Cossacks in the late XIX century
In the Caucasus for many decades, there was also a war that was considered endless. However, in the 1854-1856 years, very successful expeditions were made against non-peaceful mountain villages, and the entire left coast of the Sunzha River was inhabited by Cossack villages. Tired of the endless war, the Chechens at the end of the 50s began to swear allegiance to Russia. Shamil fled to Dagestan in the mountain aul Gunib, where he was surrounded and 25 August 1859, gave up. After the capture of Shamil in the Caucasian War a turning point came.
After the end of the Crimean War and the conquest of Chechnya and Dagestan, internal reforms began in Russia, which also affected the Cossacks. There were different points of view regarding the internal situation and status of the Cossacks in the government. The liberal part of society had the idea of dissolving the Cossacks in the general mass of the Russian people. This point of view was also adhered to by the Minister of War Milutin. He prepared and 1 January 1863 of the year sent a note to the troops, which suggested:
- to replace the Cossack general service with a set of eager people who love this business
- set free access and exit of people from the Cossack state
- enter personal land tenure
- to distinguish in the Cossack regions a military unit from a civil one, a judicial one from an administrative part, and to introduce the imperial law into judicial proceedings and the judicial system.
On the part of the Cossacks, the reform met with sharp opposition, because in fact it meant the liquidation of the Cossacks. In response, the Chief of Staff of the Don Army, Lieutenant-General Dondukov-Korsakov, indicated to the Minister of War three unshakable beginnings of Cossack life:
- public land ownership
- Caste isolation of the Troops
- the custom of electing and self-government
Decisive opponents of reforming the Cossacks were many grandees and, above all, Prince Baryatinsky, who had subdued the Caucasus mainly with Cossack swords. Emperor Alexander II himself did not decide on the reform proposed by Milyutin. After all, even 2 of October 1827 of the year (9-years old), he, then the heir and Grand Duke, was appointed the august chieftain of all Cossack troops. Military atamans became his governors in the Cossack regions. All his childhood, youth and youth were surrounded by Cossacks: uncles, orderlies, orderlies, instructors, trainers and educators. In the end, after many disputes, a letter was declared confirming the rights and privileges of the Cossacks.
The emperor paid special attention to the situation of military settlements. Briefly recall history this question. The brilliant victories of the Cossacks in the war against Napoleon attracted the attention of all of Europe. The attention of European nations was drawn to the internal life of the Cossack troops, to their military organization, to training and economic structure. Cossacks in their everyday life combined the qualities of a good farmer, cattle farmer, business executive, they lived comfortably in the conditions of people's democracy and, without looking up from the economy, could maintain high military qualities in their midst. Combat qualities and good military training were developed by life itself, passed down from generation to generation over the centuries, and thus the psychology of the natural warrior was formed. The outstanding successes of the Cossacks in the Patriotic War of 1812 of the year played a cruel joke in the theory and practice of European military construction and over the entire military organizational thought of the first half of the XIX century. The high cost of numerous armies, which tore off large masses of the male population from economic life, once again aroused the idea of creating an army on the model of Cossack life. Landwehr, landsturm, Volkssturm and other types of militia began to be formed in the countries of the Germanic peoples. But the most stubborn implementation of the organization of the army on the Cossack model was manifested in Russia and most of the troops, after World War II, was turned into military settlements for half a century. This experience lasted not only in the reign of Alexander I, but also during the next reign of Nicholas I and ended, both from a military and economic point of view, with complete failure. A well-known Latin proverb says: "what is allowed to Jupiter, not allowed to the bull", and once again this experience proved that it is impossible to transform men into Cossacks by an administrative decree. Through the efforts and efforts of the military settlers, this experience turned out to be extremely unsuccessful, the productive Cossack idea was perverted and turned into a parody, and this military-organizational caricature became one of the weighty reasons for Russia's defeat in the Crimean War. Possessing on paper more than a million-strong army, the empire could hardly put on the front only a few truly combat-ready divisions. In 1857, General Stolypin was commissioned to audit the military settlements and establish their real importance in the state’s defense system. The general submitted a report to the sovereign with the conclusion that military settlements were materially disadvantageous and did not achieve their goal. The system of military settlements did not produce a soldier-soldier, but reduced the quality of a good farmer. 4 June 1857 was approved the Regulation on the new structure of military settlements with the treatment of their population in state peasants. The destruction of military settlements freed from abnormal living conditions until 700 000 people of the Russian population. The Cossack and Irregular troops remained under the jurisdiction of the military settlements department, and 23 in August 1857 was transformed into the Cossack Forces Directorate, for the Cossacks demonstrated a completely different situation. Their experience of the formation of new Cossack settlements, through the relocation of part of the Cossacks to new places, was also not easy and smooth, but had extremely positive results for the empire and the Cossacks themselves. We illustrate this with the example of the creation of the New Frontier Line in the Orenburg Cossack Army. In July 1835, the Orenburg military governor V.A. Perovskiy proceeded to set up this line and outlined 32 locations for Cossack settlements, numbered from No. XXUMX to No. XXUMX. The way of life of the Cossack warriors, plowmen and herdsmen, was formed among the nomads, in the age-old struggle with them and was adapted for service on the troubled, dangerous and remote border. Their age-old way of life taught with one hand to drive a plow in a furrow or to save herds, and with the other to hold a gun with a cocked hammer. Therefore, first of all, the Cossacks of the inner cantons of the old frontier lines and the remnants of the Volga Cossacks of the Zakamsk line, the Samara, Alekseev, Stavropol baptized Kalmyks (meaning Stavropol on the Volga, renamed Togliatti in the 1964 year) were asked to move to the New Line, or go to military settlements The Cossack population of the old lines was accustomed to discipline and law-abiding, so the relocation to new places passed without great excesses. In spite of the great government and military assistance, the transfer to the New Line and the separation from the inhabited places for most of the immigrants became an ordeal and great sorrow. Thousands of people, plunging a part of their belongings to the carts, reached out with long wagons through the Ural range. The order for the relocation to the New Line was carried out quickly and abruptly. They were given 24 hours for gathering, the hostesses did not have time to take the rolls out of the oven, as all the families loaded the carts on carts and together with the cattle they drove hundreds of miles into unknown lands. By 1837, Cossack villages were built and settled on 23 on the New Line, 1140 houses and barracks for local garrisons were built in them. But there were not enough Cossacks for resettlement. Therefore, the military governor V.A. Perovsky disbanded the 4,6,8 and 10 infantry battalions stationed in the Orsk, Kizil, Verkhneuralsk and Trinity Fortresses and, having turned them into Cossacks, expelled everyone to the New Line with their families. But what was possible for the Cossacks, it turned out to be very difficult for infantry soldiers. At the new place, many were simply helpless and became a burden for the troops and the state, 419 families did not build houses and did not start farms, languishing idle in poverty, waiting for their return to their former places of service. The experience with the relocation of soldiers' battalions has once again shown that the Cossacks are the only suitable military contingent for the border troops and settlements. The situation was even worse with the peasants. According to the Regulations on the Orenburg Cossack Army adopted in 1840, all the lands of the New Line, as well as the lands of the state peasants of Verkhneuralsk, Troitsky and Chelyabinsk counties, entered the territory of the army, and all the peasants living on these lands became Cossacks. But the 8750 peasants of the Kundravinskaya, Verkhneuvelskaya and Nizhneuvelskaya volosts did not want to put on the Cossacks and rebelled. Only the arrival of the Cossack regiment with two guns humbled and convinced some of them to go up to the Cossacks, the rest went to Buzuluksky district. Unrest spread to other peasant villages. The whole 1843 year Nakaznaya chieftain N.E. Tsukato with the regiment of Colonel Timler, where persuasion, where with promises, where with flogging pacified the peasants in other villages and put them in the Cossacks. This is how the "powerless" peasants were driven into a "free" Cossack life. It turned out that Russian peasants were not easy. It’s one thing to blindly dream, tinker and strive to “get Don” and Cossack orders of people's democracy. It is another thing to live in this very democracy, bearing full responsibility for the service, the Fatherland and the border. No, the Cossack share was not sweet, she gave bitterness to the majority of serving Cossacks. Only courageous, patient and strong in spirit and body warriors could withstand the restless, difficult and dangerous service on the line, and the weak could not endure, died, served in the race or went to prison. By 1844, 12155 male souls were relocated to 2877, including 7109 Nagaibak Cossacks (baptized Tatars) and XNUMX white farmer peasants and soldiers, the rest were Cossacks from the old lines. weapons or by the name of those places in Russia, France, Germany and Turkey, where the Cossacks won major victories. Thus, villages and villages with the name Rome, Berlin, Paris, Fershampenoise, Chesma, Varna, Kassel, Leipzig, etc., have appeared and still exist on the map of the Chelyabinsk Region. In this or similar way, without using a crook like that, for a short period of time, by historical standards, eight new Cossack troops were created along the borders of the empire.
Since 1857, other reforms have been taking place in the Cossack troops, but they were closely associated with the reform of Russia as a whole. After the liquidation of military settlements, military service was reduced from 25 to 15 years, during navy up to 14 years. 5 March 1861, the manifesto on the liberation of the peasants from the dependence of the landlords was made public and it began to be enforced. With 1862, judicial reform began. The judicial part was separated from the executive, administrative, and legislative branches. Glasnost was established in civil and criminal proceedings, the legal profession, the institution of jury lawyers and jurors, the court of cassation and the notary were established. In foreign policy in these years there was no significant misunderstanding with foreign powers. But in the domestic politics in Poland there were unrest. Taking advantage of the weakening of power, the Polish gentry provoked and caused riots, which grew into insurgency. 30 was killed and more than 400 of the Russian military were wounded. Troops and Cossacks were sent to Poland, and after the change of several governors, General Barsoy was seized by the ruling “Jon” rebellion and by May 1864, the rebellion was over. European yards were indifferent to the Polish insurrection, and Bismarck even offered Prussia’s suppression services. He wrote: “Possession of the Polish provinces is a heavy burden, both for Russia and for Prussia. But the united Poland will break the state integrity of both Russia and Prussia, and the Poles will become the most zealous and predatory allies of any enemy of Russia and Prussia, intolerable neighbors, and their ambition will be continuously aimed at winning back the old Polish borders. On this issue, the disengagement between Russia and Prussia is simply unthinkable. The Poles despaired of life itself, I fully sympathize with their situation. But if we want to preserve ourselves, we have nothing to do but how to destroy them. The wolf is not to blame for the fact that the Lord has created him, but this wolf itself is killed as soon as possible. " In order to cut off the Polish people from the corrupting influence of the 19 gentry on February 1864, a manifesto was issued, giving Polish peasants land. And in Europe at that time there were big military and political changes. 1866 year marked the beginning of the war of Prussia with Austria. The Prussians demonstrated to the world a new type of organization of war (Ordnung Moltke) and magnificent military art. In a short time they broke the resistance of the Austrians and occupied Saxony, then Bohemia, and approached Vienna. As a result, Prussia united all Germanic peoples (except Austria), and the Prussian king became the emperor of Germany. There was a reconciliation between Austria and Hungary, and they created a dual monarchy. Moldavia and Wallachia were merged into one state of Romania, and Prince Charles of Hohenzoltern was placed on the throne. A conflict was brewing between France and Germany over the legacy of the Spanish throne, with the result that France declared war on Germany in June 1870. Russia kept strict neutrality in this war. The complete defeat of the French at Verdun and Metz showed the superiority of the Prussian military doctrine and the army. Soon the French army capitulated, and the emperor Napoleon III was captured. Germany joined Alsace and Lorraine and France pledged to pay 12 billion francs in contributions in three years. After the Austro-Franco-Prussian wars, the attention of European peoples was drawn to Turkey, more precisely to the massacre of the Turks with the Christian peoples. In the summer of 1875, a rebellion broke out in Herzegovina. He was secretly supported by Serbia and Montenegro. The Turks used armed forces to suppress the uprising, there were huge casualties. But the uprising only grew. The efforts of the Austrian Chancellor Andrássy and international mediators to resolve the situation in Herzegovina were not successful. The situation was aggravated by internal turmoil in Turkey, the Grand Vizier was dismissed there and the Sultan was killed. Abdul Hamid entered the throne and announced an amnesty for the rebels. But in the provinces unauthorized and brutal massacres of the Turks with the Christian population began, in Bulgaria the Turks brutally killed up to 12 thousands of people. These atrocities caused indignation in Europe, Serbia and Montenegro declared war on Turkey, but were defeated. Montenegrin Prince appealed to the six powers to help stop the bloodshed.
By this time, reforms were made in the Russian army, conducted by their military minister, General Milyutin. The service life of soldiers was reduced to 15 years, in the fleet to 10 years. The number of the army was reduced. The reforms also affected the Cossack troops. October 28 1866, when he was appointed Ataman General Potapov, he was named the military ataman of the Don Army with the rights of the Governor-General and the commander of the military district. The ataman was given the right to appoint regimental commanders. Military duty was transformed into a military headquarters with the rights of the district administration. Similar transformations took place in other Cossack troops. In January 1869, the Cossack regiments were subordinated to the heads of the cavalry divisions in all military districts. In 1870, a disciplinary charter was introduced in the Cossack troops and a rapid-fire bolt weapon was introduced. In 1875, the "Charter of conscription of the Don Army" was approved. According to the new situation, unlike other classes, the Cossacks began service with 18 years. The first 3 of the year (from 18 to 21) were counted in the “prep level”, from 21 to 33 years, i.e. 12 years, the Cossacks were listed in the "drill discharge", after which 5 years (34-38 years) remained in the reserve at the place of residence, but with the obligation to regularly maintain horses, weapons and equipment. The service in the "drill" included 4, active service in the shelves and 8 years on the "rebate." Being in the preparatory discharge and on the benefits, the Cossacks lived at home, but were camp camps. Here are the stages of the Cossack service:
Fig. 1 pre-draft preparation
Fig. 2 fist fight in the prep level
Fig. 3 on active service
Fig. 4 on the "break"
Fig. 5 in stock
In fact, the Cossacks, without coercion, served from a very young age to a very old age. Under the supervision and guidance of relatives and experienced Cossacks who were on the "privilege", young Cossacks (Cossacks), long before being enrolled in the preparatory discharge, participated in races, trained in jigit and order, horse breeding, masterly handling of cold and firearms. Year-round war games and competitions, wall-to-wall fisticuffs and wrestling fights were held. A ritual of recording a newly born Cossack in the registry and landing a young Cossack in the saddle wore a truly ritual character.
Fig. 6,7 rite landing Cossack in the saddle
Fig. 8 young Cossack trooper
Cossack regiments were divided into three lines. The regiments of the 1 line, consisting of Cossacks 21-25 for years, served on the borders of Russia. The staffs and officers of the 2 and 3 regiments were in the Cossack regions. In the event of war, they were supplemented by Cossacks 25-33 for years and performed at the theater of military operations. The Cossacks of the “reserve” in this case made up individual hundreds and also fought in the war. In the extreme case, when declaring a spill (general mobilization), militia could be formed from Cossacks who retired from the “stock” by age. In 1875, the same situation was adopted for the Urals, then in 1876, for the Orenburg, later for the Trans-Baikal, Semirechensky, Amur, Siberian, Astrakhan. Last, in 1882, similar transformations took place in the Kuban and Terek troops. Military reform and management reform significantly influenced the life of the Cossacks. The burden of service has become much lighter, but not enough to give enough time to the au pair.
During the Balkan war, the Serbs suffered a complete defeat and the Turkish army moved to Belgrade. Russia demanded that Turkey stop moving, but the Turks did not obey the demand. Russia conducted partial mobilization and doubled the number of peacetime troops to 546 thousands of people. By the beginning of 1877, in the Danube army against Turkey there were 193 thousands of people, in the Odessa district to protect the coast - 72 thousands, in the Kiev district there were thousands more fighters in the reserve 72. The Caucasian corps had 79 foot battalions and 150 squadrons and Cossack hundreds. Russian mobilization made an impression, and European countries developed peaceful conditions for the preparation of a peace conference. But the Turks rejected these conditions. Bismarck was entirely on the side of Russia, Austria occupied a friendly neutrality. 19 March in London, representatives of the European powers put forward demands for Turkey to improve the position of Christian peoples. Turkey rejected them, in these conditions the war of Russia with Turkey became inevitable. The war ended in the world of San Stefano. Constantinople, Adrianople, Solun, Epirus, Thessaly, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina remained in the possession of Turkey on the European mainland. Bulgaria turned into a vassal princedom of the Turkish Sultan, but with very great autonomy. The independence of Serbia and Romania was proclaimed, Kars and Batum were ceded to Russia. But the peaceful conditions concluded between Russia and Turkey provoked protests from Britain, Austria and even Romania. Serbia was unhappy with the lack of pritsekom for her territory. A European Congress was convened in Berlin, at which all Russia's acquisitions were preserved. England's coherence was achieved by favorable conditions for it in Central Asia, by which it strengthened its prestige in Afghanistan.
At the same time, revolutionary ferment caused by the weakening of the central government in the period of reforms did not abate inside Russia. The most prominent leaders of the revolutionary movement were Herzen, Nechaev, Ogarev and others. They tried to attract the sympathy of the masses and their attention was paid to the Cossacks. They were praised by the Cossack leaders of the popular movements Razin, Bulavin and Pugachev. Cossack life served as the ideal of the party of populists. However, there was no sympathy among the Cossacks, which did not find support in them, the agitators declared the Cossacks hopeless, "royal satraps", gave up on the Cossacks and switched to other classes. To promote their ideas, the populists began to arrange Sunday schools, under the pretext of teaching ordinary people to read and write. Leaflets of seditious content were also distributed there, demanding the convocation of a constituent assembly and independence of Poland. At this time in St. Petersburg and several other cities there were fires. Sunday school students fell under suspicion, many schools were closed, and the investigation began. Several activists were put on trial, including Chernyshevsky. After some lull, a new movement began - Russia began to be covered with "circles of self-education" with the same goals. In 1869, in Moscow, a "secret society of massacre" was formed, headed by Nechaev. After an internal bloody showdown, the participants were arrested and convicted. Fermentation did not cease and his aim was to kill the sovereign. Several unsuccessful attempts were made on him. In 1874, revolutionary propaganda was sent to the villages, the revolutionaries moved to the people, but they were not understood. Moreover, the authorities received hundreds of applications for seditionaries. Thousands of Narodniks were brought to justice; an investigative commission was created whose chairman was appointed Loris-Melikov. 11 February 1881 was an unsuccessful attempt on his life, and on March 1 Emperor Alexander II was killed. The new emperor Alexander III was the second son of Alexander II, 26 was born on February 1845 of the year and came to the throne with established political convictions, with a powerful, decisive and open character. He did not like much in the control system of his father. He was a supporter of the national-Russian system in politics, the Russian patriarchy in everyday life and openly did not approve of the influx of the German element in the court and government circles. Even outwardly, he was very different from its predecessors. For the first time since the time of Peter the Great, he wore a powerful, voluminous, patriarchal beard, which was very impressed by the Cossacks. In general, the Cossacks gave a beard and mustache a very large, sacred, even sacral meaning, especially the Old Believers of the Ural army. Having resisted the will of Tsar Peter I to trim his mustache and beard in a European manner, rebelling and rebelling, the Cossacks defended their right to mustache and beard. In the end, the royal power resigned and allowed the Don, Terek, Kuban and Ural Cossacks to wear mustaches and beards. But the Orenburg Cossacks had no such right, until 50 years, while in the service, they were forbidden to have beards. Especially strictly was under Nicholas I, who "deigned to command not to allow any oddities in the mustache and whiskers ...". With the coming to power of Alexander III, the two-century obscurantism with forced marriages gradually faded away. In the political sphere, at the very beginning of his activity, the new emperor instructed Pobedonostsev to draw up a manifesto with a firm statement that he would not allow electing to begin because of the danger of dual power. The entire rule of the previous emperor was accompanied by a revolutionary movement and terrorist acts. The revolutionary ideas of the West penetrated into Russia and assumed peculiar forms under Russian conditions. If the economic struggle of workers in the West was in the nature of the struggle against the inhumanity of capitalism and for the improvement of the economic working conditions, in Russia revolutionaries demanded a radical breakdown of the existing social order, the complete destruction of the foundations of state and popular life and the organization of new social order based on the prism of their own imagination and unrestrained socio-political fantasies. The main feature of the Russian revolutionary leaders was the complete absence of constructive social principles in their ideas, their main ideas were striving for one goal - the destruction of social, economic, social foundations and the complete rejection of "prejudices", namely morality, morality and religion. Moreover, the paradox was that the main carriers and propagandists of seditious ideas in society were the privileged strata, the nobility and the intelligentsia. This environment, devoid of all roots among the people, was considered Russian, and yet both in the way of life and in their convictions they were, whether French, Germans, or British, or rather neither the one nor the other. The ruthless preparator of the Russian reality of that time, F.M. Dostoevsky brilliantly revealed in his novel "Demons" and christened this phenomenon as devilry.
The main purpose of the emperor Alexander III was the approval of autocratic power and the maintenance of state order. The fight against sedition ended in complete success, secret circles were suppressed and terrorist acts ceased. The reforms of Alexander III touched all aspects of state life and were aimed at strengthening the influence of the government, developing public (local) self-government and strengthening the authority of power. He especially paid attention to the implementation of reforms and their best application. In the inner life, class improvements were made. A noble land bank was established to issue loans to the nobles on the security of their land on preferential terms. A peasant bank was established for the peasants, which issued loans to the peasants to buy land. The means of struggle with the shortage of land was the resettlement of peasants at public expense on vacant land in Siberia and Central Asia. From 1871, in the Cossack regions, universal primary (4-x class) boys began to be introduced, beginning with the 8-9 of summer age, gradually spreading to all children. The results of such effective measures proved to be very successful: by the beginning of the 20th century, more than half of the population of the Cossack regions had primary education. To regulate the relations between workers and employers, factory legislation was created and factory inspectors were established to supervise order in factories. The construction of the great Siberian railway to the Pacific (Transsib) and to Central Asia (Turksib) was started. Alexander III's foreign policy was distinguished by the fact that he decisively evaded interference in European affairs. He strictly guarded the Russian national interests, while revealing an enviable peacefulness, which is why he received the title "Tsar-peacemaker". He not only did not lead wars, but also avoided a pretext to them in every way. Contrary to the policy of reckless "Pan-Slavism" based mainly on the lyrical fantasies of the educated classes, at the first manifestation of dissatisfaction with the policy of Russia on the part of the South Slavs freed from the Turkish dependence, they started mutual disassembly, he abandoned them, leaving Bulgaria and Serbia to their own fate. In this matter, he was absolutely in solidarity with the brilliant Dostoevsky, who wrote back in 1877: “Russia will not be there, and there has never been such haters, envious people, slanderers, and even obvious enemies, like all these Slavic tribes, Russia will liberate, but Europe will agree to recognize their liberation ... ". In opposition to the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary, Alexander III entered into a defensive alliance with France, taking the enemy in ticks. The only military clash in the reign of Alexander III was with the Afghans on the Kushka River, which did not cause any complications with either Afghanistan or the British. In relation to the Don Army in the reign of Alexander III, some changes were made. In 1883, the Don Cadet Corps was opened. 24 March 1884 was added to the army: Sal district, Azov district and Taganrog. In 1886, the Novocherkassk Military School was opened and a Cossack hundred junkers were established at the Nikolaev Cavalry School. In 1887, the emperor visited the Don and confirmed the rights and advantages of the Cossack troops. By the end of the 19th century, eleven Cossack troops were formed in Russia. Contemporaries called them the eleven pearls in the brilliant crown of the Russian Empire. Donets, Kuban, Tertians, Urals, Siberians, Astrakhans, Orenburg, Transbaikal, Semirechentsy, Amur, Ussurians. Each army had its own history - some are no less ancient than the Russian state itself, others short, but also glorious. Each army had its own traditions, united by a single core, permeated with a single meaning. Each army had its own heroes. And some had common heroes, such as Yermak Timofeevich - a legendary and glorious personality in all of Russia.
With the emperor's firm control, revolutionary illusions were forgotten, but despite the suppression of terrorism, its coals continued to fester. In 1887, a student 3 was detained in Petersburg and bombs were found on them. During interrogation, they confessed that they had the goal of killing the king. The terrorists were hanged, among them was Alexander Ulyanov. In the 1888 year, the royal train crashed when returning from the Caucasus, there were many dead and wounded, but the royal family was not injured. Possessing great physical strength and health, in the 50 year of his life, Emperor Alexander III fell ill with a kidney disease and died on October 20. All European governments have declared that, in the person of the deceased emperor, the support of the common European world, balance and prosperity has been lost. On the throne came Nicholas II and his reign was the end of the three hundred year Romanov dynasty. But this is a completely different, and very tragic, story.
Gordeev A.A. - History of the Cossacks
Mamonov V.F. and others. - History of the Cossacks of the Urals. Orenburg-Chelyabinsk 1992
Shibanov N.S. - Orenburg Cossacks of the XVIII - XIX centuries
Potto V.A. - Caucasian War
- Sergey Volgin
- Siberian Cossack Epic
Old Cossack ancestors
Cossacks and the annexation of Turkestan
Education Volga and Yaitsky Cossack Troops
Cossacks in Time of Troubles
Seniority (education) and the formation of the Don Cossack troops in the Moscow service
Azov seat and the transition of the Don troops in the Moscow service
Formation of the Dnieper and Zaporizhia troops and their service to the Polish-Lithuanian state
The transfer of the Cossack army hetman to the Moscow service
Treason of Mazepa and the pogrom of Cossack liberties by Tsar Peter
The uprising of Pugachev and the elimination of the Dnieper Cossacks by Empress Catherine
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part I, pre-war
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part II, the invasion and expulsion of Napoleon
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part III, foreign campaign
Formation of the Kuban Army
The feat of the young Platov (Battle of the Kalalah on the third of April, 1774)
Education Orenburg Cossack troops
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