How the powers of the Entente "helped" the White Guards
One of the myths of the Civil War is the view that the Entente powers diligently helped the White movement against the Bolsheviks. Until recently, they were faithful and helped in the evacuation, after the defeat.
In reality, England, France, and the United States helped both the Bolsheviks (or rather, their agents among them) and the whites. Their goal was to pit the Russians among themselves, to kindle a large-scale fratricidal war, the eternal principle of "divide and rule." The main agents of influence among the "red" in the leadership were Sverdlov and Trotsky, but in the "white" governments there was a mass of freemason liberals who participated in the campaign to discredit the tsarist government during the war, in the February revolution, in the Provisional Governments. In addition, the White movement, despite its inconsistency, announced a "united and indivisible" Russia, which did not fit into the plans of the West. So, Lloyd George, Prime Minister of Great Britain from December 1916 of the year to October 1922 of the year, said in parliament, “The expediency of assisting Admiral Kolchak and General Denikin is all the more controversial that they are fighting for a united Russia. It’s not for me to indicate whether this slogan is in line with the policy of Great Britain. ”
The Entente countries did everything so that the whites could not win, supporting them only to drag out the war.
David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Liberal Party (1916 — 1922).
Examples of coordinating the actions of invaders and "alien"
- 27 April 1918, at the request of the Entente powers, Trotsky suspended the movement of the Czechoslovak Corps to Vladivostok, from which they were planned to be taken out to France. Their parts were stretched by rail from the Volga to Lake Baikal - a great location, plus control over the entire east of the country, through the Trans-Siberian Railway. 11 May in England, it was decided not to remove the corps from Russia, but to use as interventionists. Trotsky immediately helped - on May 25 he issued a provocative order for the disarmament of the Czechoslovakians, who they found armed, was ordered to shoot a train in which they would find at least one armed soldier sent to the concentration camp. Naturally, the corps raised a rebellion, the Soviet government collapsed in vast spaces, in the territories occupied by the corps they began to create "white" governments, armed units.
- In the summer of 1918, the Czechoslovak Corps slowly launched an offensive from Samara to Kazan, where the empire's gold reserves were located. Trotsky, the military people's commissar, did nothing at that time: he did not send reinforcements, he did not take out the gold. And only when Kazan was taken almost without a fight, Trotsky "caught himself", sent troops, he personally arrived. But the gold was captured not by the Czechoslovakians, but by the white Kappel, he did everything so that it remained with the White movement.
- In October, YuNenich nearly took Petrograd on 1919, Trotsky arrives, leads to a “revolutionary order” - his massacre, mass forced mobilization, use of detachments, and his armored train was a serious combat unit. In the rear of Yudenich, interesting phenomena immediately begin to occur: the English squadron, which was supposed to support the whites from the sea, goes to Riga; the allies, the Estonians, abandon the front and leave; Trotsky, the “genius of the art of war”, aims the blows of the Red Armymen precisely at the exposed sectors of the front. When the broken white units and refugees rushed into Estonia, they were robbed and imprisoned in concentration camps. They captured the Estonian authorities in their favor and property of the defeated North-Western Army. Thousands of soldiers and civilians died from hunger and typhus epidemics. In fact, it was a genocide, for some reason, the current Estonian politicians do not recall it, they only recall the Soviet "occupation".
For such assistance, the Reds concluded the Tartu Peace Treaty with Estonia (2 February 1920 of the year), according to it: Estonia was recognized as independent; they gave away the Russian Pechora region (now the Pechora district of the Pskov region of Russia), the Russian territories on the right bank of the Narva river (now in the Slantsy and Kingisepp districts of the Leningrad region of the Russian Federation); Estonia was freed from any obligations in relation to Soviet Russia; transferred from the gold reserves of Russia 11,6 tons of gold and the right to concession on 1 million dessiatin forests.
- The Entente played a significant role in the catastrophic collapse of Kolchak's army. During the period of the retreat of Kolchak’s army, the Czechoslovak army, which was subordinate to General J. Syroev and the commander of the Entente in Siberia, Zhanen, raised another insurrection against the whites, and seized the Trans-Siberian highway. This paralyzed White’s ability to continue organized resistance. They did not allow and move eastward, whites were forced to retreat through the taiga in the winter. They stopped trains that were already on their way - more than a hundred trains with the wounded, refugees left at the stations, in dead ends, many were killed. In addition, they were engaged in blatant robbery. Kolchak was isolated, cut off from his units, he was forced to renounce the post of the “Supreme Ruler”, and then issued altogether in red.
- Trotsky thanked the Czechoslovaks: their trains freely passed to Vladivostok, the local chief of the Soviet customs, Kovalevsky (the Soviet government was already established there), ordered to let them go without inspection and allow them to take everything they have without restrictions. At home, robbers and traitors were greeted with joy - they organized their bank, its initial capital amounted to 70 million gold crowns.
Armored train of Czechoslovak legionaries "Orlik" near Irkutsk.
- The Entente powers actively supported the power of all kinds of separatists and nationalists, which also went against the interests of the White movement. True, almost all nationalist movements (perhaps, except for Poland and Finland) without the support of Western countries did not cost anything. Therefore, their armed forces Reds trashed quite easily.
- While officially England and France supported whites, the United States did build relations with Moscow with might and main. President Woodrow Wilson addressed friendly messages to the III and IV Congresses of the Soviets, promising that the United States would help "the people of Russia to free themselves from the autocratic regime forever." Just like B. Obama the other day - he supported the Arabs' desire for "freedom", "self-determination" and "democracy." For the Arabs, this is a very bad sign - they are waiting for further wars, fratricidal massacres, famines, epidemics and the death of thousands and thousands of people.
1 of May 1918 was created “American League of Aid and Cooperation with Russia”, on October 18 of 1918 was adopted a plan for economic cooperation with Soviet Russia. At the end of 1918, a Soviet bureau was created in the USA; it was headed by Ludwig Martens (Vice President of Weinberg and Pozner), the managers were Gregory Weinstein (Trotsky's former employer), Kenneth Durant (former adjutant of Colonel House), and Y. Lomonosov (former Deputy Minister of Railways of the Russian Empire - one of the "alien"). This bureau received financial assistance from Morgan Bank. In 1919, the company American-Russian Syndicate Incorporation was established to develop business contacts with Russia, such figures as Hugenheim, White, Sinclair and others created it. That is, the United States from the very beginning did not consider that whites would gain power, and bypassed their competitors from France and England, intending to rule in Russia not by direct colonization, but through finance, the economy, “democratic” values. So, when the Red Army occupied the Transcaucasus and the British were forced to leave it (in London they considered this territory their share), the USA received concessions there.
- In 1920, the Red Army could relatively easily recover the territories of the Baltic regions. But she did not, there was no order. Trotsky made Estonia and Latvia "windows" for siphoning the loot from Russia. After the collapse of the USSR, this process was repeated in 1991 — in 90s, a lot of resources were “washed” through these territories. Gold under fictitious orders exported tons - for example, to order locomotives in Estonia, Sweden, Germany. Sweden also participated in the “laundering” of the loot - there Olaf Aschberg was in charge of this. Most of the gold in one way or another “spilled over” into the United States, only for 8 months, 1921, the United States exported gold to 460 million dollars.
Anti-Soviet intervention and its collapse. 1917 - 1922. M., 1982.
Merkulov D.N., Bobrovnik V.M. Counterrevolution and the national idea of Russia. M., 2003.
Sirotkin V. Foreign gold of Russia. M., 1999.
Shambarov V.E. Anti-Soviet. M., 2011.
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