Military Review

Psychological weapon. Part of 4

The aggravation of the situation in Ukraine forced me to interrupt the writing of a series of articles on psychological arms: telling leisure stories and theories when real help is needed is unethical. Need to be there. Therefore, at the end of the topic, I would like to briefly and in accessible language set forth some basic information on the peculiarities of our perception and thinking, which will be of interest to both serious researchers and inquisitive people.

Perception algorithm

What is analysis? Decomposition, dismemberment - the method of research. Surprisingly, it is not at all necessary to have a human mind, in order to have the ability to analyze, you can never have any brains, even electronic ones. The simplest example is a sieve in a crushed stone combine, where during the crushing of rock passing through a series of sieves with cells of different sizes, we get the separation of crushed stone into different fractions, from small to large, for various production needs. And it turns out that any physical law can be interpreted as a splitting of information, and therefore, as an inalienable property, sorry for nudistics, matter.

In nature, the principle of sieves is used to the full, only instead of cells where suitable pieces of limestone fall into size, thousands, if not millions of sensors, of nerve endings reacting to a certain light wave, heat, taste or smell are used.

How is the algorithm drawn? One of the first icons means data entry, programmers work with already shared information, which is why it goes further down one dash, in the case of wildlife, this is impossible, on the contrary, we have thousands of these entries. That is why we can sense, see, be aware of, and the machine can only count. There is one more feature here: if the signal from each receptor directly comes to the brain, it will “go crazy”, therefore the collection of information from nerve endings, sensors is structured according to certain bundles, gathering in nerve nodes that play the role of routers, filters, passing Further, only the necessary information at the moment. That is, the number of inputs and receptor sensors may differ from each other by several orders of magnitude, thus realizing the principle of sieves in a new quality. And the principle of separation of information processing is the key, and here begins the expanse for biological evolution and the architects of artificial intelligence, it turns out that in order to be smart and successful in its field, it is not necessary to have exactly the largest and most perfect brain or CPU . The main thing is that the system is balanced and consistent with the challenges it faces. An example of this in nature is the organization of complex communities among insects, the same ants, bees.

In electronics, this was confirmed by the results of the confrontation between the Soviet and American engineering schools. With the lag of the elemental base and computing power, Russian scientists committed to minimalism and simplicity were forced to follow the principle of information sharing for unloading central computers, sometimes using ordinary electromechanical relays, or even thyristors, as a router to the data processing circuit. Nevertheless, and perhaps due to the fact, phenomenal results were achieved in the creation of rocket systems, air defense systems, or the Basalt P-500 product.

A rather well-known fact: on November 15, 1988, the Buran spacecraft made an automatic landing at the Yubileiny airfield, which the American space shuttles were not capable of. But let's continue the associative series - in September 1991, a K-50 combat helicopter, nicknamed the "Black Shark", was demonstrated at the Farnborough Air Show. One of the features of his autopilot was that when a person died or was unable to control the machine, he independently returned and landed the bird on the base. And how all this contrasts with the following event: in November 2010, an F-22 fighter jet piloted by Jeffrey Haney crashed in Alaska. According to the commission of inquiry, which was headed by retired General Gregory Martin, the cause of the disaster was the malfunctioning of the OBOGS (on-board oxygen generation system), which caused Haney to experience suffocation. At the same time, the deceased pilot was blamed for the disaster (!!!). That is, an incredibly expensive aircraft with miracle electronics, in a country that has begun mass production of combat drones, turned out to be unable to do things that Soviet engineers implemented 20-25 years ago ?! Correct me if I'm wrong, otherwise I'm suddenly slandering American exceptionalism.

There is such a joke. In the insane asylum they decided to determine which patient to prepare for discharge and asked a test question:
- How much is one hundred plus one?
And three patients consistently answer, the first one is “Green”, the second one is “Salty”, and the third one says - “It will be two hundred”.
The delighted doctor asks the last patient, how did he do this? He never for a second, without hesitation, replies: "And he divided the green into the salty."

It's funny, but our brain does just that, using figurative pictures broken down by time. A direct consequence of the principle of sharing information of our perception is precisely the fact that it is more difficult to work with objects of formal logic, the same figures, than with visual (sound in case of blindness) images and sensations. The green color for us is green, and the abstract number (secondary symbol) can have a complex encoding and, very possibly, with the division into “salty”. One of the main miracles that people brought to this world was the ability to change their perceptions within certain limits when a person, purposefully engaged in a certain activity, develops the ability to see things beyond the usual boundaries. It has many names - a professional sense, insight as a response before its rationale, spiritual experience, intuition.

Errors of perception

And everything would be fine, but trouble came, from where it was not expected. Who would have thought? The book, which has done so much to preserve, enhance, and generalize knowledge, has caused stagnation of modern science. Now it has become apparent even when processing the results in exact disciplines. Written language as a symbol of scholasticism, coupled with the existing unification of education with the coaching of objects of formal logic has become a brake on development. It seemed that by using paper as an intermediary, people gained an advantage by concentrating on the object in presenting their thoughts, but it turned out that other non-linguistic information chains were cut off. Time after time, emascuating the concepts, it seemed, for the convenience of operating them, as a result, people began to receive what is unknown. That orgy of “glitches” that is now happening in the information space is sometimes not at all a result of malicious intent, but an objective factor in the accumulation of existing perception errors, which bad people use.

If it is not clear, again in other words. Adaptive mechanisms of a person are not rubber, you will not stretch your eyes to the back of your head. Forcing our nature to operate with empty abstractions, even with the same ideological clichés, sooner or later leads to the fact that what has made us the crown of creation begins to suffer - our perception, the ability to analyze, laid down by nature, the natural principle of information sharing. What does this oppression mean? We are dumb! How can you not remember the words of Mikhail Zadornov about formatted consciousness.

As an example: where is such a high concept as moral is updated in real time? Of course, not in catechism, but in human relations. Then the question is: in which human relationship? The feat, the nobility show the core of the personality, but are only the result of its formation. Then what makes people come back to this topic over and over again? Of course, not the notation. If you want to plant something, let it feel. Where is the intersection of human destinies, where, voluntarily or unwittingly, are people close by in happiness or distress and looking for mutual understanding?

Psychological weapon. Part of 4

This is a family, but I ask you to avoid simplifications, various kinds of cliches and, God forgive me, creativity. The concept of “family” in this case should be viewed precisely as a reactor, an intersection of interlacing and collision of people's feelings, female and male, of different generations, which is important, children and parents in time. Each of us, to one degree or another, knows this feeling as a synthesis of a higher concept, we just need to remember it. This crosshair, as long as it exists, is the gyroscope, the generator of meaning, the keeper of memory, and whatever darkening of souls will come, will turn to good even through several generations, and in fact people are divided by so many things. There is, for example, such a German saying, sounding like the bogey of individualism - “everyone dies alone”. And yet we really die alone.

Then the next question. Why break this mechanism? I can swear that it is good, but what's the use of it? Guarantees are provided only by a working structure, which in principle cannot consist of one subject. It's not just gay marriage.

Somehow the lines from Pushkin’s work “Eugene Onegin” came to mind, Tatyana’s words: “But I have been given to another and I will be forever faithful to him”. From the point of view of modern Western morality, this is a wild expression of slave psychology, a manifestation of eerie sexism and male chauvinism. “Pussy Riot”, it turns out, has a lot of work to do, we urgently need to conduct a punk prayer service at the Ministry of Education, exclude Pushkin from the school curriculum and tear down a couple of monuments ...

Alexander Sergeevich, of course, did not want to offend anyone, he wrote in these lines about CORRECTNESS. This case clearly demonstrates what I wrote above at the beginning of this chapter, about the orgy of “glitches”. In the pursuit of fashionable (or false?) Truths, it is impossible to destroy the mechanisms that have shaped the public consciousness for centuries, which inevitably can lead to great distress over time. And the point is not in the dispute of responsibility and freedom, per se, but in the exclusion from the use of suicidal models of behavior. "To be or not to be, that is the question."

But for some reason, no one wants to explain this to us, but to play off people with each other, throwing populist slogans - this is right "for hello." Actually, the same “human rights” do not reflect half the rights of the organism, and not the fact that the aspirations of the individual.


The question of the formation of a psychological struggle unit in the relevant structures of the Russian Federation has long been overdue and overripe. I will not hide, the cycle of articles about psychological weapons was conceived by me in order to determine the presence of such services, since I wrote very interesting things "for people who are in the subject." But the reality once again laughed at my naivety, it was the events in Ukraine that showed that there was no such unit. All sorts of dark offices, in a different way and you will not name, such as the public association "Russia 2045" - do not count.

This is very bad, as sane work on psychological weapons and its use could save many lives.

For those who do not have time to read my earlier materials on this topic, a brief reference to the prerequisites indicating the need for the emergence of such structures.

Sun Tzu, “The Art of War,” a treatise of the second half of the 5th century BC (453 — 403).
“... he who knows how to wage a war conquers a foreign army without fighting; takes foreign fortresses without besieging; crushes a foreign state, not holding his army for a long time. He always keeps everything intact, and this contests power. Therefore, it is possible without blunting weapons to have a benefit: this is the rule of strategic attack. ”

One of my acquaintances, a semi-gangster, a semi-entrepreneur, said: “Things must be done, so that you are happy to give me your money.

I don’t know how much, only the last decades we can quite characterize with the term “ideological occupation”. The war of meanings (again, motivations) is a manifestation of the highest strategic form of psychological weapons, and there is still a natural variety of tactical methods.

It is interesting, by the way, from a position of historical materialism to consider rethinking the causes of defeat in the Russian-Japanese war of 1904-1905, in the works of A.N. Stepanova in the novel "Port Arthur", A.S. Novikov-Priboy in the novel "Tsushima", eyewitnesses of those events when, among other things, it was about the psychological component. In light of this, it is logical to subsequently, regardless of the political background, the formation of the institution of political workers in the Red Army and the Soviet Army. And even in our time it was not possible to declare this a misunderstanding.

However, there was no scientific, systematic, conscious approach to this topic, and no. We continue to blindly follow the circumstances, and the processes of evolutionary development, excuse me, as they had us and they have. The Ukrainian crisis is a clear confirmation of this. While circumstances were favorable, the commander of the Black Sea fleet During the Crimean events, Alexander Viktorovich Vitko could threaten in an interview: “If at least someone shoots from a slingshot,” and this somehow worked. But in a more complex environment, this became a sign of powerlessness.

The same Mikhalkov as a representative of exorcism and cultural enlightenment, the same Kiselev as a representative of the journalist corps, or Vitko as a representative of the armed forces can be excellent mouthpieces, but they are just performers, they can be given responsibility for specific events, but push them what politicians have failed to do, up to the formation of a missing ideology, will be wrong.

Here is the philosopher Ilyin and who else was pulled out of naphthalene after him. Hmmm ...

But the time is not far off when the opposing sides will monitor and shoot, like the "Mossad" Iranian nuclear physicists, specialists in psychological weapons. So the NSA started financing the development of programs that track sarcasm networks. Down and Out trouble started!

What else to say about this? Very sorry. This is where I could help.

And further. I was always amazed by the fact that in spite of the fact that everyone uses tricks in life, those people who like to read the yellow press and watch Ren-TV channel are convinced that the means of mental activity should look like a box with buttons, sometimes with an antenna . Apparently, for complacency.
Articles from this series:
Psychological weapon. Part of 1
Psychological weapon. Part of 2
Psychological weapon. Part of 3

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  1. marina1811
    marina1811 21 June 2014 09: 20
    Those who watch such programs, how they happen on Ren TV, those spoiled their mood, increased aggressiveness. If I look, I’m also very annoyed, but I have reasons. What the f ... they keep repeating the same thing all the time! In different variations, words change places. 100 grams of information is spread over an entire hour. When you watch American shows - even about nature, animals, it’s the same there. Terribly annoying ... I thought such a fashion. Result - I do not watch such programs.
    1. vrach
      22 June 2014 07: 58
      During the preparation of this material, I had to exclude a rather significant part of the text to improve the presentation style, but nevertheless very interesting. I will use in the comments, what good is to disappear:

      With obstinacy worthy of the best use in the media, periodically there are reports of success in the study of the brain and nervous system, which is literally the last at the beginning of June 2014. - “A group of American (damn it again, honestly, just coincided) scientists achieved the ability to erase and restore memory by stimulating the brain cells of mice,” published in the authoritative scientific journal Nature.
      Yeah So I want to say - but really? Actually? In fact, researchers can even understand something, loud headlines hide absolutely insignificant achievements, and you need to report to bookkeeping and high authorities. If you set a goal and rummage through scientific journals, it turns out that the methods for electrical stimulation of nerve tissues began, probably, from the experiments of Academician Pavlov, that is, 100 years ago, or maybe even later. The whole difference in approaches is that before the electrodes were implanted in the brain, now microchips are inserted which, of course, are better at changing the characteristics and adjusting the level of transmitted electric pulses from different directions. If before this experimental animals were simply crippled, now after that they learned to restore the function of flexion of the paw.
      That is, for great achievements we are given absolutely insignificant results
    2. The comment was deleted.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 21 June 2014 11: 16
    Man, the blacksmith of his worldview ..
  3. muginov2015
    muginov2015 21 June 2014 11: 20
    Cool the author kneaded.
  4. Cat
    Cat 21 June 2014 11: 49
    How is the algorithm drawn? One of the first icons means data entry, programmers work with already shared information, so it goes further down with a dash, in the case of wildlife it is impossible

    Programmers have long ceased to work with "shared information" (except for students, of course) - they work with objects or, let's say, process models. This is by the way.
    In general, I liked the articles, although academic science tends to complicate things Yes
    because there is still a natural diversity of tactical techniques

    And there is such a property of the human brain as tunneling thinking - when everything that does not fit into the template developed by a certain age is simply discarded as informational garbage
  5. GRAY
    GRAY 21 June 2014 13: 50
    The simplest test for resistance to neurolinguistic programming:
    - Answer quickly without hesitation. What color is the fridge?
    - White.
    - What do cows drink?
    - Milk.
    You also said "milk" to yourself? But the cow doesn’t drink milk, it drinks water.
  6. provincial
    provincial 21 June 2014 17: 40
    The most worthless TV is REN-TV.
  7. The stranger among his
    The stranger among his 21 June 2014 17: 53
    The author is really well done. In detail.
    But we should all be familiar with this. Where from? from the lessons of literature, history, at least. Here you are looking for the main character, here you give him an assessment, and here the teacher tells you where you need to be especially careful. The simplest neurolinguistic effect through the text.
    Through the picture, the impact was even earlier. At kindergarten. Here the teacher shows you the card and repeats: the wolf. This is a wolf, you remember.
    They say to you in the news: the militias. You accept. Why not the Ukrainians of the southeast? Why can't we say that not every Ukrainian rides to the tune of Kiev. The militia is politically neutral, and the intention is clear that he will no longer be Ukrainian, so the word "Ukrainian" has been erased.
  8. GUKTU92
    GUKTU92 21 June 2014 21: 43
    If it is not clear, again in other words. Adaptive mechanisms of a person are not rubber; you cannot tighten your eyes to the back of your head. Forcing our nature to operate with empty abstractions, or even with the same ideological cliches, sooner or later leads to the fact that what made us the crown of creation begins to suffer - our perception, the ability to analyze laid down by nature, the natural principle of sharing information. What does this oppression turn into? We are dumb!

    Here it is!!! Many thanks to the author! After all, this is an explanation of what is happening with the minds of residents of a neighboring state! And I sincerely doubted that this was possible.
  9. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 21 June 2014 22: 40
    Ah, dear author ... I once wrote about why such offices of "psychological struggle" have not developed in our country. And at the same time and why the enemy has them, but have the appearance of circumcised to complete castration. Even in this truncated and trampled form, this muck is amazingly effective. But none of the authorities will ever, ever allow the development of the direction in full! Rather, they are told to shoot scientists without figuring out who has achieved what, in a crowd, nafig. And they tell the earth to sow with salt ... The respected author has all the data as to why such an ending is inevitable. Think and you will easily understand.
    Why did I personally rejoice at the appearance of these articles here? Because exposure techniques are doomed. But counteraction methods can be carefully developed! The authorities also do not approve of them, but at least they don’t immediately grab the trunks and accidents! Every person in the modern world, if he has even a drop of brains not yet littered with informational garbage, is obliged to find some kind of exercise for himself to maintain psycho-unity under pressure. They are, these exercises, and they are not too difficult to find.
    But I will not bring them. The fact is that the entrance portal to life with your own mind and not with other people's stamps, into life not at the direction of other people's uncles, is active and active work on yourself. If a person is only able to open his mouth so that they have already chewed him there, there is no sense in this person.
    1. vrach
      22 June 2014 07: 44
      Good morning, namesake. I will support, but in some ways I will argue. Means of psychological influence are dual in nature, they can be poison and medicine at the same time. But there is still a third, there is a common assertion that labor created man here, but in reality the stress factor gave us reason, and weapons became the first tool. And I'm afraid we again can’t avoid the stress factor in our history, as a means of wisdom.
      I’ll clarify my idea, for me personally, as a researcher and author, the topic of psychological weapons is now a real opportunity to make a breakthrough in the study of human nature through it. This is when there is political will, and stupidly, and just shut up the mouth of hundreds of idlers that fed on the pulpits and give carte blanche to me, for example. Five years later, having assistants (mathematicians, programmers, psychologists, even art critics), a laboratory and funding, or maybe much earlier (I haven’t written about a lot), I promise fantastic results.
      As for the danger. As stupid as it may sound to me, they have already "ordered" a person, an ordinary everyday thing. Refused, I repeat, it looked terribly stupid. And it's not so much about me (I hope that I can only make medicine), but about the fact that, delving into the study of human nature, we will certainly come across a code of self-development hidden in a person. If you believe in God, call it God.
      1. timer
        timer 1 July 2014 18: 29
        I think that talking about psychological weapons is an idle talk and nothing more. And agitation and propaganda are effective and efficient.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. 22 June 2014 14: 35
      Quote: Mikhail3
      If a person is only able to open his mouth so that they have already chewed him there, there is no sense in this person.

      This is no longer a person, an individual of this species.
  10. vrach
    23 June 2014 13: 39
    Open answer Patriot555

    Dear Patriot555, for the entire time of our brief communication, you did not give me any interesting information on your part, you only ask and pronounce well-known cliches known to me by heart. Write under a nickname and only in PM. So equal interlocutors do not behave. The meaning of the conversation is lost. But I will give you a lesson in generosity, only this answer I will post in the commentary feed.
    “Can we evaluate the years through 50 in the memoirs of an officer.” And now I can say in what bad place we are. A very interesting and inconspicuous event occurred in our 2014. Immediately after the start of the company’s sanctions against the Russian Federation on events in Ukraine, it was decided to prohibit foreign companies (!!!) from conducting audits of our defense industry enterprises (military-industrial complex). I will decrypt such international standards ISO 9001 imposed on us (they even write on toilet paper), 14000, OHSAS. In my opinion, even a hedgehog could understand that a third of the personnel of these certification firms are professional scouts or mishandled Cossacks. But at least Roger Smith (sounds like Petya Ivanov, but nevertheless a really acting character), a former British fleet personnel officer, now a Canadian citizen, lives in Almaty, processes a bush in the strategic oil enterprises sector in Kazakhstan, but in Samara was noted. WHY ONLY NOW have they begun to shut off oxygen !?
    The most shame is that these "auditors" having the ability to access the electronic databases of the audited enterprises - WE CONTAINED MONEY !!! Here is a divorce so a divorce. Why does the FSB not shout about this “success" on every corner?
    As for the psychological units, I had the pleasure of talking with former intelligence officers up to the major, there were very interesting topics about polygraph testing. But anyway, if my grandmother knew that, then it would be grandfather. By primary gender. Again examples:
    1. Fight near Volnovakha, Strelkov says that this is a successful operation of the militias. After some time, Gubarev intervenes and says that all this was the work of the National Guardsmen, they shot those who wanted to go over to the side of the militias.
    2. Shot down IL 76 near Lugansk, Bolotov says militia shot down. Gubarev says brought down by the people of Kiev.
    What is all this about, Gubarev, on an intuitively artisanal level, is trying to process the information in his favor, as he can and how he can.
    There are no military units involved in psychology. There was one during the war with Georgia, and it was dispersed. Do not scrub my brains.
    1. Patriot555
      Patriot555 23 June 2014 16: 14
      Dear Vrach, if you feel so relaxed, I can write here too. Can I show a passport or a soldier to give weight to my words?
      An example about Ukraine shows that there is a mess in the ranks of the militia and the regular army.
      Regarding the "psychological intelligence" parts, it's like in the quote from the DMB "do you see a gopher?"
      I will say this. In 2009, I served next to such a unit, that is, there are similar military units. The goals and objectives of this part do not know.
      And if you do not know something, it does not mean that this is not.
      1. vrach
        24 June 2014 07: 47
        25 again? Patriot555, I bring you arguments and facts, and you can only talk about gophers. And even a gopher and a mess could not explain all my arguments. It can equally well be argued that there is life on Mars. And let me show you my warrior. By the way, why about the passport? What side is he here? :) Wretchedness.
  11. vrach
    24 June 2014 20: 29
    The bottom line, and why I got angry at Patriot555. It is very difficult to deal with such people. You have read my article and my comments, and I hope I was able to clearly demonstrate that my main desire was to get to the bottom of the phenomena. And I still unearthed what I saw Patriot555. On the basis of combat vehicles of patrol and reconnaissance BMDR made and now have propaganda vehicles with speakers. They are designed to do the same things as their predecessors 80 years ago to call on enemy soldiers to surrender. Sorry I couldn't get a photo. It was with these "psychos" that my counterpart was dealing. Pancake!! That is what kind of people there is in whom there is not an ounce of respect for other people's talent and work.
    1. Patriot555
      Patriot555 24 June 2014 21: 57
      I am not going to refute your labors. I just brought you information about the availability of such parts. It is not clear where you saw aggression on your person there.
      Regarding the propaganda machines, they were right in this regard, similar ones based on the BTR-80 ZS-88.
  12. uhu189
    uhu189 25 June 2014 18: 02
    Dear author. I will try to develop your thought a little. Imagine that the technology for manipulating the perception of people's information is really developed. What do you think, how realistic is it to apply them massively? How possible is it then to solve the problem of the predictability of the behavior of a group of people affected by such technologies? As far as I understand, as soon as someone (a person, organization or structure of the state) begins to carry out such an intervention (not one-time but constant), she is forced to have feedbacks on which to control the behavior of the control object (society in this case), and perform adjustments as necessary in cases where the behavior of the managed object (group of people) is beyond the permissible limits. And here immediately a number of questions arise, which from my amateur point of view are very difficult to solve, namely:
    1) Development of a clear goal of influencing a group of people, for what it is required to do, and whether the result of the impact of those funds that will be spent
    2) The development of environmental factors that affect the selected group of people and may interfere with the achievement of the goal and the consolidation of ways to recognize these facts in the future.
    3) Determination of methods of influence on a very, very heterogeneous group, development of optimal impact by level and methodology, which will allow to obtain acceptable relatively identical results.
    4) Definition and identification of what exactly can be used as feedback, its control and analysis.
    5) Criteria for evaluating the result.
    What do you think - how realistic is it to do all this in a complex? And if someone enters the mode of "manual" control, so to speak, then this control must be continuous until the goal is achieved, and after achieving it, there must be a method of transferring from manual to self-control, without further catastrophic scenarios for this group.
    What we see in Ukraine seems to me to a greater extent an experiment that, due to the lack or not possession of the listed skills, will lead to disaster for the group of people (in this case, Ukrainian society) that participates in them. And it is not management in the full sense of the word - it is precisely the development of a particular technology on people whom the authors do not mind. How much our knowledge allows us to counteract this - I can’t judge, but I guess so far not so much. I suppose that an analogy with thermonuclear fusion is appropriate here - to create a means of destruction (hydrogen bomb) is much simpler and cheaper than a means of creation (thermonuclear reactor). The study of destruction - probably engaged. Management - I do not know. I hope that there are people who do this. Anyway, thank you for the articles, it was really interesting
    1. scientist
      scientist 7 July 2014 21: 23
      Recently I helped a friend write a dissertation on a related topic. I used to deal with this topic a little, at the analytic level, but then, when I dripped, it turned out that not everything is so simple. For example, "Overton's Window" or "Asymmetric Information Weapon" seem to be on everyone's lips. But in reality everything turns out to be much more serious and, in terms of its damaging effect, psycho-information operations are much more powerful than any weapons of mass destruction. At the same time, the reality of the threat can often be detected after the "information bomb" has exploded. It is quite natural that only the military system can counteract this. No politicians or even special services are able to cover the entire range of problems associated with external information and psychological impact. Why? It is obvious that politicians are primarily guided by the interests of the global economy and their sponsors, the special services defend the interests of politicians, and only the army is really capable of prioritizing the interests and security of its own people.