Hetman - favorite era "ukrov." Part of 2

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Hetman - favorite era "ukrov." Part of 2The conspiracy of the foremen against the hetmans was common for Little Russia. It fit well into the system of life values ​​of the ruling stratum, which was in charge of all affairs in the Hetmanate. Many of the "nobles" considered themselves unjustly deprived and worthy of a better life. They also wanted income, but the number of applicants clearly exceeded the availability of vacancies. Hence the constant intrigues, conspiracies, the struggle for a place at the bureaucratic trough, for those “freedoms and privileges” that allowed us to mercilessly exploit a lot of ordinary Cossacks, peasants and burghers.

In fact, the Cossack elite copied the worst social traits of the Polish gentry, which was distinguished by almost complete irresponsibility and great arrogance. For the "privileges" fought not for life, but for death. No one was trusted except for the next of kin, who were tried to be dragged to all profitable places. Although it happened that relatives betrayed.

Even in this sophisticated struggle for power and income, hetman Ivan Mazepa (1687 — 1708) stood out in particular. He did not disdain any means to destroy anyone who showed the slightest hostility to his person. The origin of Mazepa contributed to his anti-Russian views. His father, Adam-Stepan Mazepa, although he was one of the comrades-in-arms of Bogdan Khmelnitsky, spoke out against the Treaty of Pereyaslavl and later, together with the hetman Vyhovsky, tried to establish an autonomous Grand Duchy of Russia (and not Ukrainian), since nature) as part of the Commonwealth. In 1662, the Polish king was appointed to the post of Chernihiv under his command and kept her to death. Adam-Stepan Mazepa was a supporter of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and his son received an appropriate education.

Ivan Mazepa studied at the Kiev-Mohyla College, then - at the Jesuit College in Warsaw. By the will of his father entered the courtyard of King Jan Casimir. The proximity to the king allowed him to continue his education in Holland, Italy, Germany and France. Mazepa was fluent in several languages, including Russian, Polish, Tatar, Latin, French and German. However, due to several conflicts, Mazepa could not advance at the court of the Polish king. Mazepa went to his estate, after the death of his father he took the post of subordinate Chernigovsky. Then he entered the circle of Hetman Doroshenko of the Right Bank. Although Doroshenko was guided by Turkey and the Crimean Khanate, he was an enemy of the Commonwealth.

In the 1674 year, during the diplomatic mission to the Ottoman Empire, on the way to Constantinople, the delegation was intercepted by the Zaporizhia Sich cattle Ivan Sirko. Mazepa was transferred to the left-bank hetman Samoilovich. Mazepa, who had an excellent education, the hetman ordered the upbringing of his children. After some time, Mazepa received the rank of captain. In addition, Mazepa performed diplomatic missions, often visited Moscow, where he liked the favorite of Tsarina Sophia, Prince Vasily Golitsyn. Mazepa and Golitsyn were then “Westerners”, they received an excellent education and sympathized with the Polish-Western customs. After the fall of hetman Samoilovich, Golitsyn had a decisive influence on the election of Mazepa as the hetman of Left Bank Malorussia.

It must be said that Mazepa, like other members of the foreman, took an active part in the fall of Samoylovich. In the book "Mazepa" the historian N. I. Kostomarov notes "his intrigues, used by him before the all-powerful temporary worker Prince Vasily Vasilyevich Golitsyn for the destruction of Hetman Samoilovich." There is a note by Mazepa, preserved in the affairs of the State Archive, which shows that Mazepa, after his election as hetman, paid his patron, Prince Golitsyn, a bribe for help.

Thus, to the top of his career, Mazepa, like many other “heroes of the Ukrainian stories"Went through constant treason. He betrayed his benefactors: he betrayed Poland, going to her enemy, Hetman Doroshenko; then without a doubt he went over to the side of Doroshenko's enemies; more piously did with Samoylovich, who warmed him and brought in the foreman.

Becoming a hetman, Mazepa systematically and consistently turned into a "traitor" and "rioters" not only potential competitors, but his yesterday's comrades, who ensured his rise to power. At first he took up the relatives and assistants of the deposed Samoilovich. The son-in-law of the former hetman, Prince Chetvertinsky, to whom he himself, while in the capital, procured a return to Little Russia, Mazepa hated that the prince did not refuse the previous promise and married the daughter of Samoylovich. In addition, he sheltered the mother-in-law, the wife of the disgraced hetman. Mazepa did not endure such a nobility and began to dismiss rumors about his prince. As a result, the prince with his wife and mother-in-law were expelled from the Ukraine.

Then Mazepa dealt with Gadyachsky Colonel Mikhail Vasilevich. He removed him from the post. But this did not calm down and slandered before the central authorities. The government went to meet Mazepa and Vasilevich sent to Moscow. But there he was not found guilty and returned to Little Russia, letting Mikhailovka into his office (estate, estate). Vasilevich lived quietly and calmly, but Mazepa continued to slander the retired colonel, and eventually achieved his goal. Vasilevich was again brought to the investigation, tortured and exiled to Siberia. It should be noted that during the Hetman period, Moscow usually went to meet the wishes of the hetmans, even if they were a mile away from their denunciations. Moscow preferred not to quarrel with local authorities. However, this position eventually led to crises over and over again. Everything repeated with Mazepa, who betrayed Russia as well.

Miraculously, Colonel Leonty Polubotok, a relative and comrade of Vasilevich, was able to avoid the death of Pereyaslavl. Mazepa also charged him with a denunciation. Leonty was removed from office. But Mazepa did not let up and continued to report on Leonty, seeking his complete destruction. So, the hetman denounced to Moscow that the Poltava colonel Lysenko and more than a hundred Poltava residents beat his head for Polubava in many offenses and ruin. Therefore, it is necessary to execute Leonty. Half a day, having learned about the trouble, immediately rushed to Moscow, but from there, under guard, he was sent to Little Russia for trial military law. Mazepa, meanwhile, has already compiled a new denunciation. In it, the hetman claimed that Leonty slandered him to the Kiev governor, as if Mazepa wanted to change and go to Poland. But at the Moscow request, the Kiev voivode M. Romodanovsky said that he didn’t say anything like that, although he had scolded the hetman for “ruin”. Polubotka saved from death only that Mazepa decided to relieve the pressure, deciding that a good lesson was given to the foreman.

At the same time, Mazepa continued to blacken not only possible enemies, but dug under those who served him faithfully. And Mazepa did it extremely insidiously and vilely. Outwardly, the hetman seemed to patronize them, and secretly wrote denunciations, preparing the ground for destruction. Thus, he gave generalists to new chiefs (estates) to the General Esaul Voitsa Serbina and Pereyaslavsky Colonel Dmitrashka Raiche, he himself petitioned the Malorossiysk order to issue them letters on his universals. At the same time, he secretly informed Serbin about the fact that he was undesirable to him, while Raiche recalled his long-standing business during the time of Bryukhovetsky and Mnogogreshny. He wrote about the colonel of Pereyaslavl, that he was allegedly hated in the regiment because he, being a native of Wallachia, puts his countrymen in the ranks. As a result, Raic was removed from office.

Mazepa did not forget to slander the Kiev colonel Solonin. And when he died, took away from his heirs the estate, giving his mother. He also entered after the death of the clerk General Borkovsky. Mazepa took the estate of his widow and young children.

Mazepa significantly strengthened his position under the young Tsar Peter Alekseevich. Getman was able to charm Peter, who respected the educated people, constantly gave advice to the young sovereign in Polish affairs. Over time, a close personal friendship arose between them. Mazepa took part in the Azov campaigns, and in 1700, the Little Russian hetman became the second knight of the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called, established by Tsar Peter. The sovereign personally placed the signs of the order on the hetman "for his many noble and diligently-faithful faithful services in military writings." For two decades of hetman power Mazepa became one of the richest people not only of Little Russia, but also of Russia. He owned more than 19 thousand households in the Ukraine and more than 4 thousand households in southern Russia (he owned about 100 thousand souls).

The pinnacle of his destructive activity was the betrayal of Russia. At the most critical moment, when mobilization and unity of all forces in the face of external invasion was required, Mazepa planned and made the transition to the side of the Swedish king Karl XII. Getman planned to create from the Ukraine "independent ownership" under the rule of the Polish king. It must be said that from Little Russia, Mazepa constantly received denunciations. But Tsar Peter did not want to believe the denunciations, the informers were severely punished, and the Tsar’s confidence in the hetman only increased. In general, Little Russia remained loyal to the Emperor Peter. With Mazepa, only about 1,5 thousand Cossacks went over to the side of the Swedes. In addition, many of them tried to desert, so as not to fight with the brothers.

It seems that it is impossible to imagine this era full of blood, dirt and meanness, the struggle for the possession of power and wealth "disinterested service to the Motherland", and traitors, traitors, thieves and murderers - "heroes, fighters for freedom and rights of the people". However, Ukrainizers have solved this problem. Traitors, oath-breakers and thieves were boldly proclaimed as people of "advanced convictions", "devotees of the Ukrainian national idea", "fighters for independence". These stereotypes persistently implemented on the territory of Little Russia for two centuries. First, in the works of almost unknown marginals, and from 1991 year from school. Therefore, it is not surprising that the current representatives of the Ukrainian "elite" are one-to-one criminals, war criminals, thieves, and moral monsters.

It is also obvious that internal conflicts in Little Russia had purely internal prerequisites - the redistribution of power and property. Moscow, contrary to the claims of Ukrainian historians, that Russia, with its policies, contributed to fueling internal conflicts, on the contrary, tried to extinguish them. Distemper and terror in Little Russia were caused by the social essence of the Little Russian “elite”, which copied the worst features of the Polish gentry. She wanted to know “to live beautifully”, to constantly grow rich, to dominate over the “claps”, without being responsible for managerial mistakes.

Every winning group sought to complete destruction of the defeated opponents. Moreover, the enemies sought precisely to destroy, both politically and financially, and physically. Often, only the intervention of the Russian government saved hundreds of lives, for which exile to Siberia or other regions of Russia was a salvation from death. Executions, confiscations, exile, perpetual exile to Siberia and murder were, in the vast majority of cases, a local matter. The central government played a passive role. Moscow was forced to put up with a similar state of affairs, trying non-interference to somehow maintain stability in the Ukraine. In addition, we must not forget that during this period Russia waged heavy wars with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Porto, the Crimean Khanate and Sweden. Moscow needed a calm rear. The situation in the Ukraine was left to chance, not wanting to sharply cause destabilization of the region.

In Moscow, continuous denunciations of "conspiracies", "treason" and secret relations with the enemies of the Russian state were received. Reported all and continuously. Moreover, the number of such denunciations was so huge that a significant portion of them simply did not check. I had to take them on faith, or do nothing. In either case, an error could lead to dangerous consequences. Therefore, the government quite often simply did nothing, in the hope that time would confirm or deny the information.

There were no "significant" and real defenders of national interests, as Ukrainian "historians" are trying to present them. Between the Cossack officers and the people there was a huge gulf. The social situation was similar to the situation of the lords and the "flakes" in Poland. The times of national unity, when all the people rallied in the struggle against Poland in 1648-1654, were long overdue. The war for the reunification of the Russian lands faded into the background and was ousted by internal opposition. It was the Ukrainian nobility that caused this conflict. "Significant" sought as far as possible to separate from the people, to become the sovereign masters of land and people. Representatives of the Cossack elders tried to show that they were “not the local common people of the Little Russian breed” (A.Ya. Yefimenko, “The History of the Ukrainian People”). The gentry from the Right Bank like Mazepa were actively accepted into the ranks of the foremen.

From this "elitism" there was also an arrogant, contemptuous attitude towards the common people, its primordial and innate stupidity, ignorance. Little Russian nobility completely repeated the psychology of the Polish pancy, with its contempt for "flakes". Getman Mazepa, arguing about the possibility of hostile actions by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at the beginning of 1704, urged Tsar Peter: "Our people are stupid and impermanent, he is just tempted ... Let the great sovereign not too give faith to the Little Russian people ..." , in order to "keep the Little Russian people in obedience and faithful citizenship." About the same hetman, he told 1708 in July of his betrayal: "Velmy is afraid that during this time there will be no outrage between the inconsistent and faint-hearted people ...". In his opinion, the Little Russian troops were just as unreliable: “There’s nothing to hope for our troops, because they are accustomed to running or giving the hetman and foreman into the hands of the enemy ...”

So it was not only under Mazepa. And before him, the foreman and local spiritual hierarchs constantly told the central government that treason was dominant in Little Russia, that the Cossacks were reeling, it was impossible to rely on them in anything, that they would come to his side when the enemy first appeared. Embassies from Little Russia brought a bunch of denunciations. In fact, the Cossack elite in this opinion gave themselves self-esteem. When Mazepa betrayed Russia and Peter, only a small handful of Cossacks moved with him to the side of the Swedish king. And then the ordinary Cossacks, when they understood the situation, tried to desert. By himself, Mazepa and others like him traitors judged that part of the Russian people who, due to historical circumstances, had been under the Polish yoke, and then came under the rule of Little Russian "significant". Common people attributed their own plans and motivations, baseness and meanness.

Little Russian "elite" knowingly hated and was afraid of ordinary people. Mazepa fairly well identified the cause of this fear: “The Cossacks and Tatars are not so terrible, the Russian people of the Commonwealth are worse than us: they all breathe their own spirited spirit: no one wants to be under the authority under which they live” (N. Kostomarov, “Mazepa” ). And it was not surprising. The people did not want to come to terms with the fact that rootless upstarts seized power in Little Russia, who had fallen into obscurity just yesterday. That they consider themselves the complete masters of a vast land. The people did not consider the domination of the "significant" lawful or consecrated custom.

Moreover, by its qualities, the Little Russian “elite” was not able to lead the region to prosperity, to act for the good of the majority. Their main goal was power and enrichment at any cost. "Significant" could neither restore proper order in the Ukraine, nor protect it from external enemies, which they themselves often called for, or to improve economic life, thinking only of their enrichment. Hence the people's hatred for "significant". This hatred was mutual.

The new owners were so afraid of ordinary people that they even feared to collect troops. When the hetman Mazepa asked the foreman in 1702 whether the regiments should be joined to oppose the Zaporozhye Cossacks, the answer was unanimous - “no!” The foremen were afraid of rebellion.

To be continued ...
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  1. +5
    4 June 2014 10: 34
    Yes, it was all in Soviet school history textbooks, and then it was dying out by the come-out shit, headed by the drunk Yeltsin (I will never forget how I waved my hands drunk in Berlin, so it was a shame for the nation ...).
    Now there is enormous work to restore this knowledge.
  2. xan
    +2
    4 June 2014 11: 17
    To be continued.....
    And it all ends with the fact that the dill elite will be integrated into the Russian one, the hetman will move to St. Petersburg, and Catherine 2 will completely abolish the institution of hetmanism.
    In the meantime, the situation is developing. One thing is clear - in the gadyushnik in Ukraine there is a fair amount of guilt of the Russian government. It was necessary to understand, and not click highl.
  3. +5
    4 June 2014 11: 55
    Elder conspiracies against hetmans were commonplace in Little Russia. This never stopped .. in fact .. Catherine did the right thing by abolishing hetmanism in Ukraine .. And the Ukrainian SSR appeared .. the elders' conspiracies against the hetmans have resumed and are continuing at present ..
  4. +4
    4 June 2014 12: 24
    There was a huge gap between the Cossack foreman and the people .... Representatives of the Cossack foreman tried to show that they were “not of the local common Little Russian breed” (Efimenko A. Ya., “History of the Ukrainian people”) ... The Little Russian nobility completely repeated the psychology of Polish pan , with his contempt for the "claps"


    All this, to a large extent, resembles the behavior of today's junta. Only, to their deep regret, about this, in our time, it is impossible to speak aloud and publicly show.
  5. +1
    4 June 2014 19: 51
    Thus, to the top of his career, Mazepa, like many other “heroes of Ukrainian history”, went through constant betrayals ..... well, purely piggy, apparently revived.
  6. 0
    4 June 2014 21: 57
    Yes, there is all of Western Ukraine, until now, like spiders in a jar, they are ready to gnaw each other's throats. All meetings of the Rada are an ice battle, even in their "stagnant" years after the collapse of the USSR, for 23 years.
  7. +1
    6 June 2014 00: 43
    article for the Russians ... not a word about the benefits of Mazepa, immediately to the team - he is bad he is bad he is bad ....
    Ehhh not a gram of objectivity!
    Even I who betray Peter 1 still have a betrayal (although who I am and who Mazepa is, I’m just a fan of Peter) is a bad deed, I can not objectively take and say he is bad because he is a traitor to Peter. And if you consider the reasons? And not because Mazepa was always a traitor (according to this stupid article for the Russians), but because he is the most educated person in general in the Hetman and probably in the entire Moscow state (well, maybe Vinius was also less educated)
    His education was much better than any Muscovite.
    And most importantly, he loved him and took great care of him. And I believe that the rudiments of that education in the Hetmanate improved the deal with "personnel" for the future of RI!
    I do not have my unequivocal "he is a traitor". There are useful things and a lot of them. He did a lot for the future RI and Peter himself. Yes, he cheated, but his betrayal, oddly enough, more morally angered Peter than physically helped the Swedes. And Ukraine did not follow him. And in Poltava, Ukraine said NO to him.
    In general, google to help the author and look for his useful things yourself. And then lately your articles can’t be read! The impression that you weigh each Ukrainian only one action, and good good and useful deeds are not even taken into account. To execute all, to execute, they were never good ... and afterwards they wonder why Ukrainians behave this way towards you.
    Write OBJECTIVELY, and do not wage an information war against Ukraine.
    I got tired of hearing in every discussion that Stalin did all the good things, and then a "bad" Ukrainian came and began to do everything badly because he was Ukrainians (although objectively he was not) and therefore Ukrainians deserve such disrespect.
    In short, a prefabricated portrait of Mazep / Khrushchev / Petliura / Bender --- a brief description of each Ukrainian. According to the Russian ...
    1. xan
      0
      8 June 2014 18: 53
      Quote: Cristall
      His education was much better than any Muscovite.

      And where did he apply his education when he decided to contact the Swedes?
      Quote: Cristall
      In general, google to help the author and look for his useful things yourself.

      Instead of writing so many letters, he would list useful things.

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