heroes of the Soviet Union born on a don :)

        Герои РФ:
        % 8C)
        Heroes of Social Labor:

        You can write a lot more about famous people who were given by the Don land ... :)
        1. 0
          27 June 2014 11: 22
          Traitor Solzhenitsyn in vain put on a par with decent people.
          1. 0
            27 June 2014 12: 07
            Well, for me, Solzhenitsyn is still better than Podtelkov and Krivoshlykov :)
    2. -1
      27 June 2014 10: 36
      And where did you get this land with its riches? :)
      Has fallen from the sky? :)
      Surnames Ermak, Dezhnev, Razin, Bulavin, Khabarov, etc. are you familiar?
      The peasants?

      If so, then I'm a ballerina in a church choir :)
      1. 0
        27 June 2014 12: 08
        Why is it that you really don’t like it?
        Does not fit into the framework of the great Moscow Khanate? :)
  8. 0
    26 June 2014 03: 23
    Photo No. 3, something the lads do not look like Cossacks, spurs, checkers are not Cossack. A Cossack checker without a guard, well, Cossacks never spurs, even in Soviet times.
    1. +1
      26 June 2014 06: 33
      You will be surprised, but the Terek saber is not like the Don, they both are not like the Siberian or Ural. And what different forms of clothing the Cossack troops, the mind is incomprehensible. But in active service, the field form was one for all. Field, not ceremonial!
    2. -1
      26 June 2014 07: 42
      motorized rifleman "Photo # 3, that the lads do not look like Cossacks, spurs, checkers are not Cossack. Cossack saber without a guard, well, Cossack spurs, never wore, even in Soviet times."
      Pay attention to the boots. The Cossack’s boot bent up.
      1. +1
        26 June 2014 07: 49
        Toe bent up? Was it prescribed to the Cossacks according to the Charter? Are you confusing Asian flip flops?
        With such a sock, how many times will you get into a stirrup?
        And the plastuns would say “thank you” for the curved toe.

        Compare the socks of the boots in the 1st, 3rd and 4th pictures.
        1. +1
          26 June 2014 07: 51
          [quote = Shornikov "The sock is bent up? Was it prescribed for the Cossacks according to the Charter? Don't you confuse it with Asian slippers?"
          With such a sock, how many times will you get into a stirrup?
          And the plastuns would say "thank you" for the curved toe
          Do the Cossacks have no different boots? The Cossacks spurs were in use?)))
          1. 0
            26 June 2014 07: 59
            Spurs were held by Cossack officers.
            And ordinary Cossacks put on spurs for force, although they were banned in 1867.
            Do you remember the song "At the meadow"?
            1. +1
              26 June 2014 08: 13
              Shornikov "Cossack officers had spurs.
              And ordinary Cossacks put on spurs for force, although they were banned in 1867.
              "When the meadow" song remember? "Spurs can be for force.
              But the concept of Cossack boots did exist.
              Boots “There were a great many boots - without riding boots riding is impossible, and you can’t walk barefoot on the dry steppe. Soft boots without a heel or with a low heel and slightly curved toes (for convenience when interacting with stirrups) were especially fond of. In photos 3 and 4, the socks are slightly curved. But soldier’s boots are straight like boots.)))
              1. 0
                26 June 2014 08: 28
                "In photos 3 and 4 the socks are slightly bent" so what to argue about then? They are bent because the cut is different, more pointed.
                There we have in N-ska in the store of the Cossack’s right which boots are not worth it, and all-Cossack. Just for the cavalrymen there was one style, for the infantry-another, for the reconnaissance plastons the third.
  9. pinecone
    26 June 2014 06: 23
    By this time, reforms had been made in the Russian army, conducted by Minister of War General Milyutin. The service life of the soldiers was reduced to 15 years.

    It is required to clarify that out of these 15 years, 6 were assigned to active service, and the remaining 9 years were considered as reserve soldiers.
  10. -1
    26 June 2014 09: 41
    Quote: Shornikov
    All this they, scientists and engineers, workers, peasants did, and without interruption from "production" guarded the borders of never a small country.
    About cities, so google, read where, how many and which cities were founded by Cossacks, and at the same time, and what lands were explored and annexed, or maybe returned, to Russia by Cossacks.
    This is for starters.
    At the same time, read how many scientists, engineers, cultural figures and simply worthy people the Cossacks gave Russia. Ermak, Dezhnev, Poyarkov, Atlases, Platov, Zasyadko, Potanin, Karbyshev, Sholokhov ....

    As I understand it, it is useless to conduct a discussion with you. I have repeatedly come across people who consider themselves Cossacks and, on this basis, declare openly (or thinking to themselves, less often) of their “chosenness”. Yes, that's right: The train of thought of such people is very simple: We are Cossacks, all of Russia is holding on to us, not like these Russian peasant-lapotniks, who are fit for nothing.
    Note that I did not detract from or deny the Cossacks' achievements in the field of the formation of Russia. I simply declare to you that not only Russia is strong and alive as Cossacks, but I think it does not matter to you. Something this reminds me of events in a country. Could you tell? Well, where is the western part of the population, declares its superiority over the eastern.
    I have a question for you, here you yourself, do you think that the Cossacks are part of the Russian people or a separate nation? It seems to me that you do not consider Cossacks to be Russian, God forbid if I am mistaken. By the way, I will not say for all the Cossacks, but familiar people of the older generation (those who are grandfathers-Cossacks) said that in the same Zaporozhye, there were disputes among the Cossacks who were RUSE. And the phrase, speaking about the inhabitants of the neighboring village: Yes, they are from the Volga region, what kind of Russians are they? It was not at all uncommon.
    You have given a good list of people who have made a significant contribution to the development of Russia as a state, but believe me, you can give a larger list of people who have nothing to do with the Cossacks, and horror, they may even be Germans! Is that fear? But most importantly, they DO NOT SEPARATE themselves from the Russian people and do not declare their chosenness.
    Well, to listen to you, so the Cossacks are our everything, and the rest are just so, underfoot tangled.
    PS By the way, I would like to know what the Cossacks are in your understanding?
    1. +1
      26 June 2014 09: 53
      For hints of maidan and ukrov, God will judge you.
      And where did you notice that I separate Cossacks from Russians in particular and from Russia as a whole?
      You were given the facts that the Cossacks made a significant contribution to the formation and development of Russia. This does not in the least detract from the contribution of other peoples and estates. These are just the fruits of your imagination.
      I don’t know where you heard enough of the fact that the Cossacks extol themselves on others. In my understanding, the Cossack’s share is to serve the Motherland and his people, with all that is possible.
      I hope you will satisfy my answer in this form.
      1. 0
        26 June 2014 09: 58
        Shornikov "I hope you will be satisfied with my answer in this form."
        Plus from me.))))
  11. +1
    26 June 2014 10: 04
    Quote: Shornikov
    For hints of maidan and ukrov, God will judge you.
    And where did you notice that I separate Cossacks from Russians in particular and from Russia as a whole?
    You were given the facts that the Cossacks made a significant contribution to the formation and development of Russia. This does not in the least detract from the contribution of other peoples and estates. These are just the fruits of your imagination.
    I don’t know where you heard enough of the fact that the Cossacks extol themselves on others. In my understanding, the Cossack’s share is to serve the Motherland and his people, with all that is possible.
    I hope you will satisfy my answer in this form.

    God is the judge of all, but let us leave the religious theme. If you had something else, you would have explained right away, and would not have continued to make the Cossacks the main driving force of Russian culture (culture is broadly understood here). Based on your words, I made similar conclusions, if there was a misunderstanding, then I think now it has been resolved. And I am pleased to realize that you do not separate the Cossacks from the Russian people. Thank. Thank you sincerely. Tired of already mummers, for which the meaning of the Cossacks is that they would: wear pants with stripes and drink vodka from the checkers. And it’s also nice to realize that you do not detract from the achievements of other residents of Russia.
    1. 0
      26 June 2014 10: 19
      You confused a little nickname. There is also a difference between Shornikov and Fobos-grunt.

      How can I separate myself from my ancestors? Yes, I was raised in the spirit of the Cossacks, but in my blood the whole race is mixed, from Western Belarusians to Siberian Old Believers, from resettled Chuvash to Don Cossacks. The wife is a crest. German best friend.
      1. 0
        27 June 2014 12: 01
        Hello fellow countrymen. :)
        I am more "purebred", without belittling your words about your contribution to the common cause, I just want to remind you that there is too much foreign blood in you for a Cossack ... :)
        Well, again comparing with me, for example:
        Great-great-great-grandfathers and great-great-grandmothers from the Don
        Great-grandfathers Don Cossacks, Great-grandmothers Don Cossacks (all lived in the area of ​​Tikhoretskaya, Minsk, Starominskaya, Bryukhovetskaya, etc.)
        Great-grandfathers and great-grandmothers on a mother from Novocherkassk
        Paternal grandfather Donchanin, Babka Don Cossack (after the arrival of the red domicile Starominskaya)
        Maternal grandfather from Rostov, Babka from Novocherkassk
        Cossack's wife :)))

        You probably have more notes than by birth, forgive me if I offended ...
        But a Cossack with the surname "Shornikov" ... It was a nightmare of my relatives ... It is clear that "Kogan" or "Malyutin", "Malevanny", "Saprun", but "Shornik" ...
        1. 0
          27 June 2014 12: 06
          I tell you, look back. Around a lot of people and why.
          Or do you think that if you are such a "purebred", then all your beliefs should be an immutable truth for everyone?
        2. 0
          27 June 2014 12: 11
          We have Siberia here, and we’re not used to surnames and family trees.
    2. 0
      26 June 2014 10: 27
      On those whom you mention I have seen enough. Pensioners - "siloviks" not played enough with soldiers. There are, of course, young people thirsty for the romance of the Cossacks.
      One such device of a whip explained to me, neighing for a long time.

      PS Nick is my last name, derived from the profession of great-great-grandfather. And in the blood craving for saddlery.
  12. 0
    26 June 2014 10: 20
    Yes, corrected.
  13. +1
    26 June 2014 10: 32
    Quote: Shornikov
    Nick is my last name, derived from the profession of great-great-grandfather.

    In general, this was the first nickname association. In Russia, and not only, there are many surnames derived from professions. The simplest example is Kuznetsov. Well, let’s leave this topic, here we have a conversation about the Cossacks.
    Quote: Shornikov
    On those whom you mention I have seen enough. Pensioners - "siloviks" not played enough with soldiers. There are, of course, young people thirsty for the romance of the Cossacks.
    One such device of a whip explained to me, neighing for a long time.

    On these, too, had a chance to look and not a few. For example, girls try to adjust the length of skirts in the subway for girls. Well, is not it idiocy? If you take this one, it starts ... We are Cossacks, etc.
    1. +1
      26 June 2014 10: 40
      Quote: Gaersul

      On these, too, had a chance to look and not a few. For example, girls try to adjust the length of skirts in the subway for girls. Well, is not it idiocy? If you take this one, it starts ... We are Cossacks, etc.

      These are the ones that discredit the very essence of the Cossacks. The very essence of the Cossacks must begin, and not with skirts.
      Although the skirts, or most likely hidden by them, the Cossacks were always interested. feel
      I don’t know, maybe they will throw me sneakers, but reviving the Cossacks in cities is nonsense. In this process, the most important thing was lost, land and peasant labor. What kind of Cossacks can be if they only see a horse in pictures, but they saw it in a circus.
    2. 0
      27 June 2014 12: 05
      Cossacks in the subway! :) funny ... These are "mummers" ...
      A Cossack, like me or my father, would take his daughter in the ass and belt! That would look decent, and not like b ...
  14. +1
    26 June 2014 11: 06
    Quote: Shornikov
    revive the Cossacks in the cities is nonsense. In this process, the most important thing was lost, land and peasant labor.

    Here I completely agree. Say what you like, but among residents of cities the connection with the land is much weaker. There is no understanding from that, that’s where all sorts of pseudo-evidence arise, which for the most part cause irritation in the population. Mummers, as I see it, this is generally an urban phenomenon, correct if I am mistaken. And living in the city is a bit easier than in the village / village / village. There is no time for stupidity on earth, a strong care is needed for the household, there is no time left for them.
    1. 0
      26 June 2014 11: 10
      It is a pity that there is only one plus.

      Yes, in the village there will be no time to monitor the length of the skirts, but the width of the stripes on the pants, the fit and the curvature of the bend of the checker.
      Pounding show-offs, it’s more likely urban. The mudflowers on this business have drin from tyn.
    2. -1
      27 June 2014 12: 13
      Brothers! Why is it that the Cossack and the peasant serf became flush?
      A Cossack is a free man, but a serf is a serf - a slave and his thoughts are slave and anger at all is slave ...

      I am not saying that the Cossack was not engaged in agriculture, but he was never a slave!
      My grandmothers and great-grandmothers were educated ... Grandfathers and great-grandfathers were also educated ... And nothing about slavery / slavery.
      1. -1
        27 June 2014 12: 16
        Where did you see the slave, "brother".
      2. 0
        27 June 2014 12: 21
        What have you personally done? Or can you hide behind just the glory of your ancestors?
        1. 0
          1 July 2014 19: 47
          I? Yes, no questions asked! Always fought for the truth and fought with every "bastard" who lies, deceives, steals ...
          One such "painted visitor" that shot at people with a rifle, broke his arms and legs.
          Yes, and much more ...
          Do not write the very denunciations!

          What have you done in defense of truth and justice?
          In addition, what to write on the forum? :)
  15. +1
    28 June 2014 20: 51
    Quote: Evrepid
    ... and a serf is a serf - a slave and his thoughts are slave and anger at all slave ...

    Well here is a striking example. :)
    And if you follow your logic, then our Russian soldiers for the most part went out under the stick. Our army was recruited mainly from those very "slaves" whom you despise.
    1. 0
      30 June 2014 04: 40
      Yes, there is nothing bright here. Many people are interested in the Cossacks, many are attracted by the aura of glory and "romance" of the Cossacks. Many want to join the Cossacks. I don’t know how behind the “Stone”, in Rasei, but in Siberia, almost every second person had Cossacks in their relatives. But having seen enough of the "order bearers" hung with branzulets, it is not clear why, and having heard enough of such arrogant "brothers", about how special they are, all desires disappear once or twice and attempts to revive the Cossacks are perceived as a performance.
      1. 0
        1 July 2014 20: 18
        And who is "willing"? Chuvash Ali saddlers? :)
        Not ... the profession is not bad, but not the saddler is Cossack, but the Cossack is rustling ... :)

        Do you catch the difference? Or is it easier to explain to you?
    2. 0
      1 July 2014 20: 11
      I understand you...
      But I'm too lazy to list the exploits of the army recruited from them ...

      Can a vivid example lead one?

      Liberation of Moscow by Minin and Pozharsky? They were released for 4 years after they had gathered the liberation army, and "liberated" after a part of the garrison went over to their side (after promising a lot of money, simply bribery), but after the tyranny of the boyars began (in particular, the murder of people from this part of the garrison), these people who had passed over refused to help in the liberation of the Kremlin ...
      Well and further in the same vein ...
  16. 0
    29 June 2014 08: 50
    Quote: Evrepid
    But a Cossack with the name "Shornikov" ...

    By the way, about the last names. Something tells me that judging by the surname of a Cossack is a person or not, by no means. Want a vivid example from recent history wink ? We recently had a Minister of Defense here by the name of Serdyukov ... Do you want to remind you who such Serdyuki are or will you draw parallels?
    1. 0
      29 June 2014 17: 14
      For me it’s better to be proud of such namesakes:
      than such "brothers" ...

      istki-luganska /,_%C3%F0%E8%E3%EE%F0%E8%E9_%CC

      1. 0
        1 July 2014 20: 01
        Well, okay... )))
        Judging by these links ... Cossack you already ... at all 1000% :))

        And to be honest, then ... you're definitely not my brother ...

        For you Podtelkov with Krivoshlykov brothers ...
        Forgot or never knew what the Soviet government did in the Don and Kuban?

        How whole villages were burned alive, soldiers of the revolutionary red army, how they robbed and raped ...

        Oh, what can I tell you ...
      2. 0
        1 July 2014 20: 28
        read it, maybe then there will be less peasant malice towards the Cossacks, although I doubt it ...

        Otherwise, you have too much "red propaganda" about the solidarity of society ...
    2. 0
      1 July 2014 19: 52
      Not necessary :)
      We know.
      But I have another example, the namesake to this Serdyuk ...
      And another person, from the Terek Cossacks.

      And the one you remembered about ...
      So he is from St. Petersburg, but no .. from Leningrad :)
  17. 0
    2 July 2014 03: 52
    Quote: Evrepid
    What have you done in defense of truth and justice?
    In addition, what to write on the forum? :)

    What truth and justice? She, along the way, everyone has their own. The surname is important to you and the profession, but who fought for whom a hundred years ago.
    And I have another, I was born in the taiga, grew up and die, I hope, in the taiga.
    It’s not for me to judge what kind of Cossack you are, I have no doubt that everything is fine with the pedigree, I’m not used to judging people in absentia. This is the business of those who are accustomed to blame everything on their ancestors.
    So, be healthy.

    PS In "defense of truth and justice" I do not know, people will say for me, I do not know how for myself, dad did not teach himself to praise.
  18. 0
    2 December 2017 11: 32
    I, Vladimir Chub - a noble Cossack. The first thing I want to say is that winners are never judged. Therefore, it is unreasonable to wave fists and sabers after a fight. Secondly, the Cossack is a warrior, and the warrior defeats only himself. The third. In my deep conviction, the Russian empire fell because of the blatant arrogance and, worse than death, the universal humiliation of human dignity. Example:
    91007 Chub Matvey Shkurinskaya Cossack 1916
    96770 Yablunovsky Grigory Merry Plastun 1912
    These are my paternal and maternal grandfathers. Note that 1912 and 1916 are not the years of birth, but the taking of the oath. From the year of taking the oath, you must subtract 21 years of age. One more thing. Patronymic is not indicated. A kind of rootless Matvey and Gregory. Further. Matvey is a Cossack. It means on a horse and with full personal ammunition, i.e., prosperous, wealthy. Gregory - plastun - on foot, poor means. Although in general both Cossack estates. But. And this is the most disgusting But it all ruined. The sensible general is the count, the stupid is the prince. Who was trusted more? That's right - to the prince. Etc. etc. This is where the deceivers and enemies took advantage. Clever. "See the root," as Kozma Prutkov used to say. And so in everything. Why did the USSR fall? And you look at what happened in the war and then after the war. One thing invisibly blows over all your comments - stupid arrogance. But who needs it? Exclusively to our enemies. A cardboard fool cannot scare anyone. What saddle you don’t hook on a cow, anyway - a cow.

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