Question number one is Creation.
The first mention in the annals refers to the year 862. “And three brothers elected themselves with their generations and having left all Russia along their way, and coming to the Slovenes first, and cutting down the city of Ladoga. And the oldest is the oldest in Ladozi Rurik, and the other, Sineus, on Belaya Ozero, and the third, Truvor, in Izborstse ... "
In this passage, we are most interested in the mention of the fact that Rurik had cut down (built) the city of Ladoga. According to the archaeological research of Ladoga, the dendrochronological date of its foundation is set - 750-s.
The difference between the famous annalistic date of 862 and the real history of Ladoga for at least 100 years. This is evidenced by A. N. Kirpichnikov in the study "Ladoga and Ladoga Land of the VIII — XIII Centuries." Consequently, Rurik could not build a fortress at the confluence of two rivers - the Volkhov and Ladozhka.
Then who? The only answer is Slavs. Why not Finns Chud? In the layers of the Ladoga Land fortification of the second half of the 8th — 9th centuries. characteristic decorations are distinguished: ducks, trapezoid pendants, temporal rings of semilunar outlines, a medallion - all having analogies, mainly among finds of Smolensk Smolensk long kurgans. In Ladoga, authentic monuments of Slavic burials - hills are found. S. N. Orlov back in 1938 and 1948. in Staraya Ladoga to the south of the Earthen Settlement during archaeological excavations, 9 was found found in the groundwork in ground pits. The revealed burials are dated no later than the 8th century. and are compared with the soil burials of the Novgorod-Pskov long barrows culture. True, in the territory of Ladoga in the stow Plakun one burial ground belonging to the Scandinavians was found. The rest of the burial grounds of the Hollow Sopka, the Sopki Tract, the Pobedishche Tract, and others containing burnt-burning cannot be called Scandinavian. For the simple reason that the Scandinavians did not burn their dead. This rite is inherent in the Slavs, both Eastern and Western.
True, this answer does not suit the Normanists. However, this does not prevent them from asserting the Scandinavian origin of Ladoga. The same A. N. Kirpichnikov at the beginning of the book declares “Reliable foundations of the Ladoga version of“ The Tale of the Varangian Variations ”are revealed. And then it refutes its claim based on the dendrochronological method. And even below, he agrees that 750 year "specifies the time of the appearance of Slavic settlers in the Neva-Ladoga region".
Strange inconsistency. Such a throwing between Slavism and Normanism, and yours and ours.
Archaeologists have also discovered houses with an area of 50 — 92 square. m - the predecessors of the townspeople of the five-fifteenth century XI-XV centuries. According to the excavations by researchers N.I. Repikov and V.I. Ravdonikas Ladoga, housebuilding was initially determined by the needs of the estate development of a trade and craft settlement. The large houses had typical European features: a pillar design and a rectangular oven in the center of the room. But according to the type and planned structure (heated room and a narrow cold compartment attached to it from the entrance), these buildings can be considered the forerunners of the later Russian city five-wall houses. Common European features are also inherent in the Western Slavs - Wendam-vagiram-encouraged. For such a statement, scientists lacked either courage or opportunity. But such a statement was made by others. True, according to archaeological data of Novgorod, built in 950 year. In the context of the issue under consideration, I think it would be appropriate to provide these data. Ground log cabin construction, designs of fortifications of the Novgorod Detinets and the Polab Slavs indicate links between the Ilmensky region and Polskoye. Already in the 19th century, A.F. Hilferding, and in Soviet times, D.K. Zelenin also found common elements in the planning of the Novgorod and “Venetian” villages in Hanover, in Mecklenburg, and along the River Laba.
Which also does not fit with the Norman creation of the city.
She presented Ladoga and another surprise to scientists. In place of the present-day stone fortress of the end of the 15th century. its two stone predecessors of the end of the 9th and beginning of the 12th century are open. Ladoga was a building achievement of that time. A construction on a cape formed by the Ladoga and Volkhov rivers, a bypassing fortified stone wall with a tower (or towers). There is nothing surprising. The fortress of Izborsk, the patrimony of Brother Rurik Truvor, was surrounded in X-XI by a stone wall with a tower on a cape.
A stone stronghold was erected on the basis of the chronicle, not at the initiative of Prince Rurik, but of Oleg the Thing, who in 882 was “starting the cities of the city”. But who would not start such a construction, both of them are kind of Varangian. By the way, in Scandinavia, stone fortresses began to be built from the 12th century. Before this, the Scandinavians did not create anything like this.
Question number two. Where does your name come from, Ladoga?
Three names are known: Ladoga - Aldegja - Aldeygyuborg. Historians were divided in opinions about the origin of the name of the city-fortress. Some believe that the name of the city gave the river Ladoga. But excuse me, then the city would be called not Ladoga, but Ladozhka. Most likely that the river was named after the city. Ladozhka - at Ladoga.
In the history of Russia known cities derived from the names and names of rivers. But these names tend to lengthen due to the addition of syllables, rather than subtraction. Izborsk, according to legend, from Prince Izbor. Kiev - from Prince Kyi. And the tradition is preserved in the Russian language. An example of this is Volgograd.
If the name is Ladoga from the river, then the name of the city should be Volkhov. The phrase "gray Volkhov" is often used in legends, epics. In comparison with Volkhov, Ladoga loses. If we assume that the Ladoga River was originally called Ladoga, then when did the name change? The fact that the name of the river is not permanent is proved by its third name Elena. The clergy consecrated the river in the XIX century in honor of the first wife of Peter I, Evdokia Lopukhina, exiled to a monastery and received the monastic name Elena. But the name did not stick. Ladoga and stayed.
In ancient Neftessky Aladegya (aladjogi) - the lower river. It is hard to believe that the Slavs who built their city would give it the name of the ancient Finns. Why, then, the Scandinavians, according to the Norman theory, gave their names to the Slavs? Because, according to the same theory, they were higher in development than the Slavs. Hence, the Scandinavians are allowed, but the Slavs do not. They should take the Finnish name. Most likely, the Finnish chud named the city of Aladegia. Due to the fact that for trade with the Slavs, the chud was floated along Ladozhka.
“Most likely, the original hydronim is Finnish. Alode-jogi (joki) - "Lower River", "says TN. Jackson in the article “Aldeyguborg: Archeology and Toponymics”. If we admit this, Ladoga was founded and inhabited mainly by the Finns-Chud. And prevailed over the Slavic population. Here is just one snag. The wonder of fortress-cities did not build, and especially stone.
Further more interesting. T.N. Jackson displays "The emergence of the old Russian name Ladoga is not directly from the substrate (Old Fin. Alode-jogi), but through the Scandinavian Aldeigja." So this is how it is. It turns out that not only the Slavs were absent from the settlement of Ladoga, but also the Finnish wonder too. Some Scandinavians, everything went wrong with them. Through them, the formation of the city and the name came to the Slavs.
But the Swedes did not know the name of Ladoga, and the Danes didn’t hear about it at all. According to the description of the siege of Tagi by the Danes in 852, described by Rimbert in the Life of Saint Ansgaria. Swedish king Anund managed to persuade the Danes, who had seized the suburbs of Birka, to leave Sweden. And go to some city (ad urbem), located from there far away, within the boundaries of the land belonging to the Slavs (in finibus Slavorum). Note that the Swedes did not indicate any of the three names. Dana, departing from the Tag, and on the 21 ship headed for where Anund pointed. "Having unexpectedly attacked its inhabitants, who lived in peace and silence, they seized him by force weapons and taking a great booty and treasure, they returned home. ” Historians argue about which city in question. According to A. N. Kirpichnikov: “During the excavations at the Earthen Settlement in Staraya Ladoga, the E2 horizon dated to 842 — 855 was singled out. The buildings of the horizon died in an all-out fire, which can be timed not to the civil strife among the Slavs and Finns painted in the Tale of the Varangian invocation, but to the Danish attack of 852. ”
However, it is appropriate to note that the Finnish name Ladoga is Aldeigja, similar to the Scandinavian Aldeigjuborg. Yes, the name really has the same part of Aldeigj. But this only proves the connection of Chud with the Scandinavians.
That's just what way the word came to the Scandinavian language? The Scandinavians borrowed Aldeigja. the Finnish chuds. How? Before reaching Ladoga, the Norman brigands had to sail through the lands of the Chuds, water.
The villages of these tribes did not promise big booty, it is profitable to take tribute from them with furs. And there is nothing to rob. Perhaps one of the Chudsky tribe pointed to the city of Ladoga. Calling it while Aldeigja. And Scandinavians took care to tune the word for their language. And if the Swedish king allowed himself to redirect the troops of the Norman brigands to a distant Slavic city, then why didn’t Chud do the same. Directing flown Vikings to the Slavic city of Aldeigj - Ladoga. Chud closely communicated with the Slavs from Ladoga, bartering for the weapons so necessary for them weapons, and not only. So they knew this city very well and even called it their own way. Unlike the king of the Swedes, who did not even know the name of Ladoga. You can disagree with this statement, but it is also extremely difficult to challenge it.
In the name of Aldeygyuborg, Scandinavians called Ladoga. The earliest name of the toponym Aldeygyuborg is in the Saga of Olav Trygvason of the monk Odd (the end of the XII century). By this time, Ladoga is already a powerful stone stronghold. According to TN N. Jackson, “The Aldeigjuborg composite used by the sagas was built using the borg root, and this is worthy of attention, since this root serves to design the Old Scandinavian toponymy of Western Europe and is not typical of the cities of Ancient Russia.” Western Europe again pops up, where the Slavs lived. Probably the root "borg", could appear when the Scandinavians were faced with Ladozhany. And they recognized the thunderstorm of the seas of the Vendians-vagirov. However, the Normanists stubbornly keep silent about the Vendian-encouraging beginning. It is understandable, because then Rurik is not Scandinavian.
According to the same T.N. Zhakson and G.V. Glazyrina, the name of Ladoga Aldeygyuborg is already connected, firstly, with the phased acquaintance of the Varangians with Russian cities, secondly, the impression of Ladoga with a non-wooden , and a stone fortress. That's the conclusion. And where did they manage to see a lot of Russian settlements? Old Russian chronicler, called Ladoga city of Slovenia - the first on the way "from beyond the sea" into the depths of Russia. And besides, in the XII century, Pskov and Izborsk were already dressed in stone. According to the Norman theory, Rurik is a Norse-Norseman. This is how it goes? Scandinavians came with Rurik, cut down the city of Ladoga. Notice Ladoga, not Aldeygyuborg. And then other Scandinavians came, the city was called and marveled in a different way to the stone cities in Russia. It turns out that Rurik spoke a different language, since they called the same city differently. And although the dating of the Ladoga formation and the construction of it by Rurik differ, there is a lot to think about.
The largest Scandinavist is EA Rydzewska noted that “not one of the large ancient Russian cities has a name explained by the Scandinavian”. Historian M.N. Tikhomirov back in 1962 more clearly expressed: “There was not a single city in all of ancient Russia that would go back to the times of the first Russian princes and bear the Scandinavian name” (in his words, “even the name Ladoga cannot be without a stretch derived from the Scandinavian roots "). The linguist S. Rospond fully agreed with him, pointing to the complete absence of the names of ancient Russian cities of the 9th-10th centuries. "Scandinavian names ..."
A flaw, the citizens of the Normanists.
The name Ladoga from the Slavic goddess Lada Normanists try not to consider. “This version can not cause anything but a smile,” note A.S. Vlasov and G.N. Elkin in the book "Old Russian Fortresses of the North-West." So, to call the city in honor of the Slavic deity causes laughter among the Normanists. But what about Kiev, Lviv or Vladimir? Laughter does not cause? Not the names of the gods, and the princes nicknamed the city. So did the prince revered in Russia stronger than the gods? Who pagans Slavs asked for help and protection, if not from their gods? To whom shall cities devote with a bright name, but to their gods? Lada - Ladoga, the Slavic root is pure and direct. And the name of the name is lengthened.
Question three, did the Scandinavians rule Ladoga?
Such a fact took place. Only this happened with Yaroslav the Wise. The prince gave Ladoga and her region in flax to his wife Ingigerd. That's just what it all turned out? N. A. Kirpichnikov writes: “The activities of the Norman rulers of Ladoga, far from the urgent state tasks, spending time in endless quarrels and rivalries, absorbing a significant share of tributes, not always obviously serving as a military barrier from the Baltic, eventually ceased to satisfy the central government . There were discontent and attempts to divide the Ladoga region into different, sometimes random owners. ”
Where is the Norman theory about the creation of the Scandinavian order in Russia? Not that to organize the state, even managed to manage the city. Only assign, take away by force, tear to shreds, each piece by piece. Do not agree? Re-read again what A. N. Kirpichnikov writes.
“All these circumstances eventually led to the fact that in the last quarter of the 11th or early 12th century, apparently, under Prince Mstislav Vladimirovich during his first (1088 — 1094) or second (1096 — 1116) stay on Novgorod reign in Ladoga to replace the foreign appeared its own Russian administration.
This is the true Norman attitude to the Russian city and its territory. Where is it possible to draw a parallel with Rurik or Oleg the Prophet, who were glad for the strength, power and glory of Russia and its cities-fortresses. Yes, some kind of non-Scandinavian policy was - the union of Russia.
Ladoga, a stone stronghold, provided safety for shipping and commerce. The fortress-guard stood the fortress city, shielding Russia from the Normans-fighters, in case of their approach to the city with predatory and piracy targets. And how they were eager to repair the ruin.
1164. Ladoga residents repelled the attack of the Swedes. "Shave your own mansion, and shut yourself up in the city with the mayor with Nezhatoy." After an unsuccessful attack, the Swedes retreat by ships to the Vorona-Voronega River (flows into Lake Ladoga between the Pasha and Sasyayu rivers), where the Novgorod troops finally break them.
1228. Yem is fighting along the coast of Lake Ladoga "on Isadeh and Olon". Ladoga fleet pursues attackers off the coast of Obonezhsky land and Ladoga city parish. On the bank of the Neva at its source, where the Nut Island was located, the land was finally defeated.
1240. Swedes and allies are defeated on the Neva River by the troops of Prince Alexander, Novgorod and Ladozhane participated in the battle.
1283 d. Responding to the robber raid by the Swedes into Lake Ladoga, the Ladozhans are sent to intercept the robbers "Ladoga-men go to the Neva and communicate with them."
1293. The joint army of Novgorod and Ladoga fights at the source of the Neva against the Swedes, "wanting to take a tribute to Korela."
1301. As part of the Novgorod army, Ladoga citizens, as well as Suzdalians, stormed the Sway Landskron on the r. Okhta in the Neva delta.
1348. In Ladoga - the collection of citywide troops for the arrival and release of Nut, captured by the Swedes.
And now Ladoga is standing, reflected by the fortress walls and towers in the waters of Vokhov and Ladoga. And while she stands, the name of the Slavic goddess Lada will not be forgotten. Ladoga stood guard over the lands of Rus from greedy Scandinavians. And for a long time there will be a bone in the throat of the Normanists.