Composition and application of "truth serum"
A real novelty based on a completely different principle has become the so-called. "truth serum". This expression combines psychoactive substances that are forcibly administered to the interrogated person in order to obtain the necessary information from them.
Strictly speaking, the “truth serum” is not a serum. Serum in the general biological sense is a dispersed mixture of inked proteins, something like a curd, heavily diluted with water. Serum in a narrowly medical, hematological sense is the liquid part of the blood (blood plasma) from which the protein (fibrinogen) is removed, which is responsible for its coagulation. Wounded on the field of pain is administered tetanus toxoid serum (PSS) on a mandatory basis. From there, the name "serum" migrated to psychoactive substances, which are also forcibly injected, although the drugs themselves are not serum.
The story of the "truth serum" began in 1913 year in the US state of Texas. Obstetrician Dr. Robert House took birth at home and introduced the woman scopolaminewhich was then widely used as an anesthetic. The midwife asked his father to bring home scales to determine the weight of the child. The husband searched for them for a long time, but could not find them. When he shouted in annoyance: “Where are these damn scales?”, The intoxicated woman clearly answered: “They are in the kitchen, on a nail for a picture.” Dr. House was amazed. The mother was intoxicated, she still did not understand that she had already had a baby, but nevertheless she understood the question and gave a clear, truthful answer.
This is somewhat strange for an obstetrician, but Robert House was inspired by the idea of using scopolamine in justice (of course, without the consent of the suspects). The first interrogated under anesthesia was WS Scrivener, who was detained in Dallas County Prison on charges of robbing a pharmacy. In his publication in the Journal of Medicine of the State of Texas, Dr. House described Scrivener as a "very clever white man." The second subject was a black prisoner of the “average mind”. Scopolamine gave excellent results, and the masses talked about it, although the legally formed part of the society rejected all its uses.
The chemical structure of scopolamine
To understand the effect of the “truth serum”, you need to know how the human nervous system works normally. It is the highest unifying and controlling system in the body. It is based on reflexes that regulate the heartbeat, breathing, digestion and other functions of the internal organs - this is the so-called. "Vegetative nervous system, ANS". At the next level is the control over the balance, position and movement of the body in space - this is the somatic nervous system, the SNS. At the very top is the higher nervous activity that distinguishes us from animals. This is consciousness. In a rough approximation, it consists of two layers - deep (self-awareness, CO) and surface (self-expression, CB). NE is the result of the interaction of CO with the environment and its goal is the best adaptation of the individual to it. Thus, the NE never reveals the CR completely, but only some of its aspects that best fit with the state of the environment in a particular place and time. In order to completely open the CO, it is necessary to completely eliminate the environmental impact, i.e. it is necessary that a person is left alone with his thoughts only. Even the lightest and most tender presence of the environment, in the form of a beloved woman, confessor or psychologist, inevitably introduces some distortion in the manifestation of RM. Moreover, it is impossible to get to the bottom of the CO if a person is pre-configured to actively oppose - silence and deception of the interrogator.
It has long been noted: "What a sober mind, then a drunk on the tongue." The phenomenon of "drunken frankness" consists in selective inhibition of the upper layers of self-expression while maintaining the activity of the lower layers of self-awareness. Freed from the “prohibiting” situational control of the SV nervous centers, the CO begins to give out “pure initial information” that has not been corrected by place and time. Loss of mind control during drug or alcohol intoxication, as well as during normal sleep, always goes from higher sections of nervous activity to lower ones. Recovery (waking up) takes place in the reverse order.
The problem of practical control over consciousness is that the vegetative nervous system - the somatic nervous system - the highest nervous activity (self-awareness - self-expression) corresponds to reality no more than the sheet of the 1 card: 100000 corresponds to the one drawn on it. It is possible to get some general idea, but the reality is much more complicated and diverse. In fact, there are no clear boundaries between the layers of the nervous system, they intersect with each other like interlaced fingers. And there are much more layers, psychologists and psychiatrists study them for many years.
At the present stage of development of pharmacology and medicine, selective “disconnection” of certain zones and areas of the cerebral cortex, where higher nervous activity and consciousness are concentrated, is impossible. Alcohol, drugs and drugs "turn off" the entire cortex at once. How exactly the “shutdown” process will go is impossible to predict in advance. In some areas, amazing consciousness control is maintained. In others, all the higher nervous activity “fails”, and involuntary somatic reactions begin - the balance and coordination of movements are disturbed, the visual image doubles and “floats”, the person loses orientation in space, etc.
Thus, at the level of mind control, the effect of a “quilt” is obtained. There are breakdowns in the system of mind control, but not everywhere and not even selectively, but chaotically. It is possible to remove some specific information from the open gaps, but it is very difficult. You can get confirmation or denial by asking direct questions like “Did you do it?” Or “Is something there?” However, it’s almost impossible to get a detailed, coherent explanation of any action or location indication. Fully disable the control of consciousness also fail. This will result in the loss of a large amount of valuable information, and in addition, some of the main vegetative functions - control over breathing and blood pressure in the vessels - will be turned off. Alcoholics and drug addicts often die from suffocation, which occurs as a result of inhibition of the breathing center.
These features severely limit the use of "truth serum" in jurisprudence. But even the ancient Romans noticed that “sapienti sat” - a clever person needs just one word. Intelligence agencies around the world work outside the ethical categories of “good” - “bad”, and none of them feel free to apply drug analysis - interrogation under the influence of psychoactive substances when it considers it necessary. In the arsenal of interrogating psychologists are:
Scopolamine Alkaloid contained together with atropine in plants of the family of solanaceous birds (scolioly, belladonna, henbane, dope, and some others). Colorless transparent crystals or white crystalline powder. Easily soluble in water (1: 3), soluble in alcohol (1: 17). In order to stabilize the solutions for injections, a solution of hydrochloric acid is added to pH 2,8 — 3,0. Chemically, scopolamine is close to atropine: it is an ester of scopine and tropic acid. Close to atropine in influencing peripheral cholinergic systems. Like atropine, it causes dilated pupils, paralysis of accommodation, increased heart rate, relaxation of smooth muscles, and a decrease in secretion of the digestive and sweat glands. It also has a central anticholinergic effect. Usually causes a sedative effect: reduces motor activity, may have a hypnotic effect. A characteristic property of scopolamine is the amnesia it causes. Scopolamine is sometimes used in psychiatric practice as a sedative, in neurological treatment of parkinsonism, in surgical practice together with analgesics (morphine, promedol) to prepare for anesthesia, sometimes as an antiemetic and sedative in sea and air sickness.
Pentothal - an injectable preparation based on sodium thiopental
Thiopental sodium. A mixture of sodium thiobarbituric acid with anhydrous sodium carbonate. It slows down the closure of GABA-dependent channels on the postsynaptic membrane of brain neurons, lengthens the time of entry of chlorine ions inside the neuron and causes hyperpolarization of its membrane. Suppresses the stimulating effect of amino acids (aspartic and glutamic). In large doses, directly activating GABA receptors, has a GABA-stimulating effect. It has anticonvulsant activity, increasing the threshold of neuron excitability and blocking the conduction and spread of convulsive impulse in the brain. It promotes muscle relaxation by suppressing polysynaptic reflexes and slowing the conduction of intercalary neurons of the spinal cord. Reduces the intensity of metabolic processes in the brain, brain utilization of glucose and oxygen. It has a hypnotic effect, which manifests itself in the form of accelerating the process of falling asleep and changing the structure of sleep. Inhibits (dose-dependent) respiratory center and reduces its sensitivity to carbon dioxide. It has (dose-dependent) cardiodepressive effect.
Amital sodium. Ethyl ester isoamylbarbituric acid. Acts in the same way as sodium thiopental, but more “gently”. The effect of the application is slower and lasts longer.
The 40s in the USA were very popular. mescaline - A drug from the Mexican peyote cactus, which made the name Carlos Castaneda. Secret Service and the Bureau of Strategic Services of the United States (OSS, the predecessor of the CIA) took it seriously. The intelligence services became interested in the effect that mescalin produced on the Indians of Mexico, who used it in the rites of repentance. The ethnographer Weston la Barr wrote in the monograph “The Cult of Peyote” (1938): “At the call of the leader, members of the tribe rose and publicly confessed to misconduct and offense inflicted on others ... Tears, not ritual at all, flowed over people who were frankly confessed and fully repent. They all asked the leader to set them on the right path. ” Scientific experiments have shown that during the action of mescalin, will is greatly suppressed. The experiments were conducted not in laboratories, but in concentration camps. The drug was administered imperceptibly to unsuspecting prisoners.
There are reports that, in 1942, the head of the secret laboratory of the NKVD of the USSR, G. Mayranovsky, while experimenting with poisons on those sentenced to death, discovered that, under the influence of certain doses of the drug, the test subject began to speak very frankly. After that, with the approval of the leadership, he dealt with the “problem of candor” during interrogations. Such experiments were carried out for two years. It is reliably known that in 1983, the KGB used special preparations SP-26, SP-36 and SP-108 to investigate sabotage at the Vilnius Zalgiris machine-tool factory, with the sanction of the first deputy chairman of the KGB Tsinev. Also known is the case of the use of the “truth serum” by the Indian secret services against the accused of participating in the terrorist attack in Mumbai in 2008.
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