The environment in which he spent his childhood, was very favorable. Father, a wonderful family man, he loved his children ardently. They had more than enough means for living - Ivan Ivanovich, over a considerable salary, was engaged in the management of private affairs. Pirogovs lived in their own house in Syromyatniki. During the French offensive, their family fled from Moscow, waiting out the occupation in Vladimir. Upon returning to the capital, Nicholas's father built a new house with a small, but well-kept garden in which children frolicked.
One of Nikolai’s favorite games was a doctor game. She was obliged by her appearance to the illness of his elder brother, to whom they invited a well-known metropolitan doctor, Professor Efrem Mukhin. The atmosphere of visiting celebrities, coupled with the striking effect of treatment, made a strong impression on the smart and developed boy. After that, little Nikolai often asked someone from the household to lie down on the bed, while he himself took an important look and felt the pulse of the imaginary patient, watched his tongue, and then sat down at the table and “wrote” the recipes, at the same time explaining how to take the medicine. This presentation amused loved ones and caused frequent repetitions. As an adult, Pirogov wrote: “I don’t know if I would have received such a desire to play doctor, if instead of a quick recovery, my brother died.”
In six years, Nicholas learned to read. Reading children's books was a real pleasure for him. Especially liked the boy Krylov fables and "Children's reading" Karamzin. Up to nine years old Nicholas was engaged in the development of his mother, and then he was transferred into the hands of teachers. At the age of twelve, Pirogov was sent to Vasily Kryazhev’s private boarding house, which enjoyed a very good reputation. Pirogov retained fond memories of his stay in this place, especially the director - Vasily Stepanovich. While in the hostel, Nikolai Ivanovich thoroughly studied Russian and French.
In the first two years of the boy's training, many misfortunes struck the Pirogovs' family - his brother and sister died prematurely, another brother was accused of embezzling public money, and to top it all forced to resign his father Ivan Ivanovich. The financial situation of the Pirogovs was greatly shaken, and Nicholas had to be picked up from the guesthouse, in which the tuition was quite high. Not wanting to spoil the future of the boy, very capable, according to the teachers, his father turned to Mukhin for advice. After talking with Nikolai, Efrem Osipovich advised his father to prepare a teenager for the entrance exam for the medical faculty of Moscow University.
To prepare for the exam, a certain Feoktistov was invited - a student of medicine, a good-natured and cheerful person. The student moved to the Pirogovs' house and taught Nicholas mainly Latin. Their studies were not burdensome and advanced successfully. Pirogov wrote: “Admission to the university was a tremendous event for me. I, like a soldier going to a deadly battle, overcame my excitement and walked in cold blood. " The test passed safely, the examiners were satisfied with the answers of the young man. By the way, Professor Mukhin himself attended the exam, which had a positive effect on Nicholas.
Moscow University in the twenties of the nineteenth century was a dismal sight. Teachers, with very few exceptions, were distinguished by a lack of knowledge, lack of talent and a bureaucratic attitude to the teaching process, introducing in it, as Pirogov himself put it, a “comic element”. The training was absolutely devoid of demonstration, and the lectures were given on the instructions of the 1750-s, despite the fact that there were much newer textbooks. The greatest influence on Nikolai Ivanovich was made by the professor of physiology Efrem Mukhin, who is also a specialist in internal diseases and has an enormous practice in Moscow, and the professor of anatomy, Just Loder, an original personality and European celebrity. His science interested Pirogov, and he enthusiastically engaged in anatomy, but only theoretically, since practical training on the corpses did not exist at that time.
His elder comrades had a much stronger influence on Nicholas. Due to the remoteness of the Pirogovs' home from the university, the young man spent his lunch hours with his former mentor Feoktistov, who lived in the dorm room under the number 10 along with five of his comrades. Pirogov said: “What I just have not heard enough and did not see enough in the tenth number!” The students talked about medicine, argued about politics, read Ryleev's forbidden poems, and also carried out wild revels after making money. The influence of the “tenth number” on Nikolai Ivanovich was immense, it expanded his horizons and determined the mental and moral change in the talented nature of the future surgeon.
In May 1825, Pirogov's father suddenly died. A month after his death, the Pirogov family lost its home and all property to pay debts to private creditors and the treasury. A second cousin, Andrei Nazariev, a assessor of a Moscow court who gave way to an orphaned mezzanine family with three rooms in his house, helped him out into the street. Mother and sisters got a job, and Pirogov continued his studies at the university. Fortunately, the cost of training at that time were small - there were no fees for attending lectures, and uniforms had not yet been introduced. Later, when they appeared, the sisters from the old tailcoat sewed a jacket with a red collar to Nicholas, and he, in order not to detect non-compliance with the uniform, sat in his greatcoat at lectures, exposing only the red collar and light buttons. So, only thanks to the dedication of sisters and mothers, the future luminary of domestic medicine managed to complete a university course.
At the end of 1822, the Highest order issued on the organization of a professorial institute consisting of twenty natural Russians on the basis of the Derpt University University. This idea was caused by the need to update the scientifically prepared forces of professors from four domestic universities. The selection of candidates was given to the advice of these universities. However, before going abroad, all future professors had to go to St. Petersburg at public expense and pass a control test in their specialty at the Academy of Sciences. After Moscow University received a letter from the Minister about the selection of candidates, Mukhin recalled his protégé and suggested that he go to Dorpat. Due to the fact that the end of the course did not promise him any prospects due to the lack of connections and funds, he immediately agreed and chose surgery as his specialty. Nikolai Ivanovich wrote: “Why not anatomy? He prompted some inner voice that besides death there is also life. ” In May, 1828 Pirogov successfully passed the exams for the doctor of the first department, and two days later, along with the other six candidates from Moscow University, he went to St. Petersburg. Examined Pirogov, Professor Bush, invited from the Medical-Surgical Academy. The exam passed safely and a couple of days before the start of the second semester of 1828, Nikolai Ivanovich and his comrades arrived in Dorpat.
In this city, Pirogov met Professor Johann Christian Moyer, who occupied the department of surgery at a local university and the former, according to Nikolai Ivanovich himself, a highly talented and remarkable person. Moyer's lectures were notable for their simplicity and clarity of presentation, he also had an amazing surgical skill - not fussy, not funny and not rude. The future surgeon lived in Dorpat for five years. He diligently studied surgery and anatomy, and preferred to spend occasional spare hours at Moyer’s house. By the way, often visiting the professor, Pirogov met there with an outstanding poet Vasily Zhukovsky.
In Dorpat, Pirogov, who had never before been engaged in practical anatomy, had to undertake operations on corpses. And after some time, trying to solve a number of issues in clinical surgery, he began experimenting with animals. Subsequently, Nikolai Ivanovich always said that before subjecting a living person to surgical intervention, he must find out how the animal's organism would carry the similar intervention. The results of his independent studies were not long in coming. At the medical faculty, a competition was announced for the best surgical article on arterial ligation. Deciding to write on this topic, Pirogov plunged into work - he spent the whole day preparing and bandaging the arteries in calves and dogs. The voluminous work presented by him, written entirely in Latin and including drawings from life, was awarded a gold medal, and students and professors started talking about the author.
Independent studies in the clinic, anatomical institute and at home beat off Nikolai Ivanovich's desire to attend lectures, in which he constantly lost the essence of the narrative and fell asleep. The young scientist considered visiting theoretical lessons as a waste of time "stolen from studies by a special subject." Despite the fact that Pirogov practically didn’t study medical sciences that were not related to surgery, in 1831, he successfully passed his doctoral exam, after which he went to Moscow to see his sisters and old mother. It is curious that for the trip he needed a rather significant amount of money, which Nikolai Ivanovich, who lives on a small salary and barely making ends meet, did not have. He had to sell his old samovar, watches and several unnecessary books. The money raised was enough to hire a carriage that accidentally turned up and a carriage heading for Moscow.
Upon his return from the capital, Pirogov began writing his doctoral dissertation on the subject of ligation of the abdominal aorta, and on November 30, a young scientist successfully defended it and was awarded the degree of doctor of medicine. Soon after, he was sent to Germany for two years. In Berlin, Nikolai Ivanovich listened to lectures by a famous surgeon Rust, worked with Professor Schlemm, led patients at the clinic with Gref, and also did surgery with Dieffenbach, famous for his unique plastic surgery. According to Pirogov, the inventiveness of Dieffenbach was infinite - each plastic surgery of his was an improvisation and was distinguished by something completely new in this area. About another surgeon, Karl Gref, Pirogov wrote that he went to him, “in order to see the virtuoso operator, the true maestro”. The operations of Graefe impressed everyone with cleanliness, accuracy, agility and fantastic speed. Graefe's assistants knew by heart all his requirements, habits and surgical habits, performing his work without words or conversations. Trainees at the Graf Clinic were also allowed to produce surgical interventions, but only in ways designed by Gref himself, and only instruments invented by him. Pirogov fell to do three operations with him, and the German doctor was satisfied with his technique. Pirogov also wrote: “However, he did not know that I would perform all operations ten times better if I were allowed to leave his clumsy and incapable tools for me.”
Shortly before his departure from Berlin, Nikolai Ivanovich received from the ministry a request at which university he would like to occupy a department. Without thinking, Pirogov replied that, of course, in Moscow. Then he informed his mother so that she would find him an apartment in advance. With such hopes, in May, 1835 of Pirogov returned to Russia, but on the way he suddenly fell ill of himself and stayed completely sick in Riga. The trustee of the University of Dorpat, who was at the same time the Ostsee governor-general, who lived there, with all possible conveniences, placed Pirogov in a huge military hospital, where he recovered throughout the summer. In September, the young surgeon left Riga, but before returning home, he decided to call at Dorpat for a few days to see Moyer and other acquaintances. Here he recognized what struck him. news on the appointment to the Moscow department of another talented domestic doctor Fyodor Inozemtsev. Pirogov wrote: “How much happiness gave my poor mother, sisters and me to dream about the day when I finally come to thank them for all their cares about me in difficult times of begging and orphanhood! And all of a sudden, all happy hopes went to pieces ... ”
In complete ignorance regarding his further fate, Nikolai Ivanovich stayed in Dorpat, starting to visit the local surgical clinic. In it, Pirogov brilliantly performed a number of extremely difficult operations, many of which were attended by viewers from among the students of the institute. Here is how he described the removal of a stone from one patient: “... a lot of people gathered to see how I would make a lithotomy in a living one. Imitating Graefe, I instructed the assistant to keep each instrument at the ready between the fingers. Many viewers took out the watch. One, two, three - in two minutes the stone was removed. "This is amazing," they told me from all sides.
Sketch by I. Ye. Repin for the film “Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov's Arrival in Moscow for his jubilee on the occasion of the 50 anniversary of his scientific activity” (1881). Military Medical Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia
After some time, Johann Moyer suggested that Pirogov become his successor and take the chair of surgery at the University of Dorpat. Nikolai Ivanovich gladly accepted the offer, the case passed to the Council of the educational institution, and Pirogov went to St. Petersburg in order to introduce himself to the minister and find out the final decision. In the northern capital, the doctor who did not like to sit idle visited all the hospitals and city hospitals, became acquainted with many St. Petersburg doctors and professors at the Medico-Surgical Academy, and conducted several operations at the Mary Magdalene hospital and Obukhov hospital.
In the end, in March, 1836, Pirogov received the department and was elected to the extraordinary professor. The motto of the 26-year-old lecturer-surgeon became the words: “Let only the one who wants to study learn, this is his business. However, anyone who wants to learn from me has to learn something is my business. ” In addition to extensive theoretical information on every issue, Pirogov tried to give his students a visual representation of the material being studied. In particular, at his lectures, Nikolai Ivanovich began to conduct vivisections and experiments on animals, which no one had ever done before in Dorpat.
A characteristic feature that makes Pirogov, as a clinical educator, the greatest honor, is his frank admissions to the audience of his own mistakes. In 1838, the scientist published the book Annals of the Surgical Clinic, containing the collections of his lectures, as well as descriptions of interesting cases observed at the clinic during the first years of his professorship. In this confession, Nikolai Ivanovich frankly admitted his mistakes in treating patients. Very soon, Pirogov became a favorite professor among young doctors, and students of completely non-medical faculties came to listen to his witty and informative lectures.
In addition to teaching, Pirogov undertook a scientific trip to Paris, every vacation he made surgical excursions to Revel, Riga and some other Baltic cities. The idea of such surgical raids was born to a scientist at 1837, when requests from the neighboring provinces began to receive patients. In his own, as Pirogov himself called “Genghis Khan invasions”, he took several assistants, and local pastors and doctors publicly announced in advance the arrival of a Dorpat doctor.
Pirogov worked in Dorpat for five years (from 1836 to 1841 a year), publishing two volumes of clinical annals and a unique “Surgical anatomy of arterial trunks and fascias” during this period, which made him famous in the medical environment. However, the modest position of a professor at a small clinic of a provincial university could not fully satisfy the thirst for vigorous activity experienced by the surgeon. And soon Nikolay Ivanovich had the opportunity to change the current state of affairs.
In 1839, the well-known professor of the St. Petersburg Medical-Surgical Academy, Ivan Bush, retired. The Academy was vacant Department of Surgery, which began to call and Pirogov. However, Nikolai Ivanovich considered a surgical professorship without a clinic to be nonsense and for a long time did not agree to take the chair. In the end, he proposed the original combination of creating a new department of hospital surgery at the academy, as well as organizing, in addition to ordinary, special hospital clinics.
This project was accepted by Kleinmichel, and in 1841, Pirogov moved to the St. Petersburg Medical-Surgical Academy as a professor of applied anatomy and hospital surgery. In addition, he was appointed head of the surgical department of the Second Army Hospital, located in the same area and belonging to the same department as the academy.
Having examined his new possessions, Nikolai Ivanovich was horrified. The huge poorly ventilated wards on the 70-100 beds were filled with sick. For operations there was not a single separate room. Rags for compresses and frauds without a twinge of conscience transferred rags from wounds of one patient to another. And the released products were generally below any criticism. The theft reached an unprecedented scale, in front of all the meat contractor delivered the meat to the apartments of the hospital staff, and the pharmacist marketed the stocks of medicines.
After Pirogov arrived, the administrative “military-scientific swamp” became agitated. The reptiles living in it were alarmed and, with joint efforts, attacked the violator of their serene life based on the violation of civil laws and human rights. However, soon many of them were convinced in their own skin that before them was a man of very strong convictions, a man who could not be bent or broken.
28 January 1846 was approved the decision to establish a special anatomical institute in the Academy, and Pirogov was also appointed director. In February of the same year, he received a seven-month vacation and, visiting Italy, France and Germany, brought back from there all kinds of tools and instruments for the newly-established institute, including microscopes, which were not in the academy before. Subsequently, this anatomical institute scientifically earned fame in scientific circles and gave Russia a whole galaxy of brilliant surgeons and anatomists.
Pirogov’s professorship at the Medical-Surgical Academy lasted 14 years. It was the heyday of his talent, the time of fruitful and many-sided practical and scientific activities. Nikolai Ivanovich gave lectures and supervised the classes of doctors and students, enthusiastically developed the colossal anatomical material that he had at his disposal, continued to practice experimental surgery, experimenting on animals, and worked as a consultant to large urban hospitals - Mary Magdalene, Obukhovskaya, Maximilianovsky and Petropavlovsk. The surgical clinic headed by him has become a higher school of Russian surgical education. This was facilitated by both the extraordinary gift of teaching Nikolai Ivanovich, and his high prestige and incomparable technique in performing surgical operations. The well-known doctor Vasily Florinsky wrote: “He put the surgical department of the Pirogov Academy at a height that it did not reach either before or after it”.
At the anatomical institute, Nikolai Ivanovich began to study anesthesia with the help of freshly discovered chloroform and ether anesthesia.
The surgeon studied the effect of ether on animals, and then on humans. Having successfully introduced ethereal anesthesia into hospital and private practice, Pirogov thought about the use of esterification in the provision of surgical care on the battlefield. At that time, the Caucasus was the invariable theater of war, where the 8 doctor went on July 1847. Upon arrival at the site, the famous surgeon examined the military medical institutions and hospitals, introduced physicians to the esterization measures, and also conducted a number of public operations under general anesthesia. It is curious that Pirogov deliberately operated right in the middle of the camp tents, so that the wounded soldiers could clearly see the analgesic effect of ether vapor. Such measures had a very beneficial effect on the fighters, they willingly allowed themselves to be anesthetized.
In the end, Nikolai Ivanovich arrived in Samursky detachment, besieged the fortified village of Salta. The siege of this object lasted more than two months, and it was in this place that Pirogov first manifested himself as an outstanding field surgeon. The doctors of the operating units often had to work under the guns of the highlanders, only the most urgent assistance was provided to the wounded, and for operations they were transported to inpatient hospitals. At the main apartment of the detachment, Pirogov also organized a primitive field hospital, in which, together with his assistants, he performed all the dressings and operations. Because of the simplicity of the building, and the infirmary was a simple hut made of twigs covered with straw, doctors had to work in a bent position of the body or kneeling. On assault days, their work shift lasted for 12 hours, or even more.
Shortly after returning to St. Petersburg, the famous surgeon took on a more peaceful, but equally difficult task - the study of Asian cholera, which broke out in St. Petersburg in 1848 year. To better understand this still little-studied disease, Nikolai Ivanovich organized a special cholera department in his clinic. During the epidemic, he made over 800 autopsies for dead bodies that died of cholera, and the results of his research were presented in a solid work “Pathological Anatomy of Asian Cholera”, which was published in 1850 year. For this work, equipped with an atlas with colored drawings, the Academy of Sciences awarded the surgeon the full Demidov Prize.
And soon the Eastern War began. Allied troops entered the borders of Russia, and British and French guns fired at Sevastopol. Pies, as a true patriot, announced that he was “ready to use all his knowledge and strength on the battlefield for the benefit of the army.” His request went for a long time to various instances, but in the end, thanks to the help of Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, the first surgeon of Russia in October 1854 of the year went to the theater of operations. A whole detachment of doctors, recruited mainly in St. Petersburg, set off along with him, and after them the sisters of mercy of twenty-eight people left.
In early November, Pirogov reached Sevastopol. He wrote: “I will never forget the first entry into the city. All the way from Bakhchisarai for thirty miles was cluttered with transports with fodder, tools and wounded. It was raining, amputated and sick lay on carts, shaking from the damp and groaning; people and animals barely moved knee-deep in mud; at every step there was carrion. ” The bulk of the wounded was transported to Simferopol. Hospital rooms in the city were not enough, and patients were placed in vacant private houses and state-owned buildings, where the wounded had almost no care of themselves. In order to make their situation a little easier, Nikolai Ivanovich left the entire first group of sisters in Simferopol, while he himself went to Sevastopol. There, for the first time in order to preserve damaged limbs, he began to use a plaster cast. Pirogov also belongs to the development of a system for sorting the wounded, hundreds arriving at the dressing station. Thanks to the introduction of a reasonable and simple sorting, the meager workforce was not dispersed, and the case of helping the victims in battle went sensibly and quickly. By the way, all the time he was in Sevastopol, Pirogov had to work and live under gunfire, but this had no effect on the disposition of his spirit. On the contrary, eyewitnesses noted that the more tedious and bloody the day was, the more he was disposed to jokes and conversations.
Here's how Nikolai Ivanovich himself described the main dressing station during the second bombardment of the city: “The porters' rows were constantly stretching to the entrance, the bloody trail showed them the way. Those brought in whole rows were folded together with the stretchers on the parquet floor, soaked with caked blood for the whole half-cap; in the hall there were loud cries and groans of sufferers, orders of those who disposed, last sighs of the dying ... Blood flowed on three tables during operations; the amputated members were piled in heaps. " Some idea of the scope of the activities that Pirogov showed in Sevastopol is given by the fact that there were only five thousand amputations carried out under his supervision or him personally, and only four hundred without his participation.
1 June 1855, Pirogov, exhausted morally and physically, left Sevastopol and returned to St. Petersburg. After spending the summer in Oranienbaum, in September, Nikolai Ivanovich returned to the destroyed city, where he found the mass of wounded after the attack of Malakhov Kurgan. The surgeon moved his main activity from the Sevastopol occupied by the enemies to Simferopol, trying in every way to organize hospital care, as well as further transportation of crippled people. Considering unfavorable accumulation of a huge number of wounded in the locations of the active forces, Pirogov proposed a unique system of dispersing patients and placing them in nearby towns and villages. Subsequently, this system was brilliantly applied by the Prussians in the Franco-Prussian war. It is also very curious that even a year before the Geneva Convention, an eminent surgeon suggested making medicine neutral during wars.
Finally, the Eastern War is over. Sevastopol - “Russian Troy” - lay in ruins, and Pirogov paused in deep thought before it ended historical drama. The surgeon and doctor, who literally created a school of surgery in Russia, gave way to the thinker and patriot, whose mind was no longer occupied by methods for treating physical injuries, but as methods for treating moral injuries. Returning from the Crimea in December 1856, Pirogov left the department of surgery and left the academy professors.
Soon on the pages of the Marine Collection appeared the first works of Nikolai Ivanovich, devoted to one of the most important life issues - parenting. His articles caught the eye of the Minister of Education, who in the summer of 1856 offered him the position of trustee of the Odessa educational district. The renowned surgeon accepted this offer, stating: "The guardian in my eyes is not so much a leader as a missionary." In the new work, Nikolai Ivanovich relied only on his own impressions, not wanting to have intermediaries in the person of directors. In the lessons of history, Latin, physics and Russian literature - those subjects that Pirogov loved and knew, he sat to the end, often asking students questions. An eyewitness wrote: “As I see now, I see a short figure with large gray tanks, with thick eyebrows, from under which two penetrating eyes peeped through, piercing a person through, as if giving him a spiritual diagnosis ...” Pirogov did not stay in Odessa for long, but during this time he managed to organize literary conversations in gymnasiums, which later became very popular. In addition, he did not leave medicine - poor students who did not have money for doctors often turned to him as patients.
N. I. Pirogov on the day of death/ center]
In July, 1858, Nikolai Ivanovich was transferred to the Kiev district. Soon after his arrival in Kiev, the new trustee decided to introduce into the pedagogical system a sense of legality. Thanks to his efforts, a committee was convened to organize the “Rules” on punishments and misdemeanors of gymnasiums. The developed tables of punishment and misdemeanors hung “to everyone's attention” in each class of all educational institutions of the district, limiting the arbitrariness and outrages perpetrated by the students. In addition, in Kiev, Pirogov also arranged literary conversations, with his arrival in the replacement of the vacancies of teachers, the protection, which was replaced by contests, ceased to play a role. The new trustee has greatly expanded the gymnasium libraries and provided many teachers with the opportunity to go abroad to improve their skills.
Unfortunately, the “too humane” administrator was soon left out of work - Pirogov’s 13 March 1861 was dismissed from his post. However, already in 1862, Nikolai Ivanovich was sent abroad to look after young scientists from Russia. This activity was quite to his liking, and he carried out his new duties with all his energy, being, in the words of Nikolai Kovalevsky, “for the Russian youth, not a formal boss, but a living example, an embodied ideal.” Among the scientists sent abroad were naturalists, physicians, lawyers, philologists. And they all considered it necessary to seek advice from a renowned surgeon.
In the summer of 1866, Nikolai Ivanovich was released from service and moved to his estate in the village of Vishnya, located near the city of Vinnitsa. Here he was engaged in agricultural work, and also returned to medical practice, having organized in the village a small hospital for thirty patients and several hut-huts for accommodating the operated ones. From different places, even very remote, patients came to Pirogov in order to ask the great Russian surgeon for advice or operational assistance. In addition, Nikolai Ivanovich was constantly invited to consult.
At the end of the summer, 1870, Pirogov suddenly received a letter from the Red Cross Society with a request to inspect the military sanitary facilities at the theater of the Franco-Prussian War. Already in mid-September, Nikolai Ivanovich went abroad, where he inspected over 70 military hospitals with several thousand wounded. By the way, the eminent surgeon met the most cordial and honorable reception everywhere in the medical and official spheres - almost all German professors knew him personally. At the conclusion of his trip, Nikolai Ivanovich handed over to the Red Cross Society the “Report on the visit to military sanitary facilities” and then went back to his village.
Monument in Moscow
They remembered him again seven years later. Russia waged an Eastern war, and Emperor Alexander II entrusted Pirogov with the task of exploring all the sanitary facilities in the rear of the active army and at the theater of war, as well as methods of transporting the wounded and sick along iron and dirt roads. The surgeon had to inspect the places for food and dressings transported, in detail to get acquainted with the organization of sanitary trains and their impact on the wounded under different conditions. When inspecting the warehouses, Nikolai Ivanovich figured out the quantities of the available stocks of the necessary means of assistance, medicines, dressings, underwear, warm clothes, as well as the timeliness and speed of supplying these items. From September 1877 to March 1878 of the year, the 67 flight surgeon traveled in sleigh and chaise over 700 kilometers. The material collected, along with his conclusions, was presented by Nikolay Ivanovich in the work “Military Medical Care and Private Assistance at the Theater of the War in Bulgaria”, published in 1879.
At the start of 1881, non-healing sores appeared in Pirogov’s mouth. Professor Sklifosovsky, who examined them first, suggested performing the operation. However, in Vienna, the famous surgeon Billroth, after scrupulous research, declared the ulcers benign. Pirogov came to life, but his calm did not last long. Summer 1881 he spent in Odessa, feeling extremely bad. 26 days before his death in a special letter, an eminent surgeon made his own diagnosis: "Creeping cancer ulcer of the oral mucosa." 23 November Nikolai Ivanovich is gone.
Based on the materials of the book by Yu.G. Malisa "Nikolai Pirogov. His life, scientific and social activities "