What kind of beast is the "Needle"
But very few people understand what this is all about, so I’ll briefly describe the device of such devices.
So, first banal things.
Such MANPADS have a homing missile. Not a rocket that flies out of a grenade launcher, where to send it and where it gets lucky. Not anti-tank missile "Fagot", which is sent by the operator in flight. The MANPADS missile flies by itself and directs itself.
To capture a goal you need a very hot target. Well, like the exhaust of an aircraft jet engine, of the order of 900 degrees. But according to the stories of the fighters - the rocket is able to cling to the tip of a cigarette, which has only 400 ° C.
But, of course, there is no talk of any “hot conditioner”; even the exhaust pipe of the car is too cold for a rocket. Unless it can "catch" the brake discs of a sports car, they warm up during the races red hot, and this is more than 500 ° C.
Now look at the rocket.
A certain “figovina” sticks out in front of her and for some reason it is considered that it is she who is guided to the target, it is in her sensor.
I hasten to disappoint - this is a trivial flow divider. The rocket is supersonic, it has a speed of the order of 500 m / s (this is one and a half the speed of sound). The Kalashnikov bullet flies slightly faster than the 700 m / s, but the bullet speed drops rapidly, and here the rocket flies several kilometers at that speed. But the divider is not required. There are rockets with a certain trick on a tripod, and there is generally no divider.
So - this is a splitter. Inside it is just empty. The sensor is a little further - behind the annular glass.
But the question arises - if the interrupter divider sticks out right in front, how does the rocket see the plane? She is right on the course blind!
Yes, that is right.
The rocket NEVER flies right on the target. Even if it hits, it tries to explode not exactly in the exhaust of the engine, but a little to the side near the side of the aircraft (it has a sensor) in order to have more damage.
Even when the rocket is still in the installation during aiming and the sensor has not yet captured the target - it still stands unevenly.
If a soldier hits the horizon exactly in the sight, then the rocket will stick up 10 degrees, it does not coincide with the line of sight.
And by the way, so is the explanation stories with the allegedly “Needle” in Lugansk, which “shot too low” is unthinkable. It is constructively made so as not to shoot too low. At the same time, if the pipe is really lowered slightly downwards, then the rocket will simply slip out from there, it does not adhere to anything on the battle platoon from falling forward. I can imagine how many bricks can be postponed because of this, even though the rocket does not explode, the fuse is cocked already in flight.
So, below the horizon, the missile when aiming is not omitted. And how high can you screw it up?
Around 60 °. If you try to hook the target, which is higher above your head, then when you fire a rocket, powder gases will heat the heels of the soldier, and you will get your ass.
Let's go back to the sensor.
In the "Needle" there are two of them - one for the goal, and the second for false goals. And the first infrared, and the second optical. And they are both installed inside the lens / mirror lens. And the lens is mounted inside the gyroscope. Which also turns. Egg in a duck, duck in a chest ...
Before the target is captured on the ground, the gyroscope spins up to 100 revolutions per second. And this lens with sensors inside the gyroscope also rotates, examining the surrounding through the annular glass. In fact - scans the neighborhood. The lens has a narrow angle of view - 2 °, but it scans the angle in 38 °. That is, 18 ° in each direction. This is exactly the angle to which the rocket can "tighten".
But that's not all.
After the shot, the rocket rotates. It makes 20 revolutions per second, and the gyroscope at this time reduces revolutions to 20 per second, but in the opposite direction. The sensor holds the target. But keeps the goal a little to the side.
Why do it?
The rocket does not catch up with the target, it preempts it. She calculates where the goal will be with her speed and flies slightly ahead to the venue.
The main sensor is infrared and it is very desirable for it to be cooled. They do it - they cool it with liquid nitrogen, -196 ° С.
In the field. After long storage ... How?
This question is related to how they feed the rocket electronics. In the field. After storage. It is unlikely that the batteries will be a good solution if they sit down and the MANPADS will be useless.
There is something like a battery. Remotely.
We admire the picture - it is a ground power source.
In the black round - liquid nitrogen at a pressure of 350 atmospheres, and in the cylinder - an electrochemical cell, that is to say, a battery. But the battery is special - it is solid, and in working condition - on the molten electrolyte.
How does this happen.
When the power supply is connected, you need to sharply “chop” it with a special handle, that is, pierce the membrane.
The container with liquid nitrogen is opened and it is fed through a special tube to the infrared sensor of the rocket. The sensor is cooled to almost two hundred degrees frost. For this to happen, it takes 4.5 seconds. In the missile warhead there is a cumulative element, where liquid nitrogen is stored during the flight, it lasts for 14 seconds. In general, this is the life time of a rocket in flight, after 17 seconds self-destructive fires (if the rocket did not reach the target).
So liquid nitrogen ran to the rocket.
But he rushed inside - and led the action podruzhennuyu firing pin, which blows a pyrotechnic element with a blow. He lights up and melts the electrolyte (up to 500-700 ° C), a current appears in the system in a half seconds. The trigger comes to life. This is such a device from the bottom with a pistol grip. It is reusable, and if it is sown - the tribunal. Because it is terribly secret interrogator of the system of others, for the loss of which a period is provided.
This trigger gives a command to the gyroscope, which spins in three seconds. The rocket begins to search for a target.
Time to search for a target is limited. Because the nitrogen from the tank goes and evaporates, and the electrolyte in the battery cools. Time - about a minute, the manufacturer guarantees 30 seconds. After that, it all turns off, the trigger mechanism stops the gyroscope with a pointing system, the nitrogen evaporates.
So, the preparation for launch is about 5 seconds and there is about half a minute for a shot. If it didn't work out - for the next shot you need a new NPC (ground power source).
Well, let's say we coped with a bunch of target capture modes (considering whether it flies at us or away from us), the rocket said “everything is OK, caught the target” and fired.
Next is the active life of the rocket, its very same 14 seconds that are set aside for everything.
Firstly, the start engine works. This is a simple powder engine that throws a rocket out of the pipe. Throws out on 5.5 meters (for 0.4 seconds) after which the main engine works - also solid propellant and also on special powder. The launch engine does not crash with the rocket, it remains trapped at the end of the pipe. But he manages to ignite the main engine through a special channel.
The question is - from what source of power does the rocket fly in flight? As you understand, the rocket itself is not a battery either. But, unlike a terrestrial source, this is NOT a battery at all.
Before starting the starting engine, the on-board power source, the alternator, is also started. It is started by electric ignition. Because this generator works on a powder checker. Gunpowder burns, gases evolve that turn the turbogenerator. As a result, 250 watts of power and a complex scheme of speed control (and the turbine makes about 18 thousand rpm). The gunpowder burns at a speed of 5 mm per second and burns completely in 14 seconds (which is not surprising).
Here you need to rocket the rocket on the target to take lead. But there is still no speed, the rocket has not accelerated, the aerodynamic control surfaces (designed for supersonic) are useless. And then it will turn late. This helps the generator. More precisely not the generator itself, but its exhaust powder gases. They are on special tubes through the valves to the side at the end of the rocket, which deploys it at the commands of the guidance system.
Then everything is clear - the rocket works itself. She looks after the goal, estimates her speed and goes to the meeting point. Whether it succeeds depends on many factors. The “Needle” helicopter reaches the 3.5 km altitude, and the plane only reaches the 2.5, its speed is greater and if it is higher, it will not be caught up.
Well, after the shot, we are left with an empty plastic pipe and a trigger mechanism with a handle. It is desirable to pass the plastic pipe, it can be equipped again, the newly equipped pipes are marked with red rings, up to five starts can be made from one pipe.
And that garbage that flew ... it cost 35 thousands of euros.
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