How the Anglo-Saxons sabotaged the opening of a second front
70 years ago, 6 June 1944, the anti-Hitler coalition allies of the USSR launched the Norman Operation. The strategic operation of the Allies on the landing of troops in French Normandy (Operation Overlord) is considered the date of the creation of the Western (second) front of the Second World War. The Norman operation is the largest amphibious operation in stories more than 3 million people who crossed the English Channel from England into Normandy took part in it. Suffice it to say that on the first day of the operation 5 infantry divisions, 3 armored brigades and a number of other formations (about 100 thousand people) were landed.
Up to this point, neither the actions of the allied forces in Africa, nor the landing in Sicily and Italy could claim the title of "Second Front". The Allies captured a large bridgehead, which allowed them to land entire armies, launch an offensive on French territory and free Paris. German troops were able to restore the new front line only in September 1944 of the year on the western border of Germany.
The opening of the Western Front led to the approaching victory over the Third Reich. Berlin had to engage in the struggle with the Allied forces (mainly the armies of the USA, Great Britain, Canada and parts of the French Resistance Movement), significant infantry and tank connections. And although the war on the Western Front for the most part did not take on such a fierce and stubborn character as on the Eastern Front, nevertheless, Berlin could not transfer these troops against the Soviet Union. As a result, Victory Day took place on May 9, 1945, and not at the end of 1945 or the beginning of 1946. The Soviet Union saved hundreds of thousands of lives. The USSR would have broken Germany alone, but this would have happened later with more serious human and material losses.
So, 23 June 1944, began one of the largest military operations in the history of mankind - the operation "Bagration". And the success of the Belarusian operation significantly exceeded the expectations of the Soviet command. It led to the defeat of the Army Group Center, a complete cleansing of the enemy of Belarus, the Germans beat off part of the Baltic states and eastern regions of Poland. The Red Army at the front in 1100 km advanced to a depth of 600 km. A successful offensive jeopardized the Army Group North in the Baltic States, which subsequently greatly facilitated the Baltic operation. In addition, two large bridgeheads beyond the Vistula were captured, which facilitated the Vistula-Oder operation.
According to several military historians, the advance of the Soviet fronts was facilitated by the advent of the Western Front. The German command was not able to transfer reserves from France, including large tank formations. Their presence on the Eastern Front seriously complicated the conduct of the Belarusian offensive operation. In addition, it is worth considering that a significant part of German artillery was in the West, as aviation. This allowed the Soviet Air Force to quickly gain air superiority and smash the German retreating columns without counteracting the Luftwaffe.
On the other hand, the powerful Soviet offensive did not allow the German command to concentrate forces to eliminate the Allied bridgehead in Normandy. Already on June 10, the Red Army launched an offensive on the north wing of the front, and Operation Bagration began on June 23.
But do not forget that the allies landed in France much later than they were expected, and they promised. In fact, the highest military-political leadership of Britain and the United States waited until the last moment. The Anglo-Saxons initially believed that Hitler, who was allowed to bend under most of Europe to mobilize its economic and human resources, would rather quickly crush the USSR, but would become bogged down fighting with partisans and mastering the vast Russian spaces. Then the generals had to eliminate it and restore normal relations with Britain and the United States. This was facilitated by the fact that most of the German leadership before the Second World War, and even during its first stage, dreamed of an alliance with Britain. The British Empire was a model of their "Eternal Reich", it was she who created the racial system all over the planet, the first concentration camps and reservations. In addition, the Anglo-Saxons were originally the creators and sponsors of the project "Third Reich" (Who brought Hitler to power). Adolf Hitler was a figure in the Great Game, a man who once again poisoned Germany and Russia, natural allies, who could have been thrown out of the Anglo-Saxon world order.
Germany could not crush the USSR with one lightning strike, a protracted war of attrition began, a strength of spirit in which the Russian people had no equal. Then England and the United States began to wait, when the enemies will degrade each other in order to get all the fruits of victory and to establish full control over the planet. But even here the enemy made a mistake - the USSR, although it suffered terrible losses in this battle of the titans, was able to intensify and the process of liberation of the Soviet lands began, and then the liberation of Europe. There was a threat that the USSR would be able to control not only part of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, but Central and Western Europe. It was necessary to land the troops in Western Europe in order not to be late to the division of the skin of the killed Germanic bear.
For the first time, the question of opening a second front was officially raised in a personal message from the head of the Soviet government, Joseph Stalin, from 18 in July to 1941, to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Welcoming the establishment of allied relations between the USSR and Britain and expressing confidence in defeating a common enemy, Stalin noted that the martial law of the two powers would have been significantly improved if a front had been created against Germany in the West (Northern France) and in the North (Arctic). This front could delay significant German forces from the Eastern Front and would have made it impossible for Hitler to invade Britain. But Churchill rejected Stalin's proposal, citing the lack of strength and the threat of a "bloody defeat" of the landing.
In September, 1941, in the conditions of the hardest crisis on the fronts, Stalin again returned to the question of the second front. In messages from 3 and 13 in September 1941, Stalin wrote to Churchill that Germany transferred more than 30 fresh infantry divisions to the Eastern Front, a large number of aircraft and tanks and intensified the actions of its allies, as a result of which the USSR lost more than half of Ukraine and the enemy went to Leningrad . According to him, the German command considered “danger in the West to be a bluff” (as it was) and calmly transferred all forces to the East. Germany got the opportunity to beat their opponents one by one: first the USSR, then England. This gave England a good opportunity to open a second front. Churchill, recognizing that the Soviet Union had borne the brunt of the struggle against Germany, said that the opening of the second front was "impossible."
The victories of the Red Army in the winter of 1941 — 1942 opened new opportunities for the opening of a second front. Supply Minister Lord Beaverbrook reported to the British military office that the resistance of the Russians gave England new opportunities. Russian resistance created "an almost revolutionary situation in all the occupied countries and opened 2 thousands of miles of coast for the landing of British troops." However, the leadership of England still considered Europe a forbidden zone for British troops. The English Cabinet and the Imperial General Staff did not share the views of Beaverbrook.
December 7 1941. The United States entered the war. They skillfully provoked Japan to attack and became the "victim of a surprise attack." American public opinion, which was inclined to maintain neutrality, has forgotten about the principles of neutrality and isolationism. The headquarters of the US Army began to develop a strategic plan, which provided for the concentration of US military capabilities against Germany. England was supposed to be a springboard for the invasion of Northern France. The plan was discussed on 1 on April 1942 at a meeting at the White House and approved by US President Franklin Roosevelt. Roosevelt attached great political and military-strategic importance to this plan. The American president believed that it was necessary to assure Moscow of the speedy opening of a second front. This gave support to the broad masses of the United States who sympathized with the Soviet struggle against the Nazi invaders, and it was important in anticipating the upcoming congressional elections at the end of 1942. From the point of view of military strategic plans, Washington wanted to enlist the support of the USSR in defeating the Japanese Empire in the Pacific theater of military operations. President Roosevelt and the chiefs of staff attached the greatest importance to the participation of the USSR in the Pacific War.
Roosevelt sent his special assistant G. Hopkins and the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, General J. Marshall, to London to acquaint the British leadership with their plans. The British leadership agreed in principle to the landing of a limited landing of Western allies in 1942 and the opening of a second front in 1943. 11 April President Roosevelt invited Mr. A. A. Gromyko, an adviser to the Soviet embassy, to himself and handed him a personal message to the head of the Soviet government. Roosevelt suggested sending a Soviet delegation for negotiations to Washington to discuss the opening of a second front. On April 20, Stalin announced agreement on the meeting of Molotov with the American president to exchange views on the opening of a second front. London was to take part in the negotiations. As a result of the difficult and tense negotiations of Vyacheslav Molotov with the military-political leadership of the United States and Britain, it was decided to create a second front in Europe. 12 June was informed that an agreement had been reached on the opening of a second front.
However, neither the 1942, nor the 1943, the second front was open. The landing of troops in Europe in 1942 was postponed for the offensive of the US-British forces in North Africa. Roosevelt and Churchill agreed on this without the participation of Soviet representatives. From a military point of view, the Allied operations in North Africa were insignificant in nature and could not weaken the military power of Germany on the Eastern Front and lead to its defeat. In addition, the operation in North Africa, which began in November 1942, excluded the organization of a second front in Europe and in 1943.
Churchill reported on the decision to Moscow. In August, 1942, the head of the British government, arrived in the USSR to conduct negotiations. Took part in them and the personal representative of the American President Harriman. 13 August 1942. Stalin handed Churchill and Harriman a memorandum stating that 1942 was the best time to open a second front. The best forces of the German Empire were shackled by battles with the Red Army. However, Churchill announced the final refusal of the United States and Britain to open a second front in Western Europe in 1942. At the same time, he assured that the front would be opened in the spring of 1943. Moscow understood the interests of the United States and England quite well, but decided not to exacerbate the issue.
Berlin, taking advantage of the passivity of England and the United States, launched in the summer and autumn of 1942 a powerful offensive on the southern flank of the Soviet-German front. The Wehrmacht rushed to the Volga and tried to seize the Caucasus in order to deliver a mortal blow to the USSR. In case of success of the German offensive, Turkey and Japan could oppose the Soviet Union. Britain and the United States, at the expense of the USSR, retained their strength and resources, planning to use them at the final stage of the war to dictate the conditions of the postwar world order.
1943 was marked by a radical change in World War II and World War II as a whole. The giant battle on the Volga, which lasted 200 days and nights, ended in a brilliant victory for the Soviet troops. Wehrmacht received a terrible wound. His strategic offensive failed. Germany lost and the battle for the Caucasus. Allies in May 1943 defeated the grouping of Italian-German troops in North Africa. In the Pacific, the situation stabilized and the strategic initiative passed into the hands of the Allies (the battle for Guadalcanal). The Allies were able to focus on Europe and open a second front.
After the Battle of Stalingrad and the continued offensive of the Red Army against the great Western powers against the USSR, a new factor emerged. Now they began to fear the premature, from their point of view, defeat of Germany. The task of maximally weakening the USSR in a war has not yet been realized. In London and Washington they began to realize that the USSR can not only withstand, but also win, dramatically strengthen its position and weight in the world. Therefore, the opening of the second front decided to delay, so as not to weaken Germany. The sabotage policy of the second front and the exhaustion of the USSR acquired crucial importance in the policies of the Western powers.
“There is no doubt,” said Soviet Ambassador M. Litvinov to the United States, “that the military calculations of both states (the United States and Great Britain) are built on the desire to maximize exhaustion and wear of the forces of the Soviet Union to reduce its role in resolving post-war problems. They will wait for the development of hostilities on our front. " In January, an Anglo-American conference was held in Casablanca, 1943, which showed that the Allies are not going to carry out any serious offensive in Europe in 1943. In fact, although they did not say this directly, the opening of the second front was postponed until 1944. Churchill and Roosevelt sent a message to Moscow following the results of the conference. It was compiled in vague terms and without specifying dates and information on specific operations, expressed the hope that Germany would be able to bring to its knees in 1943.
30 January 1943 Moscow asked to report on specific operations and the timing of their implementation. After consulting with Roosevelt, Churchill sent an encouraging response to Moscow, saying that the training of the “crossing of the Channel” (English Channel) is being carried out vigorously and the operation is planned for August. He also noted that due to weather or for other reasons, it may be postponed until September, but then it will be held by larger forces. In fact, it was a deliberate deception. London and Washington, declaring the preparation of a landing operation in northern France, were at this time preparing an operation on the Mediterranean theater. True, it was impossible to cheat for a long time, and in May, Roosevelt reported to Moscow about the transfer of the operation to 1944.
In addition, the 30 allies in March reported on the decision to once again suspend the supply of military materials to the northern seaports of the USSR, talking about the need to transfer all vehicles to the Mediterranean Sea. On the threshold of the next German summer strategic offensive, deliveries of military materials and equipment were halted. So it was in 1942, the same thing happened in 1943. In the most difficult time, the Allies refused to open a second front and left the USSR without supplies weapons and materials. 11 June Moscow sent a message to Washington (its text was sent to London). It pointed out that the next postponement of the opening of the second front "creates exceptional difficulties" for the USSR, which for two years now has been fighting hard with Germany and its satellites. Further exchange of views further heated the situation - the Western powers did not have arguments that could justify the delay in opening the second front. 24 Jun. Stalin sent a message to Churchill expressing the disappointment of the Soviet government in the allies. Stalin noted that we are talking about saving the lives of millions of lives in the occupied regions of Russia and Europe, the colossal victims of the Red Army.
The rout of the most powerful enemy grouping on the Kursk Bulge, the exit of the Soviet troops to the Dnieper River and their advancement to the state borders of the USSR showed that the process of a radical change in the course of the Great Patriotic War was completed. Germany and its allies were forced to move to a strategic defense. The victories of the Soviet troops in the summer and autumn of 1943 sharply changed the entire military-political situation in Europe and the world. They showed that the USSR is capable of independently crushing Germany, and the complete liberation of Europe from the Nazis is not far off. Fearing the entry of Soviet troops into Central and Western Europe before their armies, the leadership of Britain and the United States intensified the process of preparing the opening of a second front. The Anglo-Saxons were afraid to miss the time to invade Europe, to seize the most important political and economic centers and strategic areas. There is a threat that the United States will not be able to dictate the conditions of peace to the bloodless Europe.
In August, 1943 hosted a conference of heads of government and representatives of the United States and British Command in Quebec. The final report of the joint committee of chiefs of staff noted that the Norman operation would be the main offensive of the Anglo-American troops in 1944. The start of the operation was scheduled for 1 in May, 1944. This decision improved relations between the USSR and the Western powers. However, at the Moscow Conference, the Allies still did not provide specific data, wishing to preserve freedom of action. Only confirmed their intentions to start an operation in Northern France in the spring of 1944.
19 November 1943 on board the battleship "Iowa" on the way to Cairo for the Anglo-American-Chinese conference (it preceded the conference in Tehran), the American president, speaking of the need to open a second front, noted that Russian troops were already very close to Poland and Bessarabia. Roosevelt pointed out the urgency of the occupation by the Anglo-American troops of as much of Europe as possible. In the English sphere of occupation, Roosevelt gave France, Belgium, Luxembourg and South Germany. The Americans wanted to occupy North-West Germany, the ports of Denmark and Norway. Berlin, the Anglo-Saxons also planned to capture themselves.
Churchill also did not want to allow the appearance of Soviet troops in Western Europe and offered a "Balkan option" - the invasion of Allied forces in the Balkans, which was to cut off Soviet troops from Central Europe. In the countries of South-Eastern Europe they were going to establish regimes with Anglo-Saxon orientation. However, the Americans, who supported Churchill's Mediterranean strategy until the middle of 1943, believed that these plans were late. Allied forces could get bogged down in the Balkans, but at this time the Soviet armies would seize the most important centers of Europe. The second front in France allowed the Russians to be prevented from entering the vital areas of the Ruhr and the Rhine.
The Soviet delegation in Tehran sought to achieve a firm commitment from the British and Americans to open a second front. In general, Stalin got his way (Stalin's victory at the Tehran ConferenceThe Tehran Conference’s military decisions provided for the launch of a landing operation in Northern France in May 1944. At the same time, the Allies planned to launch an operation in southern France. The USSR promised at this time to launch a decisive offensive in order to prevent the transfer of German troops from the Eastern Front to the Western. The decisions adopted in Tehran determined a political decision on the start of the Norman operation.
Thus, the start of the Normandy operation was not connected with the desire to help an ally who led a hard struggle with Germany and liberated Europe from the Nazi occupation, but with the desire to establish an occupation regime in European countries and not allow the USSR to dominate the Old World. England and the United States were in a hurry to grab the best pieces from a dying German bear.
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