"Spanish trap" for the USSR
When a military rebellion began in Spain in July 1936, J.Stalin was wary of him. Initially, Moscow, together with France and England, took a position of non-intervention. But fascist Italy and Nazi Germany helped the rebels with might and main. And the republican government was supported by leftist movements from various countries. Thousands of internationalist volunteers poured into Spain. The most active part of this war was attended by supporters of L. Trotsky.
Trotsky was expelled from the USSR to Turkey in 1929, in the year 1932 was deprived of USSR citizenship. During this period, he was unable to organize an anti-Stalinist party, taking up literary activity again. He wrote the memoirs "My Life", another series of essays, he lied to them without restraint, throwing mud at his opponents, declaring any actions of the Stalinist government "heresy". For example, if in the USSR, Trotsky was a supporter of super-industrialization, a hard offensive against the peasantry, now these steps have been declared criminal. Trotsky has money for a luxurious life, for publishing, for the formation of his structures in various countries. He becomes the chief theoretician of the Trotsky Fourth International, created in opposition to the Comintern. Trotsky and his associates recruit their supporters in the international communist movement, it was created with the help of Trotsky, Bukharin and Radek. Supporters of the idea of a “world revolution” were transferred to the structures of Trotsky; those who were dissatisfied with the changes in the Comintern, now did not generously finance it.
In 1933, Trotsky moved to Europe, where events of world significance were brewing. True, in France he has to live incognito - there is a threat from the Soviet special services, and the White Guards may recall his feats during the Civil War. But in France, Trotsky did not stay long, in 1935, he moved to Norway. But his supporters conduct fruitful activities, establish contacts with the Abwehr — Hitler in his plans set aside the importance of the activity of the “fifth columns”. The experience of the interaction between Ludendorff and the Russian revolutionaries was studied, and his own expansion strategy was created. In Berlin, it was believed that in every country there are forces dissatisfied with the government, they need to be found, to establish contacts with them, to shake up and activate at the right time. A blow from within paralyzes the will to resist.
In October, 1933, Trotsky declared that there were no peaceful ways in the fight against Stalin: “You can force the bureaucrats to transfer power into the hands of the proletarian vanguard only by force.” ... "The impetus to the revolutionary movement of the Soviet workers will probably be given by external events." What events? Due to the fact that the Nazis seized power in Germany in 1933, the answer is obvious - a new war between the USSR and Germany. In 1934, the conversation between Bukharin and Radek was recorded, Radek said that contacts with Hitler had been established and now the main hope for the change of power in the USSR lies "on the defeat of the USSR in the war with Germany and Japan." It was proposed to give Germany Ukraine, Japan - the Far East, and Stalin and his colleagues to judge, as "the perpetrators of the defeat." The connections of the Trotskyists with the Abwehr were facilitated by the fact that in the First World War, Canaris led the German military intelligence service in the United States and, apparently, knew well about Trotsky and his connections.
When the war began in Spain, the Reich and the Trotskyists worked perfectly in conjunction. The Trotskyists recruited and sent detachments of volunteers to Spain, declaring the events there the beginning of a new "world revolution". They actually controlled Catalonia, where the World United Workers' Party (SPP), the Spanish division of the Fourth International, ruled. And the "left" press, the socialist, communist, democratic, unwound the "theme", declaring Spain the "advanced bastion" of the fight against the fascists. And it turned out that the struggle against the fascists was being led by the Trotskyists, and not by the USSR, there was a danger that a large part of the international communist movement would go over to the side of Trotsky and his patrons.
Therefore, Stalin, although initially did not want to, decided to climb into this trap. But he did everything very cleverly: he provided moral and diplomatic support; material assistance was also provided, but not for “thank you”, they brought in Spanish gold in the USSR; military advisers were sent to help, “volunteers” military experts — pilots, tankers, scouts, but they were not sent in such numbers as to engage in a full-scale war as the enemies of the USSR would like. After all, the USSR could send whole divisions, but did not do this, retaining the conflict within the borders of Spain.
Moscow took measures so that the measures of the Soviet government were not shown as “export of revolution”. So, in December 1936, Stalin, Molotov and Voroshilov sent a letter to the head of the Spanish government L. Cablerro, demanding "to take all measures so that the enemies of Spain could not portray it as a communist republic." Moreover, the actions of the Trotskyists in Spain eventually led to the fact that the Republican government had to fight on two fronts. Trotskyists were blocked with anarchists, other ultra-leftist groups, violated discipline, and in 1937, a mutiny began in Barcelona, according to P. Sududlatov, he was planned together with the German Abwehr. As a result, the 14 of April of 1937, the presidency of the Comintern, decided that "the policy of all communists should be aimed at the complete and final defeat of Trotskyism in Spain as an indispensable condition for the victory over fascism."
In addition, the Trotskyists in Spain and the ultra-Leftists who were blocking with them staged their own terror, shot "bourgeois", priests, churches were trashed, "expropriations" took place. This repelled the "moderate" from the bourgeoisie, the officers, intellectuals from the republican government, repelled the peasantry, among whom the positions of the Catholic clergy were strong. This strengthened the position of the Franco.
The war in Spain caused a certain interest in the Soviet Union, the Russian people always had a heightened sense of justice. There was a new surge of "internationalism", popularized the war in Spain in the press. The boys dreamed of escaping to Spain and fighting for the cause of "proletarians of all countries." Workers, peasants, Red Army men sincerely perceived the need to help the “class brothers”. That is, there was a new infection with the ideas of "internationalism".
In foreign policy in England and France, they did everything to make the philistine see the actions of the Union as a communist expansion. As a result, the world was again in the foreground the threat of communism, and not Nazism with fascism. And Italy and the Third Reich were the countries that were on the front line against the "communist threat." In Berlin, we were pleased; we managed not only to conduct field testing of vehicles, to prepare aces-pilots, tankers, but also to achieve a certain diplomatic victory. Against this background, the "Anti-Comintern" pact with Japan was concluded, to which Italy, and later Hungary, Romania joined. An alliance of Western countries and Japan is being created against the "communist" threat. Hitler, the Third Reich received a halo of fighters against communism, the defenders of Europe. Thus, the “Spanish party” played well, although it was not possible to completely drag the USSR into Spain, but preparations for the Second World War were in full swing.
Western backstage skillfully works this method even in our years, so, in 2008, the western man was once again brainwashed about the “Russian threat” ...
Semanov S.N. Stalin. Lessons of life and activity. M., 2002.
Shambarov. V. Anti-Soviet M., 2011.
- Alexander Samsonov
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