Psychological weapons and psychological warfare

For 5.5 thousands of years, humanity has survived 14 thousand wars, in which 4 billion people died. Only in two World Wars 20 century 50 million died. During the 1945-2000 period, more than 100 military conflicts claimed the lives of about 20 million people. The most bloody is the Korean war, which brought 3.68 million victims. As we see, mankind has not become more peaceful, and the instinct of aggression continues to dominate human behavior.
General provisions.

Military psychology is the most hidden and conservative part of general psychology. Each country decides on issues of national defense and its troops, commensurate with geopolitical interests, potential threats, anthropo-ethnic heritage and, of course, the economic base of the state.


However, there is no doubt that for more than 7 thousand years, humanity has realized the need to perceive itself and the armed masses of people (Homo bellicus) as something special. Three great nations brought to the world three schools of military psychology.

- Eastern School - China (Japan).
- Western school - GFS (Germany, France, USA).
- Russian school has a special place at the same time.

At the end of the 20-beginning of the 21 century, China, Russia, the USA are at the forefront due to the scientific and technological potential, which was dictated, first of all, by the appearance weapons mass destruction, and further rethinking of its role in world conflicts.

Currently, scientific and technological progress is positioning military psychology ahead of weapons of mass destruction. In this regard, there are many moral and ethical problems with the use of mental energies and energies that affect the human psyche. It is these 2 directions that are priorities in the perspective of scientific knowledge and human self-consciousness. Accordingly, two scientific trends were formed:

1 - the impact of energy on the human psyche (USA).
2 - the impact of mental energy on the noosphere and the global psycho-informational field (Russia, China).

At the border of these two currents, this moral and ethical problem arises.

The impact of energy on the human psyche should be regarded as aggression against the individual, democratic and personal freedoms of citizens. The United States and here applies a policy of double standards, hiding from the Americans the true essence of their research in this area (offensive military psychology).

The impact of psychic energy on the noosphere is aimed at the harmonious interaction of man and nature (the humanistic direction).

For many years, thousands of publications disputed the existence of a PSY weapon. Today we must tell the reader and the citizens of our countries clearly and clearly - YES, it exists.

What is it, is it a PSY-weapon? All up to genius is simple.


PSY is a weapon ambivalent and includes the 2 element: MAN + TECHNOLOGY.

The 1 element - the person - is the carrier of anthropo-ethnic information, fixed genetically, and the paranormal psychic energy of a person, hidden in the same genetic structure (Russia, China).

2 element - technology, whether it is communication technology, concepts, influence doctrines or technical devices, devices, systems directly generating electromagnetic radiation, having an impact on the human psyche, behavior, perception (USA).

Of course, on several pages to describe such an extensive subject is not possible. My goal is different - to acquaint the reader with the state of military psychology in different countries. And also to give some kind of retrospective of the development of military psychology and determine future prospects.

To begin with, by the beginning of the 21 century, military psychology goes beyond the general psychology and integrates disciplines such as:
- polemology,
- anthropology,
- ethnopsychology
- social psychology and the psychology of the masses,
- geopolitical psychology,
- psychology of communication and conflict,
- psychology of aggression,
- personality psychology and morphopsychology,
- theory of the noosphere and psycho-informational field,
- engineering psychology.
- ethics and deontology.
- heraldry.
- Asymmetric psychology or military psychology itself (the offensive part of military psychology, integrating all of the above).

Training of military psychologists

There is no doubt that every army and country has its own concept of military psychology. It should be noted that over the years, having studied the systems of psychological preparation and training of military psychologists in different countries, I came to the conclusion that many countries do not train military psychologists in the universities of many countries. Most military psychologists are graduates of psychological faculties. Therefore it is necessary to engage in their retraining already in the troops, devoting a year of study to this process of 1-2. The main drawback of a civilian psychologist is the inability to work with large masses of people, psychodiagnostics of the masses, poor knowledge of psychodiagnostic tools, influence on the masses, work in crisis situations, work in terrorist situations, work in the area of ​​man-made disasters, psychological selection for combat operations, work with fears and thanatotherapy, planning and conducting psychological operations in various situations of operational environment.

In the United States, the training of military psychologists is so concrete that the military psychologist is not suitable for use on the battlefield, only in the rear, and then by its narrow specialization.

Take, for example, Russia - military psychologists are trained at the Military University in Moscow. The selection of personnel in the army, for actions in combat operations, wants the best. In the 1 and 2 campaigns in Chechnya, the influence of military psychologists on personnel in combat was minimal (of course, I watched an unedited video of the massacre of militants with Russian soldiers). The training program contains many outdated concepts, moreover, that in Russia itself there are many excellent military psychologists (which will be discussed below). In Ukraine, the same situation.

Romania does not train psychologists in military universities. Psychologists are retrained in parts. There are many good military psychologists in senior officer ranks. A good scientific and theoretical base and school planning psychological operations.

In Moldova, civilian psychologists are undergoing retraining in military units. The school of military psychology itself is mixed and integrates many Western and Eastern concepts, but taking into account ethnic specificities. However, due to military reforms, the state of the Armed Forces wants to be the best, and the moral and psychological state of the personnel is low. Despite this, methods of hp selection have been developed. for combat peacekeeping operations and actions in crisis situations.

In this context, I will say that in 2003, Moldova sent its first contingent to IRAQ. This was preceded by a study of the situation in Iraq itself. More than 20 stressful daily factors were identified, the threshold of stress resistance for each participant of the operation was determined. Tanatotherapy was carried out in parallel with the anti-terrorism training, to the level of inculcating culture and dying ethics. The most important in the selection was the identification of the victim complex. Not a single soldier with this complex was allowed to participate in the operation. Special attention was paid to the instinct of aggression. I will not deny that a briefing was conducted on the perception of the behavior of American soldiers and the local population. Especially for establishing trusting relationships with the local population.

I specifically focused on the training of military psychologists. At the planning level, this avoids losses among the civilian population, and at the tactical level, losses of one’s own personnel and effective influence on the enemy.

In this case, a military psychologist, as a person with special knowledge, is a key element of what we call psychological weapons.

It is the presence of military psychologists in an army should be considered as much as possessing a new type of weapon.

Scientists and personalities who defined the modern concept of military psychology

Boris Fedorovich Porshnev
(February 22 (March 7) 1905, St. Petersburg - November 26 1972, Moscow) - Soviet historian and sociologist. Doctor of Historical (1941) and Philosophical (1966) Sciences. Honorary Doctor of the University of Clermont-Ferrand in France (1956). Porshnev establishes the anthropological significance of speech and suggestion for the development of man as a social being, and argues that the emergence of human speech and suggestion led to the division of the human species into the 2 subspecies — hunters and victims, in the period of cannibalism.

Sun Wu, 孫武, Changqing, Sun Tzu, Sunzi- Chinese strategist and thinker, who allegedly lived in the VI or, according to other sources, in the IV century BC. e. The author of the famous treatise on military strategy "The Art of War." One of the meanings of the treatise is that the aphorisms contained in it have influenced many generations of Chinese, Japanese, and other peoples of East Asia. Many of the principles outlined in this treatise can be applied not only in military affairs, but also in diplomacy, the establishment of interpersonal relations and the formation of a business strategy.

Carl Philipp Gottlieb von Clausewitz (Carl Philipp Gottlieb von Clausewitz; 1 July 1780, Burgh town near Magdeburg - 16 November 1831, Breslau) - a famous military writer who, with his writings, made a revolution in the theory and fundamentals of military science.

Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky
(28 February (12 March) 1863 (1863.03.12), St. Petersburg - 6 January 1945, Moscow) - Russian and Soviet scientist of the XX century, naturalist, thinker and public figure; the creator of many scientific schools. One of the representatives of Russian cosmism; the creator of the science of biogeochemistry.

Noosphere (Greek νόος - "mind" and σφαῖρα - "ball - the sphere of interaction between society and nature, within whose boundaries intelligent human activity becomes the determining factor of development (this sphere is also denoted by the terms" anthroposphere "," biosphere "," biotechnosphere ").

Academician Peter Lazarev in 1920 for the first time in the world in his article “On the work of nerve centers from the point of view of ionic excitation theory” substantiated in detail the problem of direct recording of electromagnetic radiation from the brain, and then spoke in favor of the possibility of “catching an idea in the outer space of an electromagnetic wave”.

In 1920-1923, a brilliant series of studies was performed by Vladimir Durov, Eduard Naumov, Bernard Kazhinsky, Alexander Chizhevsky in the Practical Laboratory on Zoopsychology of the Main Administration of Scientific Institutions of the People's Commissariat of Education in Moscow. In these experiments, psychics, who were then called "emitting people," were placed in a Faraday cage-chamber, shielded with sheets of metal, from where they mentally worked on a dog or person. A positive result was recorded in 82% of cases.
In 1924, the chairman of the scientific council of the Laboratory of Zoopsychology, Vladimir Durov, published the book Animal Training, which tells about experiments on mental suggestion.
In 1925, Alexander Chizhevsky also wrote an article on mental suggestion - “On the transmission of thought at a distance”.

In 1932, the Brain Institute. V. Bekhtereva received an official task to begin an experimental study of distant, that is, at a distance, interactions.
By 1938, a large amount of experimental material was accumulated, summarized in the form of reports:
“The Psychophysiological Foundations of the Telepathic Phenomenon” (1934);
“On the Physical Basis of Mental Suggestion” (1936);
"The mental suggestion of motor acts" (1937).
In 1965 - 1968, the works of the Institute of Automation and Electric Power Engineering of the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Novosibirsk were best known. The mental connection between people as well as between humans and animals was investigated. The main research material was not published due to regime considerations.

In 1970, the decree of the Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Peter Demichev, created the State Commission for the examination of the phenomenon of mental suggestion. The commission includes the largest psychologists of the country:

A. Luria, V. Leontyev, B. Lomov, A. Lyuboevich, D. Gorbov, B. Zinchenko, V. Nebylitsyn.
In 1973, the most serious result in the study of psi-phenomena was received by Kiev scientists. Later, the USSR Council of Ministers adopted a special closed decree on psycho-research in the USSR on the creation of the Response research and production association under the USSR Council of Ministers headed by Professor Sergei Sitko. At the same time, some medical experiments were carried out by the Ministry of Health of the Ukrainian SSR under the direction of Vladimir Melnik and at the Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology under the guidance of Professor Vladimir Shargorodsky. Studies on the impact of mental suggestion on the psychopathology of the central nervous system were headed at the Republican Hospital. IP Pavlova Professor Vladimir Sinitsky.

Professor Igor Smirnov-Russia.
Doctor, doctor of medical sciences, professor, academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, founder of computer psychotechnologies. Founder of science Psychoecology is a direction that is not the prerogative of medicine and represents a separate, fundamentally new field of knowledge based on the interface of many spheres, but having its own conceptual apparatus — a set of scientific ideas and practical methods for studying, controlling and predicting behavior and the human condition as information system in its information habitat. (son of State Security Minister Abakumov died in a mystical setting).

ELENA GRIGORIEVNA RUSALKINA - Clinical Psychologist, Associate Professor at the Department of Psychoecology, RUDN, Director of Science Center for Information and Psychological Security. Academician I.V. Smirnova; one of the developers of the method of computer psychosemantic analysis and psychocorrection at an unconscious level.

Konstantin Pavlovich Petrov (August 23 1945, Noginsk, Moscow Region - July 21 2009, Moscow) Major General. - Soviet and Russian military leader, Russian public and political figure. Candidate of Technical Sciences. Member (academician) of the International Academy of Informatization. He headed the department at Udmurt State University. Brilliant military psychologist of Russia.

Savin Alexey Yurievich
From 1964 to December 2004, he served in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. He made his way from a cadet of the Black Sea Higher Naval School to a lieutenant general - the head of the department of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. Doctor of Technical Sciences, Doctor of Philosophy, Honorary Doctor of the European University. Honorary citizen of Sevastopol. Member of the fighting. Honored military specialist. He was awarded many orders (including the Order of Courage) and medals, as well as nominal firearms. Academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, the International Academy of Sciences, the Italian Academy of Economic and Social Sciences.

Major General Boris Ratnikov - Russia. He supervised in the FSB a special unit that dealt with the secrets of the subconscious.

Ivashov Leonid Grigorievich- Russia.
President of the Academy of geopolitical problems. Doctor of Historical Sciences. Colonel General Founder of a new direction - geopolitical psychology.

Krysko Vladimir Gavrilovich -Russia. Doctor of Psychology, professor, reserve colonel, currently professor of public relations at the State University of Management. Ingenious military psychologist. Born in 1949 year, graduated from the Special Propaganda Department of the Military Institute of Foreign Languages ​​in 1972, Liaoninsky University (Shenyang, China) in 1988. Of China ", in 1977 g. - doctoral dissertation on the topic" The influence of national psychological characteristics on the combat activities of the personnel of the armies of the imperialist states. "

Dmitry Vadimovich Olshansky- Russia
Date of birth 4 January 1953 year.
In 1976, he graduated from the psychology department of the Moscow State University. Mv Lomonosov. Fluent in English.
In 1976, he graduated from the Faculty of Psychology, Moscow State University.
In 1979, he graduated from the graduate school of the same faculty.
In 1979, he defended his thesis for the degree of candidate of psychological sciences.
1980 to 1985 - was engaged in research and teaching work.
1985 - 1987 - political adviser in Afghanistan, participated in the development of a policy of "national reconciliation" and the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan.
1988 was a political adviser in Angola.
1989 was a political adviser in Poland.
In 1990, Mr .. Dmitry Olshansky was awarded the degree of Doctor of Political Sciences.
1992. - Member of the Supreme Consultative Council under the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev.
From 1993 to the present - General Director of the Center for Strategic Analysis and Forecasting (CCP).

Parchevsky Nikolai Vasilyevich. Born 1962, Moldova
Lieutenant Colonel of the Moldavian Armed Forces Lieutenant of the USSR Armed Forces. Founder of the military psychology of the Armed Forces of Moldova. Supporter of the humanistic direction of military psychology. Co-author of the textbook "Practical Military Psychology", Bucharest 2009, in collaboration with the rector of the Academy of Gene. The headquarters of the Armed Forces of Romania, Lieutenant-General Theodore Frunzeti. The author of the definition and methodology of asymmetric military psychology. The author of the Moldavian method of psycho-semantic analysis of texts and morphopsychological personality characteristics. The author of the method of selection of personnel for combat operations. Supporter of the scientific integration of various psychological schools.

Lucian Culda,
Romania. Major General. Ph.D., professor. Director of the Center for the Study of Organic Processes.
Nominated by the Cambridge International Biographical Center in the category “The First 2000 Intellectuals of the 21 Century” and Man of the Year 2003.

Works of international level
- The emergence and reproduction of nations -1996-2000.
- Formation of people in real social processes - 1998
- The state of nations.
- The study of nations.

Gabriel Dulea
Romania. Retired colonel, doctor of military sciences, professor. Works in the field of anti-terrorism are comparable to the works of D. Olshansky.

Dr. John Coleman
(eng. Dr. John Coleman) (b. 1935) - American publicist, former leader of the British special services. The author of 11 books (2008 year), including the book “Committee of Three Hundred. Secrets of a World Government ”(The Committee of 300,“ 300 Committee. Secrets of a World Government ”, 1991).

This list of military and scholars determines the humanistic direction in military psychology.

US offensive military psychology

After the war in the 1945 year, the Americans got not only the archives that dealt with the creation of atomic weapons and rocket technology. It turned out that in 1940-s, top-secret psychophysiological research and development works of unprecedented scale were deployed with the involvement of all the best that was created at that time in India, China, Tibet, Europe, Africa, USA, USSR. Quote of the Russian special services: "... The purpose of the study: the creation of psychotronic weapons. Therefore, never before and after the war scientists have the right to perform such experiments on living people. Therefore, all German research materials are unique today and are invaluable to science. ” The most powerful installations are now not only in service with the military of the United States, Britain and France, but also among transnational corporations, which privately use them in solving their problems.
Do everyone know that the technology of reading man’s thoughts and man’s control through electromagnetic fields was studied in Germany under Hitler in the project Anenerbe, then the materials of this project were captured by the United States.


Dr. Joseph mengele

Psychological weapons and psychological warfare

The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, 1912

After studying the materials of Dr. Mengele and other monsters, the Armed Forces Security Agency was created in the US in 1949, which continued this research.
By 1952, results were obtained that showed that human thoughts are just infrasonic waves in the 0,01-100 Hz range that can be easily read, and you can also slip your thoughts and control a person through a computer program.

Assessing the immense prospect of studying electromagnetic radiation in the biological spectrum, US President Truman 24 October 1952, with his secret directive, created the NSA (National Security Agency or National Security Agency). The National Security Agency is the leading US intelligence agency in the field of electronic intelligence and counterintelligence. The NSA can rightfully be called the most secret of all the organizations in the United States Intelligence Community. The NSA charter is still classified. Only in the 1984 year were some of its provisions made public, from which it appears that the agency is exempt from all restrictions on conducting communications intelligence. As already mentioned, the NSA is engaged in electronic intelligence, that is, listening to the radio, telephone lines, computer and modem systems, fax emissions, signals emitted by radars and missile guidance installations. According to its status, the NSA is a “special agency within the Ministry of Defense”. However, it would be wrong to consider it as one of the divisions of the US military. Despite the fact that the NSA is organizationally part of the Department of Defense, it is also an independent member of the US Intelligence Community.

The NSA has considerable authority when it comes to ensuring national security. For example, the NSA has a spare government, ready to take power in case the main one fails, whether it will be caused by a foreign invasion, a nuclear war, civil strife or another reason.

The United States in the postwar period under the auspices of the CIA conduct experiments on the zombies of their own citizens. Psychiatrist Even Cameron in the project "MK-Ultra" conducted experiments on the erasure and the formation of new personalities. The CIA allocated 6% of its budget for these experiments. As part of the MK-Ultra program, 44 University and College, 15 research groups, 80 institutions and private firms were connected to the collaboration. Even then, Cameron tried to deprive the experimental wills, form a completely different person, erasing the old one in extremely cruel ways - with a strong electric shock and narcotic drugs. As a result of these experiments, about 100 Americans died. Cameron was not even tried.

Cameron, Donald Even (eng. Donald Ewen Cameron) (24 December 1901, Bridge of Allan, Scotland - 8 September 1967 Lake Placid, USA) - a psychiatrist, a citizen of Scotland and the United States. Born in Bridge of Allan and graduated from the University of Glasgow in 1924. Cameron was the author of the concept of mental control, in which the CIA was particularly interested. In it, he outlined his theory on the correction of insanity, which consists in erasing the available memory and complete alteration of the individual. Starting work for the CIA, he traveled every week to work in Montreal, at the Allan Memorial McGill University Institute. From 1957 to 1964, he was allocated 69 thousand dollars for experiments on the MK-Ultra project. The CIA probably gave him the opportunity to conduct deadly experiments for the reason that they had to be put on people who are not US citizens. However, from documents appearing in 1977, it turned out that during this period of time thousands of unwitting as well as voluntary participants, including citizens of the United States, passed through them. Along with experiments with LSD, Cameron also conducted experiments with various nerve agents and electroconvulsive therapy, the electrical discharge of which exceeded the therapeutic one 30 — 40 times. His experiments on "management" consisted in the fact that participants were continuously administered for several months (in one case up to three months) with a drug into a comatose state and at the same time forced to listen to sounds recorded on tape and repetitively reproduced sounds or simple repeated commands. Experiments were usually performed on people who applied to the institute with minor problems, such as anxiety neuroses or postpartum depression. For many of them, these experiments constantly brought suffering. Cameron’s work in this area began and went hand in hand with the work of the English psychiatrist Dr. William Sargent, who conducted virtually the same experiments at St. Thomas’s clinic in London and the Belmont clinic in Sarey, also without obtaining patient consent [2].

The NSA and the CIA are paying particular attention to the development of new psychotechnologies. Millions of funds are allocated for scientific research.

Col. John Alexander, United States
Military psychologist. Veteran special forces in Vietnam.
Works are classified. The main directions are being developed at the Los Alam laboratory, where the first atomic bomb was created. The main direction of work is paranormal abilities of a person. Activity overlaps with the works of Michael Joom.

Michael Dzhmura United States.
At the University of California (Irvine), an artificial telepathy system is being developed by the order of the US Army research laboratory, under the direction of the US Army Research Office research laboratory dean, Michael D'Zmura, under the direction of the research grant of the US Army Research Laboratory. artificial telepathy systems.

A special place in the global expansion is the project of the NAARP.



HAARP can be used in such a way that sea and air navigation is completely disrupted in the selected area, radio communications and radiolocation are blocked, and the on-board electronic equipment of spacecraft, rockets, airplanes and ground systems is disabled. In an arbitrarily defined area, the use of all types of weapons and equipment can be stopped. Integral systems of geophysical weapons can cause large-scale accidents in any electrical networks, on oil and gas pipelines.

HAARP radiation energy can be used to manipulate weather on a global scale, to damage the ecosystem or to destroy it completely.

HAARP is the cause of such cataclysms as the Sichuan earthquake (2008) and the Haiti Earthquake (2010). Certain modes of operation allow you to change the intensity of the earth’s magnetosphere and resonate with the low-frequency oscillations of the human brain, causing mass apathy, aggression, fear, etc.

Another pre-project of “humane weapons”, called “MEDUSA”, provided for the mass of people to be irradiated with special frequency microwaves to suppress their emotions.
There are a number of other developments of "non-lethal humane" weapons.



Silent Guardian ("Silent Guard") is a directional millimeter-wave emitter, causing extreme pain in those who find themselves in the zone of action of this device.

According to the Daily Mail journalists, Silent Guardian leaves a feeling of contact with a hot wire under tension. And although the developers claim that the pain stops, as soon as the person leaves the zone of operation of the device, the journalists say that it lasts a few more hours.

One way or another, the full-scale prototype put to flight even the most hardened paratroopers. At the same time, this device does not cause any irreversible physical harm.

At the Pan-European Symposium on Non-Lethal Weapons, which was recently held in Germany, an unusual weapon was demonstrated - plasma killers. It resembles ordinary tasers, which are used by law enforcement agencies in some countries.

The principle of operation of conventional tasers is as follows: a pair of dart electrodes connected to the taser with thin wires is fired. A high-voltage electric pulse is transmitted over them. Voltage in 50 thousand volts temporarily disables the victim. Tasers operate at a distance of up to seven meters.

The new weapon developed by Rheinmetall is based on the same principles, but it makes wires and darts unnecessary. Instead, a conductive aerosol is used.

And it is quite interesting in this context that the Senate hearings and the journalistic investigations accompanying them sound, which revealed other striking facts. In particular, the killers of JF Kennedy and ML King, Oswald and Ray, also recorded altered forms of consciousness, which heightened suspicions about the involvement of special services in these high-profile terrorist attacks. As a result of this kind of disclosure in 1978, the administration of President J. Carter was forced to announce the closure of the MK-Ultra program.

However, on July 21 1994, US Secretary of Defense Shillam Perry signed a memorandum on “not exactly lethal weapons” with a list of cases in which it is permissible to use it. The first on the list was “crowd control”, and only the modest fifth place was taken by “incapacitating and destroying weapons or military production, including weapons of mass destruction”. So, not the desire to deal with the enemy, but the desire to subdue the recalcitrant was in the first place.

In the light of the above, the current phenomenon of the Taliban and the terrorist network of Osama bin Laden (as well as a number of other "tame" combat organizations in the world) is the result of a monstrous synthesis of Eastern traditions, fanatical faith and Western psychotechnics. The logical result of such manipulations was that the offspring emerged from the power of its creators, turning against them the edge of their anger. Osama bin Laden behaves with particular cruelty towards his former American teachers. And the Taliban do not intend to obey their former masters.

The concepts and definitions of psychological, psychotropic and psychotronic weapons are vague.

But it can be considered that the possession of military-psychological theory and military psychologists is the presence of psychological weapons.

The availability of technical means (as well as information technologies, doctrines, theories) of remote influence should be considered psychotronic weapons.

The availability of medicines (medical chemicals) is considered a psychotropic weapon.
It can be considered that economically and technologically developed countries to one degree or another possess psychological and psychotronic weapons. The recognition and interpretation of this fact depends on the ethical-legal field of the country and the level of democratic concepts.

It is equally important to enshrine the concept of these weapons in International Law. Even more important is the adoption of the International Convention on this type of weapon. And it is not less important to consider holding the International Congress of Military Psychologists on ethical and moral issues.

Without these international legal efforts, psychotronic weapons will be developed further.
Thus, in the next 50 years, it will come to the forefront of conventional weapons.
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