Hetman - favorite era "ukrov"
Therefore it is worth exploring this era more. Understand who is among the "Ukrainian heroes". Every nation has its own heroes, positive myths, on which the nation’s self-consciousness is built, love for the motherland is cultivated. So, if you take the United States, then most of America’s heroes, if you take the past, are gangsters, murderers, successful dealers who embody the ideals of the “American dream” (in Russian - from rags to riches). If we take the present, most of the US heroes are fictional characters, fantastic heroes. At the exit - a "bubble", a country that rests on illusions.
Heroes serve as a role model, an example for new generations. This is true for all nations, regardless of their size, size of state, level of development or historical era. Heroes have always been. And the current Ukrainian catastrophe will be easier to understand if you study the "Ukrainian heroes." At the hearing, the henchmen of the Nazi Third Reich and the murderers - Stepan Bandera and Roman Shukhevych. After 1991, they were turned into heroes of the “Ukrainian nation”. When such characters become idols of youth, on which there is no place to put marks, it is scary. This is a degradation in its purest form. Gangsters and enemies of the people are put on a pedestal of heroes!
The “Ukrainian state” has other “heroes,” many of which date back to the Getman era. At first glance, this is surprising. After all, all of Russian history was declared by its independents, "Ukrainian". The choice is huge - here the Russian epic heroes, princes and commanders of the Old Russian state, the heroes of the Russian liberation war led by Bohdan Khmelnitsky, etc. However, although they were ranked as “Ukrainian history”, they did not fit the role of heroes. In Russian history, Ukrainians choose only what suits them in spirit.
As a result, from more than a thousand-year history, filled with a mass of significant and exceptional events, outstanding historical personalities, including on a global scale, the independent historians turned their close attention to a rather insignificant period of time. It Hetman dedicated a huge number of hours in the school history course, most of the historical works, articles, television programs. Hetman figures elevated to the rank of the founders of the "great Ukrainian cause." Their "exploits", aspirations, worldview, inclinations and character traits became a reference for Ukrainian patriots.
Hetman and its leaders
The Russian national liberation war under the authority of Bogdan Khmelnitsky and the Russian-Polish war 1654-1667. ended with the liberation of only part of the West Russian lands. The Andrusovo truce 1667 led to the liberation of a part of Little Russia (Left-Bank Ukraine) along the left bank of the Dnieper. Kiev with the adjoining lands was handed over to Russia for a period of two years, but Russia was able to keep it and secured for itself the Eternal World 1686. Zaporizhzhya Sich passed under the overall control of the Commonwealth and Russia. Right Bank Little Russia remained under the control of Poland. At first, her release seemed to be a matter for the near future, especially since the Rzeczpospolita continued to be shaken by Russian uprisings. Poland was not able to draw conclusions after the uprising of Bogdan Khmelnitsky, continuing the disastrous course that led to its complete disintegration and the destruction of Polish statehood (sections of the Commonwealth).
Russia looked sympathetically at the anti-Polish movement. Strengthening the economy and the army allowed the support of the Russian population remaining under the yoke of the Poles. However, in Little Russia, political processes that were completely unexpected for Moscow began, which for a very considerable period of time delayed the reunification of the greater part of the Russian lands with Russia. There was even a threat of falling away of the territories already liberated from the Poles. Smoot lasted for several decades. It was during this period that the current “heroes” of independentists manifested themselves: the successor to Khmelnitsky, hetman Ivan Vyhovsky (1657 — 1659), hetman of the Right-Bank part of Little Russia, Pavel Teterya (1663 — 1665), who replaced Peter Doroshenko (1665 — 1668 — 1704), who replaced him Doroshenko (1708 — 1710) the infamous Ivan Mazepa (1718 — XNUMX) and his associate Philip Orlyk (XNUMX — XNUMX), the ataman of the Zaporizhian Sich Konstantin (Kost) Gordienko and a number of other characters of lesser importance.
Already during the uprising of Bogdan Khmelnitsky, at the time of his greatest successes, the hetman began to establish his own military administrative apparatus in the territory liberated from the Polish government. At the head of the Hetman was an elected hetman. He belonged to the highest military, executive and judicial power. Getman also determined the foreign policy course, organized and supervised finances. When the hetman had "happy" (council) of the highest Cossack officers: an advisory body. The Rada included: the general judge; general convoy - the second after hetman rank (performed his duties in the absence, death, deposition, also in charge of artillery, supply troops, supervised the construction of military camps, was their commandant); podkarbiy (treasurer); clerk general (administrative and political affairs, keeper of the military press, during the war - chief of staff); two general esaula (direct assistants to the hetman, during the war could lead part of the army); General cornet (the keeper of the flag - the banners, the head of the protection of the hetman); the wrestling general (the keeper of the horse-wielder, a symbol of military power, carried out special assignments of the hetman, could lead a part of the army).
To solve the most important cases they convened a General ("full") rad. The General Council was the highest representative body of Hetmanate government. It consisted of a hetman, foremen, representatives of ordinary Cossacks, representatives of the Orthodox Church; sometimes also representatives of cities and other states (embassies). The hetman and the foreman, as a rule, were easily manipulated by the General Council.
In administrative and territorial terms, Little Russia was divided into "shelves" and "hundreds." The number of regiments and hundreds were not constant. A total of 16 regiments were established: 9 on the right bank of the Dnieper and 7 on the left. On the right bank of the Dnieper: Chigirinsky, Cherkassky, Kanevsky, Korsunsky, Belotserkovsky, Umansky, Bratslavsky, Kalnitsky and Kiev. On the left bank: Pereyaslavsky, Kropivensky, Mirgorodsky, Poltava, Priluksky, Nezhinsky and Chernigovsky. Over time, the territory of the regiments and their names could change. The number of hundreds was not the same. In some of the shelves there were about a dozen, in others up to two dozen. The number of Cossacks was also different in hundreds: in some there were 200-300 Cossacks, in others - from two to several dozen.
The head of the regiment was the "colonel". He was chosen by the Cossacks of the regiment or appointed hetman. The colonel exercised military, administrative and judicial power. The main executive body was the regimental offices, which included regimental officers: a convoy, two captain, a judge, a clerk, a cornet. These ranks were elected. The subsidiary authority was the regimental council of Cossacks and elders. The hundreds were ruled by centurions who were chosen by the Cossacks or appointed by the colonel. Under the centurions there was a hundred-high sergeant: clerk, cornet, train, esaul. There was also a hundred tip. Judicial authority was carried out by the regimental and centenary courts.
In the towns and villages, the Cossacks entered the kuren who chose the ataman, and the villagers and tradesmen chose Voyta. Atamans and Voyts represented the lowest level of the military administration. In the cities, both regimental and centric, there was an elected city ataman. At the same time there was an urban self-government - magistrates and town halls, consisting of elected from the urban population. In fact, the city administration of Rzecz Pospolita, which was based on Magdeburg law, was preserved.
The role of self-government in the Hetman should not be exaggerated, as Ukrainian nationalists do. In fact, the election of the hetman and foremen was false. At the bottom, elective elements remained longer, but the higher up the hierarchy, the smaller was the value of the elective beginning. The elections of the hetman with practically unlimited power functions did not have an exact framework and definitions. The choice belonged to the Rada, but its composition could vary depending on the specific situation and the will of the foreman. So, it could be pleased with the Cossack sergeant, happy with the Cossack military camp and the Cossack mass, or even the “black glad” - a nationwide gathering. Such a system gave complete freedom to various abuses. Similarly, the question looked like with the choice of colonels and centurions, who also had uncertain and very wide powers of authority. Along with the elections, we see, practically from the very beginning of the formation of the Hetmanate, examples of appointment by the hetman or the Russian government.
In the Right Bank of Little Russia, which went to the Commonwealth, this system was quickly eliminated and replaced by the Polish administration. On the Left Bank, this management system was preserved, and the Cossack officers made up the social stratum that concentrated in their hands the entire administration of the region after reunification with Russia. It was in the foreman that the historical figures, which in Ukraine were recorded as “national heroes”, showed themselves in the most active way. Although these people showed themselves from the negative side, having noted active destructive activity. Their deception, betrayal, the struggle for power, the unprecedented robbery of the people, the drive on the Russian lands of the Crimean Tatars, Ottomans, Poles and all kinds of robbers led to the Troubles. This period in the history of the Zaporozhian Army was called the “Ruin” (in fact, it was a civil war). Social egoism, greed and thirst for the power of a small group of people led to the death of many thousands of people, slowing the process of unification of all Russian lands for a very long time.
Replaced the Polish gentry "significant" (noble), as they called themselves, exalted over the rest of the population, poorly suited to the role of the elite of Little Russia. This is evident from the mores that reigned in their midst and in the internal relations among the foreman. The easiest way to understand the mores that prevailed in the Little Russian administrative pyramid, according to the life activity of the hetmans. The leaders of the troops were not only characteristic representatives of this social group, but also set the tone for the entire power vertical that ruled Little Russia. What happened at the very top of the hierarchical ladder, in the residence of the hetman, among the general chief, the customs that were established there, were automatically repeated by the subordinates, going down to the very bottom - the centurions and the hundred-member administration.
Recently, we are seeing in Ukraine (thanks to the attention of the Russian media, many disgusting social phenomena were put on display, although they existed long before 2013-2014), it was already in the history of Little Russia. Only the scale is now much wider. A characteristic feature of the Hetmanate is this total theft (corruption) and the constant struggle for power, the war of all against all.
Greed, black envy, hatred, indiscriminate bribery and embezzlement, careerism, the desire to curry favor at all costs, even by the most base and disgusting deeds - this is not a complete list of morals that prevailed among the "Ukrainian heroes". Moral and ethical norms and restrictions in this predatory and parasitic environment did not work. They were recognized only formally, in words. Cossack officers lived under the laws of the world of degeneration. In the weather, for their own profit and profit, they undoubtedly overthrew the powerful Olympus, and killed not only competitors, but former comrades, accomplices.
The historian N. I. Kostomarov, who devoted most of his time to studying the history of Little Russia, noted: “The unity of intentions and goals did not unite the most significant ones - each pursued personal gains, one dug a hole under another, and each one wanted another to push, trample, and he himself, in turn, was subjected to the same troubles from his comrades ”(Nikolai Kostomarov,“ Cossacks ”).
The fate of many hetmans is well characterized by the morals that reigned in the Cossack sergeant. Getman Ivan Bryukhovetsky (from 1663 to 1668 year), under the influence of Peter Doroshenko (Hetman of Right Bank Little Russia), who persuaded him to abandon Moscow and promised to help him become an independent ruler under the auspices of the Ottoman Empire and Crimea, changed Russia. Doroshenko also led his game, corresponded with Warsaw, promising to make it so that "both sides of the Dnieper will be behind the king." When Bryukhovetsky raised an uprising, Doroshenko demanded to give the hetman's mace and swear allegiance to him. Deceived Bryukhovetsky rushed to the Ottomans, tried to negotiate with Porto and go under the patronage of Turkey. Sultan agreed and in Gadyach, Bryukhovetsky swore allegiance to Porte. However, the Cossacks, during the meeting of Bryukhovetsky and Doroshenko, betrayed him. Bryukhovetsky was torn to pieces by drunken Cossacks literally in tatters.
They betrayed “their own” and hetman Demyan Many-Sinful, who was the successor to the hetman Bryukhovetsky (ruled from 1669 to 1672 year). He, like Bryukhovetsky, asked the king to provide him with the help of soldiers or archers, "because tea is awkward from his people." In 1672, a rumor was launched about the allegedly upcoming replacement of the Many Sinful Kiev Colonel Solonina. Herman washed down, fell into prostration, terrorizing others. Drunk hacked down Pereyaslavsky Colonel D. Raychu. As a result, the foreman grabbed him, chained him and sent him to Moscow. In her report, the foreman demanded the death penalty for the hetman “as a traitor and perjurer”, although there was no evidence of “adultery”. Alexei Mikhailovich exiled the Many-Sinners to Siberia, where he was noted by the leadership of the successful defense of the Selenginsky fortress. The garrison of the fortress of 294 man, armed with 6 pishchela and muskets, repulsed the attack 5-thousand. Sino-Mongolian troops. The troops of the Qing Empire were defeated and retreated.
The closest entourage also betrayed the next hetman, Ivan Samoylovich (from 1672 to 1687 years). Tellingly, he was among those who signed the denunciation of the Many-Sin. Ivan Samoilovich was one of the most active participants in the uprising, which Bryukhovetsky started. Moreover, he showed great hatred towards Moscow. After the fall of hetman Ivan Bryukhovetsky, Samoilovich went over to the Many-Sinners, again swore allegiance to the Russian Tsar and received complete forgiveness. Then betrayed the sinner.
Samoilovich ruled Little Russia as a tyrant. He turned the people against him with his greed, arrogance and arbitrariness. The hetman surrounded himself with loyal people who serviced him, but humiliated ordinary people. Throughout the Hetman reigned theft and bribery. As a result, the foreman accused Samoylovich of “treason”. Hetman accused of intending to form an independent ownership of the Ukraine. Although the charges were not confirmed by any reliable facts, Samoylovich was dismissed from his post, first exiled to Orel and Nizhny Novgorod, then to Tobolsk. Thus, Samoylovich was a good example of the mores and customs that reigned in Little Russia. He himself was a traitor, and his inner circle betrayed him.
To be continued ...
- Alexander Samsonov
- The myth of the "Ukrainian people"
The myth of the "Ukrainian people." Part of 2
Hetman - the favorite epoch "ukrov"
Hetman - favorite era "ukrov." Part of 2
On the reasons for the people's hatred of the Little Russian "gentry"
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