Military Review

How to come up with Ukrainian nationalism

How to come up with Ukrainian nationalism

The tsarist government unwittingly helped shape the idea of ​​an independent Ukraine, although Tsar Nicholas I blamed Polish propaganda for everything

Evaluation of recent events in Ukraine is impossible without an understanding of the intellectual roots of Ukrainian nationalism. "Russian Planet" begins a series of publications about this phenomenon.

Modern история the relationship between Russia and Ukraine begins in the 17th century after the signing of the Andrusovo truce in 1667, and later of the Great Peace with Poland in 1683. Moscow left the territory of Left-Bank Ukraine together with Kiev. The incorporation of Eastern Ukraine into the Russian Empire took a century and a half, ending in 1782 with the abolition of the Hetman Institute. This process almost did not meet resistance both among the East Ukrainian elites and among the local population.

However, by the beginning of the XIX century the state of affairs had changed, and the process of formation of Ukrainian nationalism in the modern sense of the word was launched. Two factors became the impetus for the formation of a national identity in Ukraine.

Taking an active part in the sections of the Commonwealth, Russia united within its borders virtually all the territories in which the Ukrainian ethnic group lived, with the exception of four western regions that had ceded to the Austrian Hapsburg Empire. In the annexed lands, the local political elite had a great influence, whose political and cultural views were shaped by Polish traditions, which included ideas of the personal freedom of the nobility and a much lower dependence of local communities on the central government.

The great French Revolution in the painting "The Episode of the September Days" by Gustav Vappers. Source: Press Service of the Royal Museums of Fine Arts in Brussels

The second most important phenomenon was the Great French Revolution, one of its fundamental innovations was to raise the issue of national sovereignty above religious loyalty and feudal devotion to subjects to the sovereign. The revolution gave a powerful impetus to the formation of a national identity in virtually all the peoples of Europe. For example, the key role of the ideas of the French Revolution on the formation of the Pan-German intellectual movement, which set as its task the revival of interest in general German culture and history, has been thoroughly studied. Similar processes began in the territory of modern Ukraine. Promotion of ideas of cultural identity and the development of interest in the traditions of Little Russia, primarily to the Ukrainian language, became the first activity of the emerging Ukrainian national movement, called Ukrainophileism.

At first, Ukrainophilism was very popular among Russian educated circles. So, a huge contribution to the collection of ethnographic materials about Ukrainian culture was made by Nikolai Tsertelev, the compiler of the first collection of Cossack thoughts “The experience of collecting old Little Russian songs”. Despite the admiration of the ancient Ukrainian history, for the Russian Ukrainophiles, this was rather a passion, an attempt to find in the past Little Russia heroic images in the spirit of romanticism then fashionable in St. Petersburg. At the same time, the population of Ukraine was perceived as part, albeit distinctive, of the Russian people.

A fundamentally different shade and character was the activity of Ukrainophiles of noble origin. It was they who for the first time introduced the political component into the nascent Ukrainian nationalism. For them, Ukraine was a natural ally in the fight against the hegemony of the Russian Empire. The activities of such people as Mikhail Tchaikovsky and Vladimir Terletsky helped Ukrainian intellectuals to pass through the stage of apolitical cultural regionalism and impart an anti-Russian tone to their demands.

“Taras Shevchenko in Ukraine” by Vasil Kasiyan. Source: RIA News

By the middle of the XIX century, when the process of formation of national movements began throughout Europe, in Ukraine there were prerequisites for the articulation of the Little Russian national doctrine. A huge ethnographic material was accumulated on the basis of peasant folklore in the Ukrainian language, contrary to popular belief that existed in an unsystematic way and before the appearance of the Ukrainian national movement itself. The intellectual elite, under the influence of the ideas of romanticism and a return to historical roots, was ready to accept the accumulated popular knowledge. What was needed was a group of people who would unite the accumulated material and give it a form equal to all segments of society, thereby creating a cultural code for a future nation.

Ukrainian nationalism had three fathers. The first of them is Taras Shevchenko, who created the modern Ukrainian literary language and for the first time formulated in his works the idea of ​​the Ukrainian revival as a new stage in the development of a society with a thousand-year history. The second is Nikolay (Mykola) Kostomarov, who developed the scientific narrative of Ukrainian history. The third is Panteleimon Kulish, who translated the Bible into Ukrainian. The three of them laid the foundations of Ukrainian culture as a common memory of a self-determined group living in a certain territory, the basis of any national movement.

Nikolay (Mykola) Kostomarov.

The activity of the founding fathers was not limited to scientific and literary research. It was under the leadership of Kostomarov on the territory of Ukraine that the first secret political society was created, called the Brotherhood of Cyril and Methodius. The core of this organization were young students of Kiev and Kharkov universities. In addition to social demands, such as the elimination of serfdom and class privileges, members of society advocated the development of Ukrainian culture and identity with the future prospect of turning it into a part of the Pan-Slavic Federation from Poland, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, the Czech Republic and Russia. The society did not last long (1847 — 1848) and was denounced by the Third Branch as a result of denunciation by one of its members. It became the first experience of political self-organization among the nationally-oriented Ukrainian intelligentsia, thereby acquiring symbolic significance for future generations of Ukrainian nationalists.

At first, the central government, neglecting the separatist nationalist ideology originating in the south of the country, only by the middle of the 1840-s realized the potential threat to the empire coming from Ukraine only by the middle of the XNUMX-s. For a long time, within the framework of the “Uvarovka Triad” policy - Orthodoxy, autocracy, nationality - to create a scientific corpus of Russian historical knowledge, the Ministry of Education encouraged historical and ethnographic research of all trends, including in Little Russia. There, Kostomarov, Shevchenko and Kulish were actively involved in this process. All three worked in various positions at Kiev and Kharkov universities, remaining unnoticed by the government.

But after the disclosure of the political organization, the attitude of the authorities changed. First, the anti-serfdom orientation of the 1830 — 50-s Ukrainophiles clearly contradicted the basis of the then political system. The imperial administration was equally serious about the possibility of the spread of separatist sentiments in Ukraine.

“Portrait of Panteleimon Kulish” by Taras Shevchenko.

As the primary source of nationalist views in Little Russia, the Russian Emperor Nicholas I considered the influence of the Polish émigré intelligentsia. “This is a direct result of propaganda from Paris (where many Polish immigrants lived. - RP), which we did not believe for so long. Now there is no doubt about it, ”wrote the king.

The emergence of the secret political cell of the Ukrainian national movement required a certain reaction from St. Petersburg and it was adequate to the state of affairs that existed at that time. Taking advantage of the secret nature of the organization and the fact that it was unknown outside a small group of Ukrainian intelligentsia, the government decided to refrain from harsh measures and hide as far as possible the fact of its existence. Therefore, only point measures were taken against the most active members of the Brotherhood. Kostomarov was exiled to Saratov, and Shevchenko was sent off as a soldier.

The policy of the tsarist government unwittingly helped to create the concept of Ukrainian nationalism, helping to study history in order to reinforce the ideas of the nationality. Young scientists unexpectedly discovered for themselves a whole layer of powerful folk culture with a unique touch. As a result, several intellectuals constructed an idea of ​​identity, distinct from the Great Russian one. Thus, the foundation was laid for the creation of a national Ukrainian myth.
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  1. Nicholas C.
    Nicholas C. 19 May 2014 09: 00
    About the "Ukrainian ethnos" during the partition of Poland and the influence of the great French revolution on its formation, the author turned down quite svidomo. Those. cheated trochs.

    Who is there a "father", for example, Kostomarov? He, of course, did a lot to split the Russian people. But he wrote about Southern Russia, about the Southern Russian ADDRESS. He was engaged in the history of this region. And many of his works expose the falsifiers of Svidomo.

    Translation into the invented "Ukrainian language" by P. Kulish from the Bible: "Hai dufae Srul on Pan" (in the original "May Israel trust in the Lord").

    And about Shevchenko, the alleged "father" of the MODERN Ukrainian language, is strong.
    1. CALL.
      CALL. 19 May 2014 12: 13
      By the middle of the XIX century, when the process of the formation of national movements began throughout Europe, in Ukraine there were prerequisites for the articulation of the Little Russian national doctrine.

      The Great Anti-Russian Project of the West to create a separate Ukrainian people and state has two fundamental parts. This is the creation of a false history of the non-existent Ukrainian nation and its endowment with its own language, different from the historically inherent Russian.
      Let's see how and by whom the myth of the existence of the Ukrainian nation was born and what sophistication with regard to their own past they had to resort to.
      Let us ask ourselves a question: when and how did such concepts “Ukraine” and “Ukrainian” first appear? How and where was the new “Ukrainian nation" forged?
      We will use historical facts for our analysis. There is no toponym "Ukraine" in the sources of ancient Russia! . From the 14th to the 18th centuries, the Russian people were divided between two states: the eastern Moscow kingdom and the western.
      However, in the second half of the 16th century the “Polishing” of the Slavic-Russian language had not yet gone too far - the “Ruska Mova” and the Russian language differed very little. Both in Kiev and in Moscow, the language was taught at that time according to the same textbook - “Grammar” by Meletiy Smotrytsky.
      1. CALL.
        CALL. 19 May 2014 12: 18
        However, the people as an integral organism did not lose their “Russianness”, preserved the Orthodox faith, native language, and fatherly traditions, which predetermined the national liberation war against Poland in 1648-1654. and the historical decision of the Pereyaslav Rada on the reunification of Little and Great Russia.
        Not “Ukrainians”, but Russians for six years, fought with Pan Poland, covering themselves with unfading glory. Not “Ukrainians”, but Russians defended faith, freedom, the right to be oneself, and not forced Polish “claps”. We refer to Bogdan Khmelnitsky: in June 1648, moving to Lviv, the hetman sent the station wagon to the city residents: “I come to you as the liberator of the Russian people; I come to the capital city of Chervonorussia to deliver you from Lyashsky (Polish) bondage. ”
        The struggle was not fought for "self-Ukraine", but for the reunification of the two parts of Russia, the unification of Russians in one state.
        As for the "Ukraine" (ie, the outskirts), then this term, as before, is used in the sources to various territories. In Polish sources of the 16th century, the word "Ukraine" is often found (with an accent on the second syllable and with a small letter), from which, two centuries later, Little Russian independents and lead their fantastic country "Ukraine", inhabited by the same fantastic "Ukrainian people." Although the Poles at first, by "Ukraine" meant the same borderland, the outskirts and did not tie it to any particular territory. No wonder the synonyms of “Ukrainian” in the Polish language were the words “ugranich”, “pogranich”.
        The exact date of the appearance of the first "Ukrainians" is the end of the 18th beginning of the 19th century. It was at this time in one of his works that Count Jan Potocki first used the name “Ukrainians”. The Ukrainian ideologist following him, also a Pole Count Thaddeus Chatsky, developed and deepened this Russophobic myth, declaring that "Ukrainians came from ukrov, a special horde that came to the place of Ukraine from the Volga in the 7th century." In reality, such a horde never existed. From ukrov - Ukraine, from Ukraine - “Ukrainians” - such is the scheme proposed by Chatsky for the ethnogenesis of the “Ukrainian people”. Thoughts of Jan Potocki and Thaddeus Chatsky about the non-Russian origin of the “Ukrainians” were transferred through these persons to the soil of the left-bank Little Russia and Sloboda Ukraine and found significant distribution here. That's when the Russians disappeared in Little Russia and the "Ukrainians" appeared, supposedly as a special nationality.
        Alexey Orlov Ukrainian "Matrix". Reboot
        1. Erg
          Erg 20 May 2014 00: 44
          You are directly writing the history of the Roman Empire. But for me, they are just renegades who write fairy tales about their "great" heroes, about their "heroic" and "ancient" history. And in fact, who turned out to be Hitler's fascist excrement
    2. smile
      smile 19 May 2014 12: 54
      Nicholas C.
      Yeah, really strong. :))) The article is very superficial, to put it mildly. There is not a word in it about the vigorous activity of Austria-Hungary, about the fact that its special services actively incited and formed the Ukrainians among the clandestine, and even "took part" in the creation of the "MOV"
      1. Nicholas C.
        Nicholas C. 19 May 2014 13: 21
        Quote: smile
        There is not a word in it about the vigorous activity of Austria-Hungary, that its special services were actively fomenting and forming Ukraine among tiligence

        Hrushevsky's lodge "Young Ukraine" functioned in the Austrian Lvov. But her activities were in the interests not only of the Austrian empire and in the interests of the Polish separatists, for the sake of their goals, most of them called themselves Ukrainians and participated in the Rusyns genocide, but, first of all, in the interests of the behind-the-scenes that created such "young" lodges around the world ... Compare, for example, Ataturk's "young Turkey" or "young Bosnia", which, with the hands of Gavrila Princip and Nedelko Gabrinovich, unleashed the First World War. Interestingly, the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Mark Natanson was seconded to guide these half-witted students. I personally see in the names a direct analogy with the "color" revolutions.

        Quote: Z.O.V.
        Let us ask ourselves a question: when and how did such concepts “Ukraine” and “Ukrainian” first appear?

        Already "wondered".
    3. 225chay
      225chay 19 May 2014 12: 59
      Quote: Nikolai S.
      About the "Ukrainian ethnos" during the partition of Poland and the influence of the great French revolution on its formation, the author turned down quite svidomo. Those. cheated trochs.

      Yes, and the question of how Ukrainian nationalism was invented is no longer relevant.
      And who is standing and who is the conductor of fascism in Ukraine, the answer is already clear, it is worth looking at the identities of the leaders Kal Omoyskih, Turchin, Timashenok, Yatsenyukhov and nicknames
  2. Chuykov
    Chuykov 19 May 2014 09: 43
    Yes, in my purely philistine opinion, the reason for all these tossing and fermenting the Ukrainian (and others like them, the Caucasian peoples), and sometimes the Tatar, is the eternal exaggerated loyalty of the Russian governments of all times. After all, under Khmelnytsky and after all the privileges were given to the then Ukrainians , sometimes even more than their own in Central Russia, not to mention Siberia, not everything is looking towards the West ... and now the same is happening, only the Crimean Tatars were given "a finger, they want to bite off their whole hand" (but this is because fresh example)
  3. Cristall
    Cristall 19 May 2014 10: 19
    If the history of Ukraine was studied only from the writings of Kostomarov, then everything would have been normal (not without a share of superiority but small) .. Quite so-so works ... And not really fantasized ... Not like modern science fiction ...
    Shevchenko is a revolutionary ... they just put him on the role of an "all-Ukrainian" revolutionary, but he was not.
    Kulish ... but that is a different story.
    As a result, three "fathers" were chosen for the role of fathers ...
  4. atos_kin
    atos_kin 19 May 2014 10: 53
    The author "sorted out" the "paternity", but about the "mother" - the greed of the West for Russia and the venality of the so-called. "intelligentsia", I forgot.
  5. cerbuk6155
    cerbuk6155 19 May 2014 11: 14
    Whoever invented Ukrainian nationalism is not important, the main thing is to crush this whole gil and uproot so that others shudder. soldier
  6. parus2nik
    parus2nik 19 May 2014 11: 32
    Here, the guilty one is found again .. Russia, they say, is itself to blame, in the birth of Ukrainian nationalism ..
    Request to the author, next time write an article on the topic: "The influence of the French bourgeois revolution on the formation of Ukrainian nationalism in the territory of Chernihiv" .. I would like to see how it developed in certain regions .. Stepwise?
  7. siberalt
    siberalt 19 May 2014 13: 27
    Bravo to the author! Again, everything rests on terminology and historicity.
    What are "intellectual roots" in general? So - Drwinism, in the sense of the development of the weight of the medullary substance in the course of evolution in a particular area of ​​some state? laughing I agree with the author that it should be about the emergence of Ukrainian separatism and not otherwise.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. siberalt
      siberalt 19 May 2014 13: 58
      How did all this "bodyaga" begin? The first split was at the turn of the 12-13th centuries. This is not known to historians.
      Then it began with Christian myths, along with the ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome, in spite of the ancient Russian civilization. When they themselves could not, they went to war against Russia under the leadership of Napoleon. Again, it did not burn out. But the "intelligence" of the West takes its toll. How else? "Slavophilism" was born as a provocative movement against the Russian Empire. And here the Polish part of Russia is already on horseback. They are closer to Paris! Blown into cards and endless parties, the Russian elite youth shoot each other in duels, from misunderstandings of what is happening, looking for any everyday occasions for a reason. And then - the idea! Give Russia the Constitution, and the tsar for a stake! It was in this, in all Narodnaya Volya without (actually) the people, that Taras Shevchenko appeared. Moreover, not the most outstanding of the Russian writers of that time. Damask steel is melted only in the crucible. But that's another topic.
  8. Free wind
    Free wind 19 May 2014 19: 51
    As I understand it, from the words of the author, the French treasure hunters came to Ukraine, in embroideries, with banduras in 1800, and began to sing about self-awareness. then after 60 years he heard them on the mafon? Shevchenko, and created the Ukrainian language, the result of the article ... death to the revolutionaries.
  9. scorpiosys
    scorpiosys 20 May 2014 00: 41
    When the volcano is bubbling, there are big bubbles in the middle, and on the Outskirts, only a lot of fine foam collects ...
  10. ks
    ks 21 May 2014 22: 04
    Now the Russian Cossacks consider themselves a separate nation, and the Russians are called Russians. Did not know?