Military Review

One in defense is not a warrior


In fulfilling the task of total import substitution when creating new weapons, our MIC should not overdo it. It is necessary for the country to get rid of critical dependence where it is possible, but to keep the established connections where it is necessary

At a meeting in Sochi, Vladimir Putin instructed the Ministry of Defense and the Military-Industrial Commission under the Russian government to develop a set of measures aimed at replacing imported products in the domestic defense industry. "This will be associated with small additional funds that will need to be allocated to solve the problems of import substitution, but in the end it is the right process," Putin emphasized. The head of state emphasized that “we must do everything to ensure that everything that the Russian military-industrial complex needs is done on our territory and that we are not dependent on anyone in any of the areas of re-equipment of the army and fleet new weapons systems. " Putin expressed confidence that this would only benefit Russian industry. The motive of the presidential appeal is extremely simple - to save in the long run our defense industry from the influence of any sanctions by foreigners. The problem is that Putin’s instructions can be fulfilled only partially and not earlier than in three to four years.

Dear scrap metal

Recall that because of the ban imposed by the current Ukrainian authorities on cooperation with Russia in the field of military-technical cooperation, at least two branches of our military-industrial complex were under a powerful blow. This is almost all helicopter and production of surface ships - from corvettes to frigates and destroyers. Moreover, the ban itself, as Ukrainian First Deputy Prime Minister Vitaly Yarema honestly said, was introduced at the initiative of Western partners, who demanded that Kiev break the military-technical cooperation with Russia.

Most of all, this ban hits the United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC), which buys marine gas turbine engines in Ukraine. These installations are made by the Nikolaev state enterprise "Zorya-Mashproekt", all our new ships of the near and middle ocean zone are equipped with them. Moreover, in the world such engines besides Ukrainians are still being made by only two companies - the American GE and the British Rolls-Royce. As part of the state defense order, USC should produce six frigates of the 11356 project for our Black Sea fleet. These are almost exactly the same ships as the ones that we built for India in the middle of the last decade. But since now they are being built only for us, Zorya-Mashproekt has stopped shipping turbines to Russia. True, officially the Ukrainians do not refuse to execute the contract, but the timing of the supply of engines for the second frigate has already been frustrated and there are no comments from Ukraine on this issue. The first of the new frigates, the Admiral Grigorovich, was launched from the Kaliningrad Yantar slipways in mid-March of this year and is currently undergoing design tests. The remaining five ships are in varying degrees of construction, but it is clear that if Zorya-Mashproekt fails to fulfill the contract, all these frigates will turn into very expensive scrap metal. “In principle, there is a theoretical possibility of redesigning these frigates for diesel, but how much time and money it will take is now difficult to predict,” said Konstantin Makienko, deputy director of the Center for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies. In Russia, marine gas turbines have never been produced. However, the situation is not hopeless. As the head of the United Engine Corporation (UEC), Vladislav Maslov, reported, in Russia, the M70 and M75 turbines have already been developed, and now they are being adapted to ships. “It is quite realistic to speed up these works. This is not a decade, it is a short time, ”said the head of the JDC. But how much investment it will take and where the installation will be organized, Maslov could not say.

Two billion and four years

The situation with engines for helicopters is a little less critical. In Ukraine, they are produced by the private Zaporozhye company Motor Sich. Its products are installed on almost all of our helicopters, except for the Ansat, Ka-62 and Ka-226. The light Kamov vehicles, which are not yet produced in large series, are supposed to be equipped with French Ardiden 3G engines from Turbomeca. We also have a new Mi-38 helicopter, which is supposed to replace the Mi-8 / Mi-17 and be equipped with engines from Pratt & Whitney Canada. But the Canadians are constantly disrupting the supply of engines, as a result of which the Mi-38 is still not produced even in small series. But the production of all other helicopters is almost entirely dependent on the supply of Motor Sich products. And so far, this enterprise is strictly and fully fulfilling all its contractual obligations to Russia. Now the Cossacks are fulfilling a five-year contract worth 1,2 billion dollars for the supply of 270 TVZ-117 helicopter engines to Russian Helicopters per year. In addition, Motor Sich supplies AI-222 engines for Yak-130 training aircraft.

At this stage, we have nothing to completely replace the Ukrainian engines. The Klimov enterprise in St. Petersburg produces up to 300 helicopter engines a year, of which 250 is in close cooperation with the same Motor Sich. And only about 50 helicopter engines are produced entirely from Russian parts at Klimov. Thus, in the event that the supply of engines from Ukraine is stopped, Russian Helicopters will be able to produce only three to four dozen helicopters per year, that is, they will be forced to cut production six to seven times. True, the Russian authorities hope that this will not happen. “We have a lot of joint plans with the company Motor Sich, and we hope that all of them will be implemented,” said Russian Deputy Minister of Industry Yuri Slyusar. True, at the same time he noted that a program for import substitution of helicopter engines is already being implemented in Russia. “Our task is to reach the end of 2015, the beginning of 2016 of the year, on the production of 350 helicopter engines fully produced in Russia,” said Slyusar. But if we take into account that the requirements of Russian Helicopters for engines are 550 units per year, it is obvious that the measures taken will still not be enough. Full independence from Ukraine in these components will cost Russia about 2 billion dollars and will require at least four years. “The fact that it was necessary to quickly develop our own engine production was clear as early as 2004 during the Orange Revolution, but nobody was in a hurry to do it,” says Konstantin Makienko. Now the situation is much worse, because not only the execution of the state defense order, but also our export contracts for the supply of helicopters abroad may be in question.

Not all can do

If our defense industry can still learn how to manufacture marine gas turbine installations and helicopter engines, then we are no longer able to master the production of high-tech machines and measuring equipment, onboard electronic equipment, some materials and components. It is no secret that, for example, at the Votkinsk plant, where Topol-M, Yars and Bulava missiles are manufactured, more than half of the machines are of Swiss, Czech, French and even American production. Almost all of our newest Su-30 and MiG-29SMT type fighters, which receive the Russian Air Force, are equipped with French avionics. On them, as well as on some warships, in particular, there are autonomous navigation systems Sigma 95 manufactured by Sagem, which have no analogues in our country. “These products are supplied to the plant in Ramenskoye, where it seems to be built into the ready-made onboard complex of Russian origin. But in fact, there the French systems only check for the presence of “bookmarks”, ”an informed military expert told us.

Another thing is that the French, even under pressure from the United States, will not stop selling their systems and subsystems to Russia. This was clearly shown by the situation with the Mistral helicopter carriers, which we acquired from France for almost 1,2 billion euros. Despite the direct wish of the Americans to break this contract with Russia, the head of the French Foreign Ministry, Laurent Fabius, said that from a legal point of view there is no such possibility. French President Francois Hollande, after meeting with representatives of the shipyard’s trade union in Saint-Nazaire, where Mistrals are being built for Russia, publicly promised that "the contract with Russia will be executed unchanged and completed in October."

“The French are very profit-oriented people. They will verbally agree with the Americans on everything, but they will not stop selling their systems to us, since cooperation with Russia has already gone very far, its termination or even suspension will result in huge losses and mass layoffs, ”explains Konstantin Makienko. So in this regard, we are not particularly afraid of sanctions. As for the issue of total import substitution, even the US defense industry is not capable of producing the entire product range for the Pentagon - Americans buy a whole range of products and components from the British, Canadians, Germans, and so on. True, the US’s dependence on these countries is not as critical as we are on Ukraine or France, and if necessary, Americans will be able to start virtually any production of the most advanced systems in a few years.

In our case, excessive zeal in this matter may lead to the fact that the set goal, although it will be finally fulfilled, but in terms of quality and, most importantly, in terms of technical level, Russian weapons systems will be inferior to the best world analogues. In this sense, the example of the DPRK is quite indicative. This country produces all its weapons exclusively with its own forces, but in practice it will not be possible to win a more or less serious war with it.
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  1. avt
    avt 28 May 2014 09: 41
    “In our country, excessive zeal in this matter may lead to the fact that, although the set goal will be achieved in the end, the quality and, most importantly, the technical level of Russian weapons systems will be inferior to the best world analogues. In this sense, the example of the DPRK is very indicative. This country produces all weapons exclusively on its own, but in practice it will not be possible to win a more or less serious war with it. "- It was for this conclusion that he put the first minus. negative The article on psychology is fully consistent with the new "thinking" of modern managers! Yes, the problems are different! Not all are solved in a short time, and no one says that, according to the precepts of chu chhe, it is necessary to withdraw into oneself. But with competent managers there are no problems. Yes , the terms can be shifted, as in the days of Stalin, when, for example, at the set deadline of a year, having delayed, but not by much, they made a Tu-4. An analogue, not a copy of the B-29. forever lagged behind the "civilized countries", we have to work, buy the missing technology, or steal it, as we did during industrialization and the Chinese now.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 28 May 2014 10: 04
      Quote: avt
      Yes, the dates can be shifted, as in the days of Stalin, when, for example, when the deadline was set to one year, they made the Tu-4 overdue, but not by much. Analog, not a copy of the B-29.

      They did ... On the same American and German equipment.
      And the level of complexity has grown a lot, aluminum structures are one thing, and composite materials are another thing when the materials themselves are purchased over the hill.
      One can only hear, "we ourselves with a mustache!" ... We ourselves are a VAZ-2109 maximum, with the help of Renault, no more than Lada Granta ...
      1. shurup
        shurup 28 May 2014 10: 28
        And what about the VAZ-2109? Have you long dreamed of even getting a Zaporozhets? A VAZ, in addition to riding instead of walking well, is also maintainable in the field. Three brands were driven across the USSR, if you remember, before choosing Fiat.
      2. avt
        avt 28 May 2014 11: 53
        Quote: Nayhas
        They did ... On the same American and German equipment.

        So what ? Well, now you can also do it, plus Chinese equipment, and there you need to establish your own in the long term. What is the problem then? Only in a sane leadership, which is not a "trifle" in their pockets tyrit with songs about the fact that "forever behind", belching full.
        Quote: Nayhas
        . We ourselves are the maximum VAZ-2109, with the help of Renault no more than Lada Grant ...

        We ourselves, this is when the rocket engines of the last century are bought by the Americans. Enough under the guise of exposing "leavened patriotism" with voluptuousness to throw your face into the manure and rejoice that it stinks. By the way, kvass is much healthier and tastier than Coca Cola.
    2. timer
      timer 29 May 2014 00: 18
      I agree with the comment 100%, but with the author of the article, no! The military-industrial complex is not on the moon, but is built into the general mechanism of the industry of the Russian Federation. Why are there imported machines - BECAUSE THE GAYDAR REFORMS A-LA AMERICA COMPLETELY BROKEN THIS INDUSTRY ( OTHERWISE LIKE MANY OTHERS). My position is that the military-industrial complex should become the locomotive of the post-industrial economy of Russia! I often commented on articles on a similar topic on the "Military Review". The essence of the comments in one - the military-industrial complex should become a complex of new technologies, management decisions, personnel and higher school of the world level! And possibly the forge of new political leaders of the Russian Federation.
    3. Geisenberg
      Geisenberg 29 May 2014 07: 58
      Quote: avt
      ,, But our excessive zeal in this matter can lead to the fact that the goal set, although it will be eventually achieved, but in quality and ...

      You apparently did not read carefully. It says here that Nikolaev is likely to become part of the Russian Federation in the near future, and the factories located there will become the property of the military-industrial complex of the Russian Federation. It’s high time to understand that in no case can big toys be taken away from big boys, otherwise you can get them all.
  2. shurup
    shurup 28 May 2014 10: 22
    It is bad to keep eggs in one basket, with the exception of monopolistic conspiracy, which in the case of USC is quite possible.
    I am interested in the state of production of components for the electronics industry. Let our microcircuits be the largest in the world, but let them also be in mass production. The criteria of economic efficiency in the defense industry system have already been pulled up.
  3. Afinogen
    Afinogen 28 May 2014 10: 33
    What mother brought to their homeland. Previously, when there was the Soviet Union, they didn’t buy the defense themselves anywhere and it was the best.
  4. Cristall
    Cristall 28 May 2014 11: 01
    Since only Rolls-Royce and Nikolaev Zorya - Mashproekt are developing and serially producing marine gas turbine engines (installations), it turns out that there is simply no alternative to Nikolaev engines in Russia at the moment. Since 1992, they have been trying to create a domestic marine gas turbine engine at the Rybinsk NPO Saturn. At the end of 2006, it was announced that the first GTE for the Navy was finally created and tested there. A similar statement followed at the end of 2008. In 2009, it was again announced that the creation of the domestic gas turbine engine was finally completed. However, on a single ship of the Russian Navy, domestic gas turbine engines have not yet been installed and, as far as we can judge from fragmentary information, the admirals are not eager to install them. The reasons are not reported, but one can guess that the problems with the reliability and resource of domestic gas turbine engines have not been sufficiently resolved yet, serial production has not been debugged, bench tests have not been properly conducted - the problem with the stand for these tests has not been resolved. It was planned to build the stand by 2013, but it still does not exist; the only stand where you can test sea gas turbine engines is in Nikolaev! By the way, domestic diesel ship installations of the Navy are also categorically not satisfied - due to their low reliability. Therefore, on ships where a diesel engine is provided, engines of the German company MTU are installed. It can be added that gearboxes for a significant part of the naval power plants of Russian warships are also made at the Nikolaev Zorya - Mashproekt.
    articles are very interesting about ship installations and other things in the cooperation of Russian-Ukrainian enterprises
    By the way, I didn’t know that only 3 firms in the world produce gas turbine engines ... I thought there was one in every country.
    Zorya Mashproekt
    The company strengthened the staff of process engineers. 57 employees were admitted to various departments during the month. These are mainly young specialists - graduates of the National University of Shipbuilding named after Admiral Makarov.
    Young technologists have passed competitive selection. To date, talented young people have begun work under the guidance of experienced mentors. The information technology service provided new workers with modern equipment, including the possibility of working with the use of 3D modeling. New specialists will work in metalworking, mechanical assembly, assembly-welding, modular and other production workshops.
    A process engineer is one of the key figures in the production process: he establishes the order of work, selects the optimal modes and equipment on which the process is carried out, develops and implements new technological processes.
    This is buzzing, youth is needed, otherwise the South Design Bureau scored a little (also 50) and ZM too .. I don’t know how many other high-tech scored. Universities can not stand either.
    Regarding the whole situation, I did not see data on the refusal of ZM from the contract with the Russian Federation. The share of the Russian Federation there is greater than that of the MS (30%); besides, there were plans for the privatization and redemption of ZM by Russians. MS private owner, he decides what to do. ЗМ -state.
    So I ask the reference on the refusal of ZM from cooperation, otherwise the official ZM is silent. And he doesn’t write about disruptions anywhere.
    General conclusion --- yes, we both need each other. You can admit it can not.
  5. Nitarius
    Nitarius 28 May 2014 12: 38
    and it's time to do it FASTER! otherwise ditch PRODUCTION!
  6. saag
    saag 28 May 2014 14: 31
    "... more than half of the machines are Swiss, Czech"
    Czechs can make machines, but not in the Russian Federation, I wonder why?
    1. santepa
      santepa 28 May 2014 23: 16
      Yes, in Russia all the factories were privatized and plundered in the 90s, but the Czechs are NOT! That's the whole answer !!!!
  7. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 28 May 2014 15: 24
    The balance of the desired and possible ... the topic is complicated ... I hope the mind is enough to decide on key technologies ...
  8. alekc73
    alekc73 28 May 2014 15: 26
    not for nothing did they arrange a maidan in Ukraine. The goal is to weaken Russia.
  9. Hairy Siberian
    Hairy Siberian 28 May 2014 15: 30
    Almost all of our latest Su-30 and MiG-29SMT fighters, which are received by the Russian Air Force, are equipped with French avionics.

    Hmm .. And I thought that French avionics is installed only on planes going for export, and they install domestic equipment for their air forces.
    1. santepa
      santepa 28 May 2014 23: 18
      Until the thunder strikes ................... !!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  10. The comment was deleted.
  11. Zomanus
    Zomanus 6 June 2014 06: 24
    Yes, production is not only machines. This includes engineering and technology and the qualifications and motivation of workers. Yes, a lot of things. At the same time, we do everything scattered. The machines are hurt, but those who work on them pay a penny. This means that a person is constantly looking to the side. Or they did the development, but there is no money for its implementation and production capacities either. Now, when all this will be in a complex, then it will be possible to speak not only about work, but also about development.