Zaporizhzhya Public Joint-Stock Company Motor Sich does not need a special presentation. All readers, even those far from the “defense industry”, but from time to time visiting the MAKS air show in Zhukovsky, know that Motor Sich are engines. Engines for Mi and Ka helicopters, Be-200, An-148, An-124 aircraft. All this equipment is actively operated in the Russian Federation. But what will happen tomorrow with the “critical node” made in Ukraine? An indirect answer to this was given by Russian President Vladimir Putin, instructing the country's defense industry to get rid of import dependence. True, import substitution is by no means today's initiative.
Motor Sich is a Ukrainian company with a Russian market. So far, the list of projects speaks of the impossibility for a year, two or three to replace all the products of the Zaporozhye enterprise.
After the collapse of the Union, the enterprise from the state became private. And most of the securities of the former PO “Motorostroitel” are probably concentrated in one or several individuals. According to Ukrainian law, only information on shareholders owning ten percent or more of the share capital is subject to disclosure, therefore the exact composition of Motor Sich shareholders can only be estimated roughly by indirect data. At the same time, analysts of Ukrainian investment companies agree that at least 76 controls percent of the management, led by the former chairman of the board of directors of Motor Sich, Vyacheslav Boguslayev. This is also evidenced by the fact that as of 1 in November 2007, over 71 percent of shares were registered for nominal holders: 46 percent for Garant Invest limited liability company (Zaporozhye) and more 25 percent for open joint-stock company MFS ”(Kiev), and by November 2012, the ownership of 73,29 percent of the shares of Motor Sich PJSC was accounted for by the nominal holder - All-Ukrainian Securities Depository (Kiev). The rights to 14,99 percent of shares owned by an individual were also taken into account. At the same time, according to information for investors from the Motor Sich website, the registration of ownership rights of the company’s shareholders, by whom the company opened securities accounts based on the register of owners of shares received from the registrar in the process of dematerializing the issue of shares, was done by the custodian, a limited liability company Motor-Dealer, the founder of which was Motor Sich PJSC itself.
At the beginning of 2013, the size of the authorized capital of Motor Sich JSC was 280 529 650 hryvnia (about 35 million dollars). The authorized capital is divided into 2 077 990 common inscribed shares issued in non-documentary form with a nominal value of HNUMX hryvnia each. At the same time, 135 percent of the securities was owned by 79 legal, and 254 percent by the 21 individual.
Famous individuals - owners of shares include 26 people from the company's management bodies, in particular Sergey Voitenko - Acting Head of the Board of Directors, Pavel Zhemanyuk - Technical Director, Alexander Boguslaev (son of Vyacheslav Boguslaev) - Deputy of the Zaporizhzhya City Council, Deputy Chairman of the Supervisory Board , deputy director of the international technical center of PJSC Motor Sich, Petr Kononenko - head of the Moscow representative office of the enterprise and general director of CJSC Borysfe n-Avia ”, Valentin Pasternak - member of the audit committee, Anatoly Tikhansky - chief accountant, Vladimir Shirkov - deputy general director for marketing and member of the supervisory board of PJSC“ Motor Bank ”.
Ukrainian legal entities - owners of Motor Sich PJSC shares: Garant Invest LLC, Garant Alfa LLC, Elena Trading House Closed Joint-Stock Company, Motor Garant Insurance Company, etc., were also established in due time by the parent company .
In turn, PJSC Motor Sich owns corporate rights (more than ten percent of the share capital) in 37 other enterprises that are its associated business entities.
During the post-Soviet period, Motor Sich has grown by foreign assets. Relatively recent acquisitions of steel 59,5 percent of shares of OJSC Orsha Aircraft Repair Plant (RB), which occurred 14 February 2012, and the establishment of 22 March 2012 th LLC Helicopters Motor Sich. The latter, contrary to the auditors' information about the 55-percentage, is under the absolute control of Motor Sich.
In addition, in 2012, the opening of the second stage of the Technical Center of Motor Sich JSC in the United Arab Emirates took place. In the new building of the center, it is proposed to re-motorize Mi-8 helicopters for the market of the Middle East and Africa.
The basis of the current monopoly position of the former Zaporozhye Motorostroitel Production Association named after the 50th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution, and now the Motor Sich PAT, is the Soviet groundwork for the organization of serial production of a number of turboprop, turboshaft and turbojet engines, which became the basis of the Soviet aviation and still remain so, even in the realities of global production processes. In the late 50s and early 70s, Motorostroitel Production Association mastered the production of AI-20 and AI-24, TV3-117 and D-136, AI-25, AI-25TL, D-36 and D-18T .
By the end of the 80s, when the software was headed by Vyacheslav Boguslaev, one of the largest aircraft engine building factories in the USSR, which employed more than 35 thousand people, produced annually from four to five thousand 25 engines of modifications for 33 types of aircraft. These are AI-20, AI-24, AI-25, AI-25, AI-9, TV3-117, D-36, D-136, D-18T, TV3-117MHV gas turbine engines, TV1-9-NMN, X-3, AI-36, AI-4, AI-436, AI-1, TV2500-18, D-38, D-12, TV8-10XMA engine. -12 ser. 32A, D-24Т26 / TP, VK-30 for IL-40, IL-39, Be-8, An-42, An-72, An-74, An-124, An-225, An-140, An -74, Yak-300, L-334, K-200J, Yak-27, An-28, An-29, An-31 "Ruslan", An-32 "Mriya", An-50, An-50ТК-2 , Tu-52, Be-8 and Ka-14, Ka-17, Ka-171, Ka-172, Ka-24, Ka-25, Ka-26-28, Ka-35, Mi-XNUMXМТ, Mi- XNUMX, Mi-XNUMX, Mi-XNUMX, Mi-XNUMX, Mi-XNUMX, Mi-XNUMX, Mi-XNUMX, Mi-XNUMX, Mi-XNUMX.
With the collapse of the USSR, production dynamics declined, but Zaporozhye-made engines were still required for installation on helicopters and Russian-made aircraft. Currently, the company produces, conducts tests, accompanies the operation and repairs of 55 types and engine modifications for the 61 type of aircraft and helicopters for various purposes, which are operated in 109 countries of the world. In recent years, the company started mass production of aircraft engines AI-222-25, D-436-148, AI-450MS, TV3-117VMA-SBM1V for Yak-130 aircraft, the An-148, An-158, Mi-24, Mi-25, Mi-17, Mi-171 and preparations are underway for serial production of D-27, AI-222-25F, AI-25ТЛШ, AI-450М, МС-500 for aircraft An-70, L-15, L- 39, Mi-2M helicopters, etc.
Motor Sich helicopter engines are a product with a stable sales market, the bulk of which is in the Russian Federation. Zaporozhye engines are equipped with new Mi-26, military Mi-28Н, Mi-35, Ka-32А11ВС, Ka-31 and military transport Mi-8 (Mi-17). Motor Sich produces engines not only independently, but also ships engines of VK-2500 and TB3-117 types of various modifications to the Russian enterprises, as well as D-136.
In addition to the Russian market, the Chinese market remains important for Motor Sich in the context of the supply of Russian helicopters there. So, in December 2008, a contract was signed with the Chinese side for the supply of 63 TV3-117ВМ engines for Mi-171 helicopters.
The price range of the products supplied was very wide. In 2012, the TB3-117BM 2 series engine cost the Army Aviation of the Armed Forces of the Ministry of Defense of Peru 1,12 million dollars, while it was purchased from Motor Sich for 0,85 million by VIP-Avia Corporation (Saint Kitts and Nevis). A year later, a similar operation was repeated, but prices rose to 1,15 million dollars and 0,87 million dollars, respectively. The price of such engines for Russian helicopter factories was 0,685 million dollars, and for OAO Klimov less than half a million dollars without purchased units.
Not less in demand than helicopter engines are used in Russia and the D-436 aircraft engines, which are also mass-produced at Motor Sich JSC. In 2007, PJSC received the supplement No. 3 to the MAC certificate of the D-436Т1 type (ТП) and began mass production of the D-436-148 engines for the An-148 passenger aircraft. During the period of 2008 – 2012, 46 of such engines was supplied to the Russian Federation. The price for VASO varied from 1,84 million dollars in 2008 to 2,2 million dollars in 2011 – 2012. The delivery was made without paying customs duties on the following conditions: freight (carriage) paid to the place of delivery of the city of Voronezh. In particular, in the 2012 year ten new D-436-148 by 2,2 million dollars for VACO, four new D-436-148 by 2,3 million dollars for GP Antonov through IFC and two new D-436-148 by 3,118 million were exported dollars for Borisfen-Avia (paid in Russian rubles) on delivery terms to Moscow.
Two new D-436TP for the multipurpose amphibious aircraft Be-200 were exported in December 2012 of OAO TANTK named after G. M. Beriev (Taganrog) by 2,47 million dollars. Another similar engine in November 2012 was received by LLC Borisphen-Avia at the price of 2,4 million dollars (equivalent in Russian rubles). For the first time in the former Soviet Union, this engine was approved by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) for compliance with European airworthiness standards as part of the Russian seaplane Be-200ЧС.
The delivery of AI-222-25 engines for all Yak-130 combat training aircraft ordered by the Russian Ministry of Defense and manufactured by Irkut for export are also crucial for Russia. The engines are assembled by FSUE NPT Sakhut gas turbine building, which works in cooperation with Motor Sich. Gas generators are obtained from Zaporozhye, and at the Salute itself they make the “cold” part of the engine and produce its final assembly. According to Boguslaev, 2011, in conjunction with Salyut, produced 40 engines AI-222-25, in 2012-m - 64.
As part of counter deliveries, Salyut ships sets of “cold” AI-222-25 parts assigned to it to Zaporozhye, where they are final assembled for further deliveries under their own export contracts with China. The operation of AI-222K-25 aircraft engines provided by the Ukrainian side is maintained to ensure flight tests of the L-15 training aircraft. Delivery of AI-222K-25, AI-222K-25F aircraft engines and component parts for the L-15 aircraft (the contract was signed in December of 2005). A long-term contract was signed with China for the supply of a new, modern AI-222K-25 engine. In total, 2012 AI-29K-222 engines were tested during 25, and 20 was shipped to the customer, AVIC International Holding Corp., at a price of 1,765 million dollars each. Apparently, their refinement to the AI-222K-25F circuit should already take place in China, since Ukrainian sources announced the export of such engines that provide thrust to 4200 kgf in the afterburner supersonic L-15 training aircraft.
The production of D-27 propulsion engines for the An-70 military transport aircraft is also a “common brainchild” of Salyut and Motor Sich. According to Vladislav Masalov, General Director of UC United Engine Corporation (UEC), the current contract for the manufacture of D-27 for the An-70 is not, and the 13 engines were manufactured for testing.
Regarding the prospects of its mass production, it is considered either to maintain full cooperation with Motor Sich, in which the Russian enterprise will need to invest about 80 million rubles in the additional production of equipment and for several months, or finish assembling and testing the engine at the Salyut base with obtaining components from Motor Sich ”, which will require two billion rubles and two years to implement the project, or full development of the engine production, which is estimated at five billion rubles and four years. The decision on the choice of one of the three options will be taken by the Ministry of Defense of Russia.
Critically important, but the least well-known direction is the production in Zaporizhia of single-shaft engines TRDD R-95-300 (ed. 95, RDK-300, MS-400), which were used on subsonic strategic cruise missiles of type X-55 and X-55CM. They were also used on tactical missiles X-59М, X-35 and ship-type 3М10 and 3М24. Serial production of such engines was started in Zaporizhia back in 1982 year. The engine was produced in large series - in some years, the production reached 1500 units.
Despite claims that the Russian Saturn engines, 109 aircraft turbojet engines with thrust force 2,89 kN Р95ТМ-300 192 thousands of dollars each are purchased in 2012 by the Russian corporation Tactical Missiles for installation on missiles are already installed on the new versions "Air-surface" X-35.
In addition to cooperation relations, Motor Sich is known for the implementation of projects that are competitive with Russia. Back at the beginning of 2000, the head of the company, Vyacheslav Boguslaev, announced plans to create a production of helicopter equipment in Ukraine. At the first stage of the program of the Ukrainian helicopter industry, the priority was the modernization of the old Mi-8 and Mi-2 by installing new engines.
In November, Vyacheslav Boguslaev was appointed General Designer of Ukraine for the creation and modernization of helicopter technology by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Vyacheslav Boguslaev. The same decree approved the list of types of products to be developed and implemented in production and operation, as well as modernization under the guidance of the newly appointed general designer. Within the framework of the received powers, the enterprise should have mastered the work on the overhaul and modernization of helicopters, including through their remoterization. We are talking about helicopters such as the Mi-2012 and Mi-2T (P).
According to the first type, development work was carried out on upgrading the Mi-2 helicopter to the MSB-2 profile with the installation of AI-450М engines (М1) and its certification with new navigation and radio communication equipment, as well as launch of the Mi-2MSB full-scale helicopter. It is believed that the project is in the final stage, although the certificate or addition to the type certificate, as well as the production approval certificate, has not yet been received.
With the support of Motor Sich, starting from 2011, the production activities of the bankrupt state enterprise Vinnitsa Aviation Plant were resumed and the X-NUMX overhaul of Mi-38 helicopters was completed. 2 million hryvnia (about 12 million dollars) was allocated for the repair of the first fifteen, while the total contribution of the Zaporozhye enterprise to the repayment of debts and the modernization of production of VIAZ has already reached 1,5 million dollars. After completion of the rehabilitation procedure, it will become the tenth plant - Motor Sich branch and will be referred to as LLC VIAZ. Today, in addition to the repair work, this enterprise is working on preparing for the modernization of the Mi-15MSB and MSB-2 profiles, including the replacement of GTE-2 engines with AI-350М produced in Zaporizhzhia.
Orsha Aircraft Repair Plant has been determined as another site for serial production of MSB-2 helicopters since 2015. As stated by Vladimir Troitsky, General Director of the enterprise, in 2014-m, according to the contract, the company must release and begin certification tests of two Mi-2MSB. According to his version, their price will be 550 – 600 thousand dollars.
It is noteworthy that Motor Sich with the same AI-450M engine also participates in a similar project to upgrade the Mi-2 to the Mi-2М variant at Rostvertol, part of the Russian Helicopters holding company.
At present, certification and state tests have been carried out within the framework of the design and development work “Jmil” (Bumblebee) in the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine of a modernized Mi-8MSB (P) helicopter, a number of records have been set. As a result of October 28 2011, the State Aviation Administration of Ukraine issued an additional type certificate No. ДТВ-0003 for the Mi-8MSB helicopter with the TV3-117ВМА-СБМ1В engine. 4E.
At various times, it was supposed to start production of remotorized Mi-8MSB at a number of different enterprises in Ukraine and abroad. At first, the Konotop aircraft repair plant was called as the lead contractor. In the autumn of 2012, Boguslaev himself, in response to a question about the place of work, said that Aviakon was not quite suitable and that the repair will be done in Zaporozhye, on which 6,5 million dollars had already been spent on preparatory work and obtaining additional certificates. This was probably due to a change in the status of the plant during the creation of the state-owned concern Ukroboronprom. As a result, Helicopters Motor Sich LLC was established in Zaporozhye, which received a certificate of approval for the production of aircraft equipment, which was headed by Alexey Enin, former director of the Aviakon aircraft repair plant. A considerable part of its employees also moved from Konotop.
In addition, according to Boguslaev, the launch of the remotorization of helicopters was being prepared at the Kiev Aircraft Repair Enterprise “Zavod 410 GA”. According to the information for December 2013, the performance of any work there on this subject was discontinued.
In November, 2012-th during a ceremony held in Sharjah (UAE), Boguslaev noted that with the launch of the second stage of the Motor Sich Middle East center, new engines of the fifth generation can be installed on helicopters, which were created specifically for countries with hot climates. The first technical center of PJSC "Motor Sich" in the UAE was opened in December 2007. They carried out maintenance, spare parts and motor engine repair for helicopters operating in 25 countries of Asia and Africa.
The fifth and so far the main contender for the production of remotorization was Orsha Aircraft Repair Plant, actually acquired by Motor Sich at the beginning of 2012. In September, 2013-th plant director Vladimir Troitsky said that the business plan was designed to repair 20 – 60 helicopters a year. At the same time in the current year, one Mi-8MSB was assembled and the work on the second machine ends. Both helicopters will become the property of Orsha Air, registered in August by the owners of the plant.
The question of real production volumes still remains unclear. There is no clarity with orders. In April 2012, Boguslaev announced that the portfolio of orders for the Orsha Aircraft Plant for the current year includes contracts for the modernization of 19 helicopters: 12 aircraft for Mongolia and seven for the Belarusian government, which will provide the Belarusian asset Motor Sich with orders by the end of the year. In the fall of 2012, he also announced that a protocol had been signed with a large helicopter company from Yamal and a protocol of intent for the remotorization of Mi-8 helicopters with the Voluntary Society for Assisting the Army, Aviation and the fleet (DOSAAF) with the new T3-117VMA-SBM1V engines. Re-equipment will be carried out at the Moscow Helicopter Repair Plant. At the end of November 2013, Mexico was declared interested in purchasing 14 Mi-8MSB.
It is difficult to predict the prospects of both the described projects of remotorization. The following is credible. The register of civil aircraft of Ukraine as of 6 December 2013 of the year included only two modernized Mi-8MSB helicopters: reg. UR-MSF number (head 9744312) and reg. UR-MSB number (serial number 9732911). A year earlier, the third modernized helicopter - reg was registered. UR-MSK number (head 3618). As of December 2013, an additional type certificate No. DTV-0003 is recognized as valid in the Republic of Peru and the Republic of Belarus. On the validation of the Ukrainian additional certificate in the Russian Federation and the Aviation Register of the Interstate Aviation Committee, announced by Boguslayev in October 2012, is not yet known. Information on the export of Mi-8MSB helicopters from the territory of Ukraine or Belarus to other countries has not yet been reported.
To cooperate or not?
Get rid of the Ukrainian engine-building is impossible. The prospect of worsening relations at the state level, of course, may affect the level of cooperation in 2014. However, the fact remains: Russian helicopters without Ukrainian engines will not fly yet.
Despite the renewed import substitution, from the point of view of the current situation on the helicopter market, Motor Sich has a good ten years left to carry out, if not equally massive, export of new engines to Russian customers, then at least guaranteed sales of repair services , technical support and supply of spare parts for power plants of the already operating Mi and Ka helicopter fleet.
The main prospects of the company are still connected with the Russian helicopter market, the steady growth of which is the key to the further prosperity of the Ukrainian enterprise. The already concluded contracts allowed and allow the Cossacks from year to year to increase production volumes, in parallel trying to diversify their activities.
This is caused, in particular, by an attempt to develop its own helicopter program, both in terms of remotorizing the existing fleet, and in creating new samples of similar products. As far as these attempts are successful, the near future will show, but it is impossible not to notice that in the process of their implementation Motor Sich will face not only the Russian industrial lobby, which initiated import substitution processes in the part that touched Zaporozhye engines, but also with the grandees of the global helicopter industry, who, possessing colossal resources and political weight, will try not only to oust Russian helicopter construction, which is not enough in 90, but also to prevent the emergence of new competitors in the face of Ukraine developers and manufacturers.