This year marks the 1150 anniversary of the Russian state. In 862, several Slavic and Finnish tribes called Prince Rurik with the Vikings-Russia from across the sea, and a dynasty began that managed to create a great power. But in the works of foreign historians and domestic "Westerners" XVIII - XIX centuries. these events were overgrown with eloquent comments: Scandinavian Vikings came to Russia, brought it the foundations of civilization and laid the foundation of statehood itself. And before the Vikings in our land, nothing worthy of attention could be. Some tribes lived - with just this one word the image of savages in animal skins immediately suggests itself.
This theory, called Normanism, prevailed in pre-revolutionary Russia, migrated to Soviet science. Abroad, it is still recognized as indisputable. Yes, and in the domestic literature has developed such a strong stereotype that it turns out to be extremely difficult to destroy.
Although statehood on the territory of our country existed since ancient times. Even Herodotus and other Greek authors described the mighty Scythian kingdom. It has now been unequivocally proven that its members included pre-Slavs. And they were in Scythia is not powerless slave people. Archeology shows that the villages of the Dnieper and Bug farmers were not fenced in, the Scythians were not enemies for them. The Proto-Slavs acted as their allies, divided military booty on an equal footing - in the same villages many trophies were found from campaigns in Transcaucasia, Assyria, and the Middle East. Many Greek coins and products were also found: farmers had the opportunity to sell products for export.
In the II. BC. Great Scythia perished, but in the south of present-day Russia the kingdoms of Yazygs, Roksolans, Alans, Crimean Scythia arose. And at the turn of our era began large-scale resettlement of the Slavs, the Romans called them Wends. They occupied Central Europe, the Carpathian region, the southern coast of the Baltic - on the Roman maps this sea was designated as the Gulf of Vened. And in the Baltic, the ancient authors noted quite developed states: the hereditary power of the “kings”, strong fleets, state arsenals, from where the population in the event of war received weapon.
Tradition says that in I c. land of the future Russia visited St. Apostle Andrew the First Called. He founded Christian communities in the Crimea, climbed the Dnieper, blessed the place where Kiev will arise, saw the steam baths of Novgorodians and was surprised by them, and then returned to Rome through the Baltic Sea. Usually this legend is perceived skeptically. But if you look at it, then ... there is nothing incredible about it. Of course, Veliky Novgorod did not exist yet. But in the Crimea, the city of Naples-Scythian flourished, Naples in translation - Novgorod. There were steam baths in it, they were found during excavations. The waterway through the Dnieper and Volkhov already operated. To sail across the Baltic Sea was real, it was plied by Venetian ships. And the cities of Wends were major centers of international trade, Roman merchants went here to buy precious amber.
In the II. the Baltic states of the Vandals, rugovs (they are the Rus, dew, ruthenes) and others were crushed by the Germans-Goths. Part of the Russes retreated to the Black Sea coast, united with local Slavs and Roksolans Sarmatians. A lot of data, archaeological and written, shows that they have a common state. It was loose, short-lived, and in the III. Goths defeated him. The conquerors have created a huge empire. Among other peoples, subjects of the Gothic kings were the Finnish Chud tribes, all of them. That is, the territory of Central and North-Western Russia also entered the empire. Some Slavic tribes became allies ready, together with them attacked the Romans. Others were conquered.
Roman chronicles mention the Russian emigre prince at the court of Constantine the Great. And in the IV. the aliens from the east, the Huns, fell on the ready, and the prince of the Rosomon people (translated as "people grew"), as contemporaries noted, crossed over to their side. Most of the other Slavic tribes also supported the enemies of their enslavers. Goths suffered a crushing defeat, Huns replaced their empire. King Balamber was pleased with the Slavs, under his auspices a tribal union of the Ants was formed. They maintained internal self-government, the historians of that era called the Antsky prince Bus and the elders executed by the rebellious Gothic king Amal Vinitar.
Nomadic Huns in many ways adopted Slavic culture. Byzantine ambassadors described the capital of Attila, lying somewhere on the Dnieper, a beautiful city with typical Slavic wooden architecture, carved palaces, and towers. They also brought Hun words - “honey”, “kvass”, “strava” (commemoration). In the middle of the 5th century, after the death of Attila, his state fell apart in cruel wars. From this time on, the Slavs became the immediate neighbors of Byzantium, and on a wide distance they reached its borders.
The Byzantine descriptions of their lives reflected clear evidence of state organization: the hierarchy of the nobility, the administrative division. “Tsars” are mentioned - tribal princes, above them were “kings” or “kings” - the leaders of large associations. The rule of the princes was supplemented by the institution of the veche, of general gatherings where the most important issues were resolved. The principality of Antes reached a particularly high level. They had developed agriculture, there were quite large cities.
They were protected by powerful ramparts, wooden walls and palisades. They housed the residence of the rulers, military guards, artisans lived and worked. For example, in the Pastoral Settlement, blacksmiths made iron, made braids, sickles, and shovels. Nearby were workshops potters, jewelers, gunsmiths. The warriors had wonderful weapons, chain mail, helmets. Characteristic for Ants are long straight swords of the highest quality. In archeology, they gave the name to a whole class of similar items, “Antsky type swords”. Even in the Anglo-Saxon poem "Beowulf" heroes fight Antsky swords, the best for that time.
Wait for 300 for years, until the Vikings come and teach something useful, the Slavs had nothing to do. Because guests from the west could not teach them anything, but nearby lay Byzantium - the center of advanced culture of that era. Antiya maintained strong ties with her, was her ally. Ants troops acted as part of the Byzantine army, Ants garrison stood in the Greek city of Tiras on the Dniester.
In the VI. Antiya fell under the blows of the Avar Kaganate. He crushed and terrorized the tribes, which were within his reach, and there were massive relocations of the Slavs. Some of them moved to the Balkans. Far Slovenes, Krivichi, Polochans left to the north, Vyatichi and Radimichi to the east. And in the VII century. the power of the Avar Kaganate was undermined, it began to crumble, and the obstacle hindering the development of the Slavs disappeared. They occupied a dominant position in Central and Eastern Europe.
The chain of their principalities stretched along the southern coast of the Baltic. At the foot of the Jutland Peninsula were located possessions of encouragement. Near lay the country vagrov. Still east - rugy. Pomeranians lived from Oder to Vistula. And between them and the Lithuanians - the Prussians. On the territory of modern Germany from Laba (Elbe) to Havel and Spree lived lutichi. To the south of them lay the Lusatians. The current Poland was divided among themselves by Mazovshans, Poles, Wisels, Slovinians.
Czechs, Moravians, Pannonians lived in Central Europe; Serbs, Croats, and Khorutans settled in the Balkans. And in Eastern Europe settled peoples known to us from the annals. On the Volkhov - Slovene. From Pskov Lake to Smolensk - Krivichi. In Belarus - Polochans, Dregovichi. In the Carpathian region - white Croats. In Western Ukraine - Volhynians. On the Dniester, the Tevertsy, on the Southern Bug, the streets. In Polesie - Drevlyane. In the Dnieper - clearing, Radici, on the Desna and Oka - Vyatichi. And to the east of the field, from the Dnieper to the Don, were the edges of the northerners.
Only it is necessary to take into account that these names denoted not just tribes, but states, and in their level they were in no way inferior to other European countries. Among the Eastern Slavs, the Arabs singled out the three most powerful states: Cuiabá, Arasania, and Slavia. Cuiabá - Kiev, the principality of the field, Slavia - the word with the center in Ladoga (Novgorod did not exist yet). Arasania is supposedly the princedom of the northerners. Persian manuscript beginning of the IX. She told about the social order of the glades: “One part of them is knighthood. The priests are respected by them. People annually pay the government a ninth of their income and trading profits. The city of Cuiabá is the seat of the king ... ” As we see, there were both the government and the nobility, clearly defined taxes were collected.
Ibn-Ruste wrote about the Vyatichas: “Their head, which they call the head of the chapters, is called“ Holy Malik ”among them. And he is above supanage, and supanage is his vicar. ” "Malik" in Arabic "king." Obviously, the title sounded like a "bright prince." And “supanedzh” - zupan. Voivode, who headed the zupu, clan clan. In the state of encouragement, the state was a federation, it included rarog, waranga and a number of tribes, they had their own princes, and at the head of the union stood the grand duke. The Germans respectfully called him "the king", and the tribal princes "dukes". The similar device was at Lyutich, northerners.
In Central Europe, the Czech, Velikomoravskoe, Pannonian principality, in the Balkans, Khorut. A part of the nomadic Bulgarians, defeated by the Khazars, united the local Slavs around them, and the Bulgarian kingdom appeared, in terms of culture and population, the Slavic one. Various sources mention the princes of the Drevlyane, Dregovichi, streets. Princes Pomoryan produced their kind from one of the sons of Attila - the dynasty existed for about 500 years! In Sloven even longer, their princes were descended from the Antean prince Bus.
Sometimes there are misunderstandings - but where are the Rus, who gave the name of our country and people? In the hodgepodge of relocations, they were divided into several parts. Some remained on the Baltic - tribes rarogov, rugiyev, Prussians. Others settled in Austria, there was a small kingdom, and subsequently the Austrian dukes conducted their descent from the "Russian kings". Another branch joined the Slovens. And the fourth settled on the Don and the Donets, joined the tribal union of the northerners. Various sources mention here the Rus from the middle of the 6th century. In alliance with the Khazars, they stopped the Arab expansion to the north, raided the Transcaucasus. Chinese diplomats saw Russian ambassadors at the court of the Turkic kagan. Bavarian geographer beginning of IX. He listed various branches of the Rus - “attros”, “viliros”, “casts”, “hozirosy”. He considered two of them to be the main ones, the Baltic and the southern. And the Persian geographer Ibn-Hordabeg explained that “the Ruses are a tribe of Slavs”.
Slavic civilization, still in paganism, reached its highest peak for its era. The large and rich cities of Arkona, Zverin (Schwerin), Volin, Rarog (Rerik), Starigrad (Oldenburg), Michelin, Dimin, Kodansk (Gdansk), Ratibor (Ratzenburg), Branibor (Brandenburg), Retra, Prague, Velehrad, Krakow grew , Gnezdno, Ladoga, Kiev, Chernihiv, Smolensk, Polotsk. Archaeologists have discovered the remains of fortifications, the sanctuary, the streets already at that time were equipped with wooden pavements. Warriors, skilled blacksmiths, potters, casters, bone-cutters, jewelers, and weavers lived in these cities. During the excavation of their products come across, expensive imported items. Germanic authors reported on the "civil rights" of the Slavs, on the urban aristocracy.
But the Slavic principalities were not the same. Someone entered into alliances, someone fought among themselves. As a result, the northerners, the clearing, the Vyatichi, the Radimichi fell under the rule of the Khazars. And in the Baltic at the end of the VIII century. roam the Vikings. They descended and in Ladoga, defeated Prince Burivoi, laid a tribute to the words, Krivichi, Finnish tribes Chud, all Meryan. But to talk about some of their cultural and educational mission would be simply ridiculous. Just look at the list of the leaders of the Scandinavian flotillas at least: Skull Breaker, Viper, Insidious, Bloody Clearyon, Bryuhotryas, Robber, Pig, Flayer, Sewing Beard, Pyro. They were ordinary robbers, and they were interested only in profit.
Slavs and Finns did not tolerate them for long. The uprising rose under the leadership of the son of Burivoya Gostomysl, the Vikings expelled. And the tribes involved in the war of liberation united in an alliance. Apparently, just the state of Gostomysl received the name of the Russian Kaganate, it was known both in Byzantium and in Germany. Relations with the Baltic Slavic principalities, especially with encouragement, were also strengthened. A comparison of the Novgorod chronicles, German chronicles and legends shows that Godomyub, the prince of the rarogi tribe, who were part of the federation of encouragement, Gostomysl married his daughter Umilu. Rarog belonged to the largest port on the Baltic, Rerik, friendship with them was very important for trade.
A lot of information from German historians came to us about the encouragement. The king of the Franks, Pepin the Short, and the Emperor Charlemagne maintained a strong alliance with this principality, together they fought against the Saxons and Lyutichs. The Franks called their "Slavs" encouraged. But in 808, they were attacked by the Danish king Gottfried, who attracted the Lutichs. The defeated Grand Duke encouraged Drazhko fled and was killed. The Danes took Rerik, captured and hanged Godolub, who defended the city.
All data agree on the fact that Rurik, the future ruler of Russia, was precisely the son of Godolub and Umila. Perhaps it was named after the deceased city and falcon rarog, the totem of the tribe. It is not known how and where the prince's childhood passed. In 826, the brothers Harald and Rurik appeared at the court of the emperor Louis the Pious. They were baptized, they promised support. But the empire of the Franks was already falling apart, strife began in it. And for orphans and outcasts in the Baltic opened a direct road to the Vikings or the Vikings. These terms denoted not nationality, but occupation: free warriors, pirates or mercenaries. Their ranks were replenished with bold men of different nationalities, and the Varangians were already known to no less than their Scandinavian colleagues. They took impregnable Seville, ruined even Sweden and Denmark.
Rurik moved among the most skilled and successful Varangian leaders. Squadrons under his command were firmly noted in France, Spain, England, Germany. Based on the achieved authority and accumulated wealth, in 853 - 854, he tried to win back his father's principality. At first it was a success, but the Danes still overpowered.
And at the same time, important events took place in Ladoga. Ghostomysl died without direct heirs. His power fell apart, the tribes fought among themselves. Neighbors did not fail to take advantage. Meryan conquered the Khazars. And from the sea in 852, the Danish Vikings descended, taking a lot of wealth home. In 854, the Swedish prince Erik pogrom and laid a tribute to the Slovenian neighbors: kurov, estov and finns.
Danger made forget squabbles. The elders are Sloven, Rus, Krivich, Chud, started talking again to unite. Decided: "We will look for the prince's seb, the ilk owned us and ryadil us by right". That is, to rule and judge in justice. But where to look for such a prince? The Nikon Chronicle reports that several proposals were voiced: "Either from us, or from Kazar, or from Polian, or from Dunaychev, or from Varyag." In the discussions won the option "from the Varyag", the candidacy of Rurik. She was optimal in all respects. Rurik was the grandson of Gostomysl on a daughter line, a famous warrior, his name thundered in the Baltic. And besides, he was an outcast. Prince without principality! I had to completely associate myself with the new homeland.
This is how the “vocation of the Vikings” took place. Rurik arrived in Ladoga with the squads of the motley Vikings and “with all his kind” - the emigrants who were gone with him. And I must say, the elders were not mistaken in their choice. The founder of the dynasty conducted a victorious war with the Khazars, took away the lands of the merians and moromlyans from them, the cities of Rostov and Moore. He started the “grads of the stakes”, strengthening the borders. And finally, Russia became the only country that had access to the sea, which never again knew the invasions of the Vikings, which at that time terrified all of Europe.
And it should be noted: the subsequent dispute between the Normanists and the Antinormanists turned out to be in general ... sucked from the finger. Both abroad and in Russia for a long time they remembered where the “Varang-Rus” were called from. The Germans in the X century. Titled Grand Duchess Olga "Queen of Rugs." In the XVI century. Ivan the Terrible mentioned that the dynasty of Rurikovich originates from the legendary Prussus - from which the princes of the Baltic Slavs originated. And in the XVIII century. The notorious associate of Peter I, Alexander Menshikov, concocted a false ancestry, where his clan was produced "from encouragement."
Do you think that Menshikov really knew who such people were encouraged? Yes, he was illiterate. And the principality of encouragement finally disappeared in 500 years before it, conquered by the Germans. It is unlikely that the clerk, who composed a pedigree for the prince, heard about it either. He simply worked through the order to be “more cognizant”, writing off the most ancient aristocratic families from the genealogies. When Menshikov was tried, he was remembered of this point, the prosecution indicated that "many noble births produce themselves from encouragement."
But in the XVIII century. ancient traditions have already broken. Boyar class abolished, pedigrees depreciated and forgotten. The records kept in the libraries of monasteries were taken away by scientists and amateurs, lost, died. And respected German professors came to Russia and out of nowhere created the theory of Normanism. Obodritov, Rugiyev, Pomoryan and other Baltic Slavs have not been around for a long time, and nobody bothered to recall them - the learned professors had no idea about them. Therefore, they began to identify the "Varyag-Rus" with anyone, just not with the Russians. Although no Scandinavian and Germanic tribe with the name "Rus" in stories does not appear.
Yes, and modern Western scientists are not far from their predecessors. As a proof, let us say, a quotation from the Tale of Time Years: “Sica boraz you Varag-Rus, as friends are called pee, ourmani, Angliana, Inia and Goth, tacos.” Hence the conclusion: along with the “Varangians-Rus”, the Swedes (all), the Norwegians (Normans), the British, the Goths are named. There are no only Danes - it means that “Russia” is what they are. Well, it remains only to sympathize with such historians, since they do not know that in the 9th c. there were no Englishmen at all, and the Angles were one of the tribes that inhabited Denmark. Obviously, they do not know that a significant part of present-day Germany was occupied by those who died in the 12th - 13th centuries. Slavic states. But do not get tired to pour out comments about the culture and statehood brought to the Slavs from the West. In short, this is an extremely vivid and characteristic example of how truth can be buried under streams of “scientific” waste paper.