The beginning of the domination of the Western order on the planet and Russia
The turn of the 15th-16th centuries and the entire 16th century as a whole became a turning point for the world: the world of the Middle Ages collapsed, the era of the Colonial Empires began, dividing the planet into “hunting grounds”, isolating Protestant “processes” from the Catholic branch of Christianity - the famous Reformation. Russia again rose above Eastern Europe.
Although Russia at that time had many enemies, the citizens of today's Russia tend to exaggerate their troubles while still under the authority of the fact of the death of the Red Empire. But if you analyze history Rus, you can see that Russian civilization-Russia was not once in a very difficult, catastrophic situation, it was dismembered, the enemies captured its hail, robbed, killed. As a result, Russia, like the Phoenix bird, is being reborn, becoming even stronger, expanding its territory, updating. At that time, Russia was dismembered, most of its land was captured by Lithuanians, Poles, Hungarians, Swedes. Surrounded by strong enemies: the Ottoman Empire hung in the south by a powerful giant, subordinating vast territories from North Africa to the Balkans, its tool was the aggressive Crimean Khanate; In the east, the Kazan Khanate was alarming. In the north, a strong power - Sweden, in the west of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Poland. In Western Europe, centralized powers were created - France, Spain, England.
The Western world project begins to capture and divide the planet into “lands”, the Vatican (in the Middle Ages, the Central Control Point of Western Civilization) divided the Earth into the “patrimony” of the Portuguese and the Spaniards. The Spaniards "mastered" Central and South America, destroying ancient cultures and turning into slaughtered cattle proud Indians. The Portuguese ships "surround" Africa with their chain of bases, pave the way for European predators (they thought that only for themselves) the road to the "wonderland and treasure" of India and on to Sumatra, Borneo, China and Japan. The Portuguese grab a huge kus and in South America - Brazil.
The global plundering of the planet began, it will last several centuries (and it still continues, but not in such an explicit form), the loot flow went to the impoverished, dark Western Europe, there was a “price revolution” - due to the abundance of gold, its value fell, and the prices of food and other goods have only grown - the poor have become even poorer. By the way, it is believed that the Great Geographical Discoveries are quite organized, in the ancient world they knew about the existence of America, Antarctica, there were maps (for example, Admiral Piri-Peis). This knowledge was also owned by Rome, which received a large number of sources from the ancient world, so Columbus knew where he was swimming.
Reference: Piri-Reis Map, the map of the whole world, created supposedly in 1513 in the Ottoman Empire (Constantinople) by the admiral and cartographer Piri-reis (full name is Hadji Mukheddin Piri ibn Hadji Mehmed), apparently, on the basis of more ancient maps, for example, from the Alexandrian Library. The map, besides the coast of Western Europe and North Africa, shows the islands of the Atlantic Ocean, the coast of Brazil and the eastern tip of South America and even Antarctica. Interestingly, the admiral himself among the sources on the basis of which the map was created, indicated the map of Christopher Columbus.
Initially, Rome was triumphant, its power acquired a global character, not only regional, but in the same period other control centers were allocated — first of all, London and Antwerp, with Amsterdam, the ruling clans, whose plans were somewhat different from papal Rome. There was a split in the elite of Western Europe - part of the aristocracy and the nascent "financial international" needed a different ideology, more convenient, without the dictates of Rome.
Initially, a “cultural campaign” was launched - the so-called “Renaissance era” with rampant luxury, excesses, sodomy, an attack on Christian morality began, icons were replaced by naked Venus and Appolonians, truths of the Bible on philosophical verbiage, alchemy, magic. Then they started the “information war” - Rome was accused of dictatorship, in a modern way - of “totalitarianism”, of excessive luxury, wealth, sin of acquisitiveness, selling positions, absolution for money, depraved tricks of its representatives, and so on. Very educated figures “appeared” who began to rethink the Bible in their own way — several movements of the Reformation “arose”.
The German and Swedish nobles quickly picked up the ideas of Luther, they allowed them to seize considerable property in their hands. True, the ideas of the Reformation penetrated into the peasantry as well, it was necessary to drown uprisings in the blood. In England, for the separation from Rome, the lustfulness of Henry VIII, who wanted to divorce and marry at his own discretion, without the permission of Rome, was used, as a result the Anglican church appeared. Calvin created an excellent religion for the rich and noble - he taught that people from birth share God into "elect" and "unelected" (learn the ideas of the liberoids - with their "successful" and "unsuccessful" !?), you can easily distinguish them those who are rich are chosen by the Lord. The fate of the "unelected" silently obey and work. And the power should belong not to kings, but to the advice of the "elect". His ideas came to taste banker-moneylenders, traders, and part of the nobility - you can again not obey the royal power. So traders, speculators, money changers, usurers were turned into the "elite" of society. Calvin's ideas were established in Switzerland, in the Netherlands, in France led to bloody "Huguenot wars." In the Netherlands (belonged to Spain) began the brutal Netherlands revolution. Interestingly, the Spanish monarchs themselves contributed to it: the Spanish nobles conquered new lands for the crown, fought, shed blood, died from tropical diseases, and were forbidden to trade and engage in business. As a result, trade passed into the hands of Dutch merchants, mining was sold in the markets of the Netherlands, and Dutch merchants and bankers quickly became rich. And having become rich, they began to think - why do we need the power of Spain? Taxes have to be paid, church tithe.
Rome was not going to concede absolute power without a fight - the Counter-Reformation began. The Catholic Church "carrots and sticks" tried to return the "lost herd." They conducted their own education, trained qualified preachers, their own information war, created a Jesuit order - in fact, it was the most powerful intelligence service, reorganized the Inquisition, “cleansed” their ranks, imposed the most severe censorship.
The elites were finally split, religious wars began: Sweden, Denmark, Holland, England, Hungary, Switzerland, part of Germany, French Huguenots entered the camp of the “Protestants”. The Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs performed for Rome. After a long bloodshed in Germany, the Augsburg Religious Peace (1555 year) was concluded, Lutheranism was recognized as the official religion. England and Holland will become new “predators”, will begin to seize their “lands”, then a series of Anglo-Dutch wars will occur between them, in the end London will become the second Control Center of the Western project. Both countries will create East India companies (in fact, they were “states in a state” —with their own administration, armies, courts, the right to fight), which will become an instrument of seizure and robbery of colonies. The British will settle in North America, infiltrate into India, begin to push the Portuguese, helping the Persians and Hindus to fight with them - the principle of "divide and rule." They will force China to open ports for trade. The Dutch actively push the Portuguese in Indonesia, penetrate Java, Borneo, Sumatra, capture Malacca, occupy Taiwan, penetrate Brazil.
The Dutch also founded the West Indian Company: they began to seize the "draws" of the island in the Caribbean, they created the colony of New Netherlands with its capital in New Amsterdam (now New York). France seized the "land" north of present-day Canada. Even Sweden was trying to seize new lands - “New Sweden” (the current state of Delaware) appeared in North America. At the same time, the institute of piracy was recreated: British, French, Dutch "gentlemen of fortune" attacked the Spanish, Portuguese ships, especially frostbitten drowned everyone in a row.
Although Rome did not become the full ruler of the “New World Order” - the era of colonialism, it retained a significant part of its position. He supplemented military operations with secret, objectionable rulers, harassed, slaughtered, graduates of Jesuit special schools penetrated the courtyards of the rulers, magnates, directing their policies in the direction Rome needed, and conspiring. Coups. Entire landings of Catholic missionaries were brainwashed to the tribes, peoples of Africa, America, and Asia. In general, quite successfully, more than 1 billion people are now considered Catholics.
Russia at that time was very difficult to withstand the expansion of the West, but it not only survived, and continued to return their lands. Just remember - the border cities were Tula, Ryazan - to the south there was the “Wild Field”, in the west even Smolensk was not ours, not to mention Minsk, Kiev, Chernigov. Russia was concentrated in a small strip of land. Ivan III and Vasily III were able to strengthen and begin the process of restoring the great power, returned to united Russia: in 1471, Yaroslavl land, in 1472, Dmitrov land, in 1474, the second half of Rostov land, in 1478, the land of Veliky Novgorod, in 1485, Tverskaya land, in the course of wars with the Lithuanian principality repulsed Vyazma, Chernigov, Novgorod-Seversky, Starodub, Gomel, Bryansk, Toropets, Mtsensk, Dorogobuzh and other cities. Vyatka was subordinated, Ryazan land, Perm, Yugra was annexed, in 1510, Pskov land.
Under Ivan the Terrible, as it should, Russia again became an empire, a great power - the Kazan and Astrakhan khanates were crushed, their lands became part of Russia, in the battle of July 30 Youth - 2 August 1572 of the year 40 was destroyed Thousands of Crimean Tatars army with the Nogai and Turkish troops. Russia is moving to the south, building huge defensive lines, under their cover begins to develop fertile black soil. The Russians came to the North Caucasus, became at the Terek border, the Don, Terek, Zaporozhye, Yaik Cossacks recognized themselves as subjects of Moscow. The detachment of Yermak laid the foundation for the movement to the East, huge lands enter Russia. Moreover, it is necessary to distinguish Western colonization - this is the seizure and plunder of land, the exhaustion of resources from them, while Russian colonization is a completely different process (although, of course, it’s pointless to deny some negative aspects - there’s no luck with some managers problem solving methods and so on). Russia made the annexed lands "Russians", the local people did not infringe upon their rights, they were not considered "underhuman", infrastructure was being developed, the local population switched to productive activities or improved production skills.
Globalization in Russian gave a chance to other nations, tribes to preserve their identity, themselves, they were not completely destroyed, they were not driven into reservations, they were not hunted as a "living product", they were not sold into slavery, they were not used in slave works. For the Rus-Russian Tatars, Buryats, Khanty, Mari and many dozens of peoples, nationalities, clans were people, and not similar to humans animals.
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The era of the Reformation. Europe / A.N. Badak, I.E. Voinich, N.M. Volchek et al. Minsk, 2002.
- Alexander Samsonov
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