Military Review

Today is Border Guard Day

5


There is such a profession - to protect the homeland! This “winged” phrase from V. Horny’s feature film “Officers” probably reflects the meaning and essence of the border guard profession as well as possible.

May 28 traditionally celebrate their professional holiday border guards, personnel officers and veterans of the border troops of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan.

In the USSR, Border Guard Day was celebrated on May 28 of 1958 and was established due to the fact that the 28 of May 1918 was established by the Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the Border Guard of the RSFSR Border Guard. At the same time, the Main Directorate of the Border Guard was created, into which officers of the former Directorate of the separate frontier corps of Russia were transferred in full force.

Border guards pilots are responsible for the protection of air borders. Border guards sailors are serving on the protection of maritime borders. At the coastal outposts, border guards also serve. The border guard service is very dangerous, but very honorable. Border guards celebrate their professional holiday on a large scale.

Today is Border Guard Day

Soviet border guard badge (Photo: SeDmi, Shutterstock)

Without exaggeration, it can be said that the celebration of this day has been in the hundreds of years since the first centralized border posts appeared. For example, in ancient Russia, defensive structures such as ramparts and barriers were used to protect against the raids of nomads and the protection of its borders. They were built along the borders of Russian territories. For the supervision of them created guardian guards. Zasechnaya guard - the first mention of the border service.

The Day of the Border Guard is a demonstration of the combat power of this kind of troops, the establishment of this holiday also serves to raise the morale of soldiers performing their duties to the people, the homeland and the state.

The Editorial Board of the “Calendar of Events” project sincerely congratulates the border troops on their professional holiday. We wish that the “alarm” climbs never disturbed your sleep, that the Motherland always remembered and honored its courageous defenders.

The history of the border service in Russia


The borders of the Russian state were defended in the hardest trials. According to V.O. Klyuchevsky, “the struggle against the steppe nomad ... which lasted from VII I almost until the end of the 17th century is the most difficult memory of the Russian people ...”. The defense system was created under the Grand Prince of Kiev Vladimir (980 — 1015), fortresses-cities were built along rivers. The first known written mention of the border - "The Tale of Bygone Years", in which there is an order of the Grand Duke Vladimir on the arrangement of border cities along the Sula, Trubezhu, Osetra rivers and a set of "best husbands" from Slavic tribes for "protecting the Russian land", organizing border guard southern and south-eastern limits of Russia (988 g.). They were inhabited by "men the best of the Slavs: Novgorod, Krivichi, Chud and Vyatichi." In 30-e years of the XI. the same line was added from the XXUMX cities along the river Ros, and in the second half of the eleventh century. The incessant raids of the Polovtsy on the southern outskirts of Russia forced the creation of a third line from the NNXX cities along the Dnieper.

The words of the chronicle that the Moscow Grand Prince Vasily III "established his land with outposts" (1512) reached us. Activities for the direct protection of the border of the Russian state became known as the border service.

Under Tsar Ivan the Terrible, the Russian state increased, its borders moved south and east. On January 1, 1571, Ivan the Terrible appointed “the most famous warrior of his time” M.I. In February of that year, under the leadership of Vorotynsky, the Boyarsky sentence on the village and guard service was developed and then approved by the tsar. This document essentially became the first border Charter, which determined the order of service for the protection of the borders of the Moscow state. Another important one has survived. historical paper - Synodic of the Assumption Cathedral. It lists the names of the dead Russian warriors on German, Lithuanian and southern borders. The Orthodox Church prayed for the "Christ-loving Russian army", wishing him victory over the enemy.

The 1778th century is a time of major territorial acquisitions of Russia, military successes, the formation of the Russian Empire, and administrative reforms. These acts are primarily associated with the names of Peter the Great, Catherine II and the prominent Russian commanders A.V. Suvorov and P.A. Rumyantsev. For example, Suvorov, being the commander of the Kuban Corps (from January 10), traveled around the entire region, made his similar topographical description, built XNUMX fortresses and redoubts on the Kuban River, established cordon and reconnaissance service, organized the defense of the Crimean Peninsula, introduced an alarm and warning system between coastal batteries and the young Black Sea fleet. He strengthened the borders in Finland and on the Karelian Isthmus.

In ancient times frontier guards fought smugglers who smuggled illegal goods across the border. Enjoys popularity, in particular, the Turkish scimitars, silicon pistols. Border guard service under Peter I was carried by land units, settled troops (landmilitia) and Cossacks, and from 1782 to 1827, according to Catherine II's Decree “On the establishment of the customs chain”, free-lined border guards.

In the 1812 World War II, the Cossacks were engaged in reconnaissance, organizing a partisan movement in the rear of the enemy, and participated in the Battle of Borodino.

After 1812, the Russian economy developed at an accelerated pace, and trade with foreign countries expanded. At the same time, the smuggling industry also grew at the border. Customs civilian guards did not always cope with this flow. Turning, radically changing the character of the border guard itself was the decision to transform it.

In 1823, EFKankrin, who became Minister of Finance, introduced a new customs tariff, which sharply increased the duties on imported foreign goods. Customs revenues increased from 30 to 81,5 million rubles.

5 August 1827 EFKankrin submitted for approval by Emperor Nicholas I the "Regulations on the device of the border customs guard." The document noted that “the main changes in this situation are in the firm military division of the guards, in the appointment of military commanders ...”

By the end of the XIX century, the tasks of the guards became more complicated, which led to its separation from the customs department. The initiator of the transformation was the Minister of Finance S.Yu.Witte. By decree of Alexander III (15 in October 1893 year) a Separate Corps of Border Guards (OCPS) was formed, whose chief was Witte himself. The decree of 15 in October 1893 of the year defined the fight against smuggling as well as the border guard as one of the main tasks of the border guard. From 1893 to 1908, the commander of the Border Guard Corps Separate Corps was the artillery general A.Svinjin.

OKPS troops included the Office, the 7 districts, the 31 Brigade, the White Sea and Kerch special divisions, detachments and posts. The total number of corps is 36 709 people, including generals, headquarters and senior officers - 1 033.

In 1901, the Zaamursky Border District was established on the basis of the Guard of the Chinese Eastern Railway. His task was to protect from gangster attacks of roads, stations, spans, passing, lumberjacks. At the beginning of the war with Japan, Zamaurtsy engaged in battle with the enemy, fought in Port Arthur, near Liaoyan and Mukden.

In the 1893 year, the Baltic Customs Cruiser Flotilla also became part of the OKPS. In the education of moral principles among the border guards, an important role belonged to the Russian Orthodox Church. The staff of each brigade provided for positions of priests.

Since the beginning of World War I, the border guards joined the active army (except for two Central Asian brigades) and fought on various fronts. Many of them became the George Knights. After the February Revolution, when the power in Petrograd passed to the Provisional Government, the border guards were asked to "maintain complete calm." Despite the revolutionary upheavals, the service continued. However, the situation at the border and in the building has changed dramatically. The corps commander N. A. Pykhachev and the chief of staff N. K. Kononov, many generals and officers were removed from their posts. Began the collapse of the body.

The formation of the Soviet border guard took place in difficult times. The old was destroyed, and the new was not created. There was already no Corps, but there were veterans who continued their service. Their experience was necessary for the border guard of the Soviet state.

After the revolution, the functions of restoring order in the country were performed by the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee (WRC). He worked to strengthen the Soviet government, to ensure the security of the country, including the protection of its borders. By order of the WRC on 3 (16) November 1917 and the Instruction to the Commissioners of Tornio Station and other points of the European Border of the RSFSR, approved by the WRC 12 (25) on November 1917, a temporary closure of the border was announced and that leaving the country and entering it was allowed only VRK signed by specially authorized persons.

By a decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR of 26 in May 1918, the border service was established, which was charged with protecting the border interests of the RSFSR, and within the border strip - protecting the identity and property of citizens. V.R. Menzhinsky, People's Commissar of Finance, Deputy Chairman of the Cheka, and then Deputy Chairman of the OGPU, became the first heads of the border service of the republic; A.L. Pevnev, military head of the RSFSR General Border Guard; P. F. Fedotov - Military Commissar of the Main Directorate of the Border Guard, member of the Military Council of the Border Guard of the RSFSR.



Pevnev's biography is a curious variant of the development of human destiny. The Kuban Cossack, who from 1892 of the year connected his life with military service, graduated from the Academy of the General Staff in 1900. A member of the Russian-Japanese and World War I met 1917 for the year as a major general. He was awarded many Russian orders. Entered service in the Red Army in October 1917.

The civil war and foreign military intervention somewhat slowed down, but did not stop the search for the most appropriate form of organization of the border service and the creation of border troops in the new historical and socio-political conditions.

Andrey Nikolayevich Leskov, the son of the famous Russian writer Leskov, was among the first leaders of the border guard. Over the years 30 he gave the service of the border guard of Russia. The colonel of the tsarist army, an excellent staff officer, made a great contribution to the training of command personnel for the border troops. In 1923, he developed the Instruction for the Protection of the North-Western Borders, temporarily occupying the position of Chief of Staff of the Petrograd Border District during this period.

6 September 1918 of the year was introduced border form, in particular, caps, hats with a green top. The end of the civil war and the conclusion of treaties with contiguous states on the establishment of diplomatic relations and cooperation opened up the possibility for the Soviet government to more intensively and purposefully address issues of organizing border service along the entire perimeter of the state border of the Republic.

The question of training commanders for the troops of the OGPU arose sharply. In 1923, the High Border School was opened. During these years, the border guard service was formed.

Just one example. In December, a Japanese diplomat tried to take two women spies abroad in two suitcases across December through the Negoreloy checkpoint.

In the years of the formation of the checkpoint service, there were measures of its material encouragement: “All 100 percent of the amount received from the sale of contraband, detained directly by the GPU border guard (troops and agencies), except for payment of direct and indirect delayers, should be transferred to the GPU for improvement of clothing and food supply to the border guard GPU and to improve the fight against smuggling.

One of the most important tasks of the Soviet Republic in strengthening its borders and protecting them was the organization of the maritime border guard, which was completed by the end of 1923.

Captain I rank M.V. Ivanov became the organizer of the maritime border guard. The Finnish-Ladoga flotilla was formed under his leadership in the Baltic, Chudsky and Pskov lakes, which marked the beginning of the revival of the naval forces of the border troops.

With the end of the civil war, when the external fronts were liquidated, the border troops focused their efforts on fighting spies sent to our country by foreign intelligence services. For three years (1922 — 1925), only on the site of the five border detachments of the western border, 2 742 of the intruder was detained, of which 675 turned out to be agents of foreign intelligence services.

In the 1929 year - the conflict on the Chinese Eastern Railway, which broke out on July 10 and ended with the defeat of the grouping of Chinese troops by the middle of December of the same year. Along with the troops of the Special Far Eastern Army and the sailors of the Amur Flotilla, the border guards made a significant contribution to restoring the normal situation on the Chinese Eastern Railway.

In 30, the use of service dogs in guarding the border is becoming increasingly important. Service dog breeding and tracing in the frontier troops becomes an independent direction of operational activities.

On the battle account of Hero of the Soviet Union Nikita Fedorovich Karatsupy, a legendary border guard, guide of a search dog, in the 30s of a noble tracker, 467 detained saboteurs, spies and other intruders. The Poltavka Outpost of the Grodekovsky Border Detachment, where NF Karatsup served, was given his name.

In accordance with the Decree of the Council of Labor and Defense of the USSR of July 21, 1932, the first forces were formed in 1932-1934 as part of the border guard and troops of the OGPU aviation detachments.

In the middle of the 30-ies, the actions of the Japanese on the Far Eastern border intensified. October 12 1935. At the station of the Bagpipe outpost, a detachment of Japanese soldiers crossed the border. Border outfits were forced into battle. An equestrian group led by the branch commander Valentin Kotelnikov arrived to help them. The Japanese were expelled from the Soviet territory. The squad leader died in battle. Upon learning of his death, his cousin Peter Kotelnikov volunteered to serve in the border detachment. This example marked the beginning of the patriotic youth movement “Brother - to replace brother”.

In July, the Japanese unleashed a military conflict in the Far East near Lake Hassan in the Far East. In the battles at the heights of Zaozernaya and Bezymyannaya, together with the troops of the rifle corps, which carried out the 1938 of August, the aggressor was defeated, fighters from the Posiet border detachment participated.

In May, 1939, the Japanese military command unleashed large-scale hostilities in the territory of the Mongolian People's Republic. In battles to repel an attack and defeat an aggressor in the area of ​​the Khalkhin-Gol river, a combined battalion of frontier guards participated in the composition of the Soviet troops.

From the first to the last day, border guards took part in the war with Finland. For the successful fulfillment of the tasks of the command 4, 5, 6 border regiments and the Rebolsky border detachment were awarded the Order of the Red Banner. 1961 border warrior was awarded orders and medals, 13 awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.

The heroism of the border guards during the Great Patriotic War is a well-known historical fact. A lot was done by border troops to establish a peaceful life after the war.

If we talk about the recent past, the Federal Border Service - the Main Command of the Border Troops of the Russian Federation (FPS-GK PW RF) was created on December 30 1993 by decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. XXUMX. In its current form, the FPS exists since December 2318 of 30 (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 1994, according to which the FPS-GK PW RF of the Russian Federation was renamed the Federal Border Guard Service of the Russian Federation). The border service of the Russian Federation is the successor of all border structures of the Russian state.

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  1. mitrich
    mitrich 28 May 2011 09: 39
    +5
    Border guards serving directly at the border, daily, in cold and heat, in snow and rain, guarding the borders of the Great State of Russia, as well as all those who served at the border at the time — Warmly CONGRATULATE AND WISH HAPPINESS!
    And I do not congratulate the idlers who have accumulated at border posts in airports and junction railway stations, who allowed 200 (!!!) cars of the "Cherkizovsky" Chinese paleov to enter Moscow and spoil the mood of the outgoing and arriving tourists with their unnecessary vigilance. I do not consider you for BORDER GUARD.
    Today, only the first category of real and former military personnel of PV is entitled to drink. And it’s not a sin to drink for them!
  2. olifus
    olifus 28 May 2011 10: 22
    +2
    All Borders Happy Holiday!
  3. datur
    datur 28 May 2011 11: 51
    +1
    All Borders Happy Holiday!
  4. Sasha
    Sasha 28 May 2011 18: 35
    +1
    Border guards, Happy Holiday!
  5. Alena Frolovna
    Alena Frolovna 28 May 2015 15: 42
    +1
    Do not scold me, dear, do not scold me,
    That he kept the green cap

    That putting it on at least once a year
    I'm going to my comrades now.
    And they are already in a hurry to me,
    With a full flask on a soldier’s belt
    We hugged, shut up, hand to hand,
    Recall the service and its border troops.

    Ah, my cap, scorched youth,
    Your green silhouette is a memory of past years.

    Let us now have a completely different life,
    You rely on your friend, as before,
    He will never betray, fail,
    Without looking back you will go to death.
    Do not scold me, dear, do not scold me,
    That he kept the green cap
    And let her go under the temple
    And the border is and will be locked.