Military Review

Soviet program "probe" and the first commercial flyby of the moon

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Soviet program "probe" and the first commercial flyby of the moon



Rush through the icy mist and meet the sunrise over the Ocean of Storms. See with your own eyes the reverse side of the moon. To see the narrow sickle of the Earth, soaring in velvet blackness over the crater Lorenz. Walk at an altitude of 200 km above the surface of our satellite, having considered the smallest details of its relief. Countless craters and plains at the bottom of dry "oceans". A bizarre alternation of crests and dark dips, underlined by a blindingly bright Sun shining in the void of infinite space.

Will you be able to imagine what the brave men who will decide to contribute to the exploration of outer space will see? For the first time in 50 years since the last manned expedition to orbit the moon!

Outbreaks from the fall of new meteorites? Clouds of rising dust? The latest equipment will allow you to see what escaped the gaze of the American Apollo. Radon emissions from the bowels of the moon due to the influence of the tidal force of the Earth. Gas and dust clouds and anomalous glow in the crater Aristarkh. Electrical flashes generated by mechanical stresses and ionization of lunar rocks.


The first image of the Earth's rising over the lunar surface, transmitted by the apparatus "Lunar Orbiter-1", 1966 year

All this will see you! Participants of the incredible expedition of one million kilometers in length, on the border of the possibilities of modern science and technology. For only $ 150 per kilometer.

Your name will remain on the pages. stories cosmonautics. You will receive the attention of all world media. This is your step to immortality.

The technical side of the issue.

The risks of the expedition? They are minimal. At the heart of a daring plan is proven Soviet equipment that meets the highest safety standards. Simple and reliable ship "Soyuz-TMA-M." A new look at the old principles, in which the best achievements of the present and the past were combined. Upgraded cabin, updated instrument-flight complex, increased fuel capacity, fully digital control and digital telemetry data transmission system.

"Union" is ready to fly!

But will the small “Union” have enough strength for such a difficult and long journey? How to turn the 7-ton orbital "taxi" into a full-fledged spacecraft capable of gaining a second space velocity and circling the moon? On this account the specialists of RSC Energia and their American partners from the company Space Adventures. Ltd has a ready-made solution: an additional domestic compartment and the upper stage “DM”.


Soyuz TMA-7

In detail, it looks like this:

A, B, C, D, D - the so-called stages of the legendary carrier rocket H-1. The Soviet lunar program suffered a fiasco, and the only thing that now reminds of the once great rocket is the family of “D” booster blocks, which represent the fifth step of the H-1-L3 system with kerosene and liquid oxygen engines. “D” type accelerating blocks are regularly attracted to launch interplanetary stations and launch satellites into geostationary orbit. For example, the DM-SL modification is used as part of the Zenit-SL, used under the Sea Launch program.

A similar unit is also supposed to be used to disperse the Soyuz spacecraft while it flies around the moon.

As for the additional domestic compartment, then its creation was given at the mercy of the Americans. No specific data on this matter yet.

The probe program

Everything new is well forgotten old. “Probe” was the designation of the Soviet spacecraft of the “lunar race” period of the 1964-70, intended to study the Moon, Venus and Mars from the flight path. And if the first four vehicles were conventional automatic interplanetary stations (as a rule, which failed their main program), then subsequent launches of the Probe program were pursuing a different, much more important and mystical goal. The USSR secretly tested ships intended for a manned flyby of the Moon (index - 7К-Л1).

Unlike the full moon landing, which required the H-1 super-heavy launch vehicle, the LOC lunar orbital ship, and the LK landing module, manned overflight required much simpler and cheaper means. The 7K-L1 spacecraft was a modernized version of the Soyuz satellites launched with the help of a heavy (but quite realistic) Proton UR-500 launch vehicle with an accelerating D-series unit.



The Lunar Probe - Soyuz (aka 7K-L1) differed from the usual Soyuz in the absence of a domestic compartment (the abbreviated crew of two cosmonauts had to spend a couple of weeks in the lodgements of the descent vehicle) as well as enhanced thermal protection of the descent vehicle, which was to enter the atmosphere with the second space velocity. The scheme of returning the apparatus looked very unusual - 7К-Л1 entered the atmosphere over the southern hemisphere of the Earth, partially dampened speed to suborbital, and then again, due to the use of aerodynamic forces, rose into space and finally entered the dense layers of the atmosphere over the territory of our Motherland.

A total of 14 7K-L1 launches were made in an unmanned version, four of them (Probe-5, 6, 7 and 8) circled the moon and returned safely to Earth, completing the planned program in full.

At first glance, the statistics are terrible: on 14, the attempts of the entire 4 successful flight. The reliability of the system to hell. However, a more thorough acquaintance with the program "probe" turns out more optimistic details. The “raw” Proton launch vehicle was the biggest problem at that time - five RNs exploded at the launch pad or crashed in the active launch site. Zond-5B could not fly away at all - in preparation for launching, the tank of the upper stage “D” burst, the ship broke away from the launch vehicle and was stuck in the launch table farms. Attempt does not count!

The rest of the Probes were able to go into space, but somehow lost their course due to the failure of the orientation and control systems.

But another thing is much more important: if astronauts were aboard each of the Probes, all of them, despite the various circumstances, would have survived! Every time, the descent vehicle instantly fired from a faulty PH and landed safely on the ground. The emergency rescue systems of the Soyuz spacecraft do not know their equal in the world! The record is with V. Lazarev and O. Makarov, who suffered an accident on the border of the atmosphere and space (the legend of “Soyuz-18А”). Despite the dizzying fall from an altitude of 192 km, Lazarev and Makarov remained intact and soon returned to the cosmonaut corps.

The reliability and safety of the Soyuz satellites are amazing.

In the case of lunar Probes, problems could arise only for the crew of Zond-4, which, due to an error in the orientation system, entered the atmosphere through a ballistic trajectory and experienced overloads close to 20g. However, if the crew were on board, the astronauts could possibly correct the automation error and return safely to Earth. The same applies to the rest of the "Probes", lost their orientation in outer space.

Alas, the assurances of the specialists who worked on the 7К-Л1 program about the absolute security of the lunar mission remained unheard. Suppressed by the tragic death of cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov (1967), the leadership of the Soviet space program demanded 100% confidence in the successful completion of the expedition. When obvious success was achieved (two consecutive successful flights of the Moon with the Zond-7 and 8 spacecraft), the NASA astronauts landed on the moon from overseas. Priority was lost, and the "moon race" lost all meaning. Further studies of the Moon were carried out using automatic devices of the series "Luna" and "Lunokhod", which do not require the direct presence of a person in lunar orbit.

The Return of the Probe

This is exactly the way the joint project of RSC Energia and the Americans from Space Adventures can be called, offering a unique opportunity to visit unexplored space, being for several days at a distance more than 300 thousand km from the home planet. But at the same time write down your name to the rank of the great conquerors of space and, perhaps, make some important discovery.







To carry out (more precisely, to buy) your dream is not difficult. A unique expedition will take place as soon as two VIP-tickets are sold, worth 150 million each. Third place in the cabin of the modernized Zond will be taken by a professional cosmonaut.

One of two tickets to the first commercial space flight around the moon on the Russian manned spacecraft Soyuz has been sold. The name of the buyer is not called. But this is a well-known person.

- “Space Adventures” continues to escalate the intrigue around the commercial flyby of the Moon.

When will the long-awaited flight? There is no exact information about this. Dates of proposed launches were repeatedly postponed. According to the most optimistic estimates, the first commercial flyby of the Moon can take place already in 2017.

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  1. saag
    saag 20 May 2014 08: 33 New
    +1
    you need to travel in comfort so that you want to repeat and set a contagious example to others, thereby ensuring a steady flow of financial resources, with the Union it will be extreme
    1. schizophrenic
      schizophrenic 20 May 2014 15: 03 New
      +1
      Quote: saag
      Union it will be extreme

      With proper preparation, everything will be in order. Experiences will be like those of the first astronauts and impressions for life. It is a pity about the landing there are no opportunities.
      1. saag
        saag 20 May 2014 19: 03 New
        0
        Why repeat something, the impressions should be a little different, or else sit in the lodgement all the way, write, poop for yourself instead of hanging at the porthole with the Gravity cocktail :-)
      2. e_krendel
        e_krendel 21 May 2014 05: 41 New
        0
        Yes, it would be nice to take a break in the Apollo area and see for yourself (with photo and video fixation) that in fact no one was walking on the moon and sticking a flag! wink
  2. inkass_98
    inkass_98 20 May 2014 09: 54 New
    +2
    hi Oleg well done, that’s what a versatile person means!
    He finished off the aircraft carriers, sang the praises of the battleships and Zamvolt, and now he has taken up the cosmic theme! laughing
    Thank you to the author, after all, my childhood dream is strong (I have) to fly into space and make a trip to the moon, but not fate. Have someone more luck.
  3. Spstas1
    Spstas1 20 May 2014 13: 06 New
    0
    Go to Mars!
  4. saturn.mmm
    saturn.mmm 20 May 2014 13: 31 New
    0
    One of two tickets to the first commercial space flight around the moon on the Russian manned spacecraft Soyuz has been sold. The name of the buyer is not called. But this is a well-known person.

    Have you bought a ticket and are looking for a partner?
    The photos are of course cool.
    1. Kars
      Kars 20 May 2014 15: 16 New
      +2
      Quote: saturn.mmm
      Have you bought a ticket and are looking for a partner?

      not here the partner will not go. You need to buy both tickets and make a present to a pretty girl. (By the way, I kind of heard about experiments in orbit with intimate relationships, but I can confuse)
      1. 52
        52 20 May 2014 18: 34 New
        +1
        Honor Zheleznyakov's "Secret Cosmos", and at the same time you will neigh!
      2. ivanovbg
        ivanovbg 20 May 2014 21: 51 New
        +1
        It has been established that sperm cells under conditions of lack of fever hold on worse than with the most severe alcohol poisoning. In the senselessness, we can multiply in any way, even “in vitro,” because the implantation of an embryo will not work like that. Nevertheless, the pleasure of sex in space is no less, although it is inconclusive. Plants also grow very poorly, they cannot navigate where "up" and "down" and sprouts of roots and stems grow like a hedgehog in all directions at the same time. If you cut them in time and bend something, it will work, but for trees, and if buckwheat or wheat :)
      3. saturn.mmm
        saturn.mmm 20 May 2014 21: 57 New
        0
        Quote: Kars
        not here the partner will not go. You need to buy both tickets and make a present to a pretty girl

        99% of what he says, what for your cosmos to me, it would be better if you bought the diamonds for this money. Try to find another one wrapped in space like Kaptsov.
        1. schizophrenic
          schizophrenic 20 May 2014 23: 02 New
          +3
          Quote: saturn.mmm
          99% of what he says, what for your cosmos to me, it would be better if you bought the diamonds for this money.

          One successful girl in an interview said that she dreams of flying into space and wants something to give her a tour into space. So there are romantic girls.
          1. saturn.mmm
            saturn.mmm 21 May 2014 00: 03 New
            +1
            Quote: schizophrenic
            One successful girl in an interview said that she dreams of flying into space and wants something to give her a tour into space. So there are romantic girls.

            Well this is one of 1%.
  5. rotor
    rotor 20 May 2014 22: 45 New
    +1
    According to the most optimistic estimates, the first commercial flight of the moon may take place as early as 2017.


    By this time, a manned "heavy" hangar should be ready.

    “By 2018, we must be absolutely ready, we have such plans, and they will be realized. We will make a manned launch, a manned flight on the“ heavy ”Angara from the second launch pad, from the second launch pad of the Vostochny spaceport in the Amur Region "promised Rogozin.
  6. rotor
    rotor 21 May 2014 12: 19 New
    0
    Japanese soft drink maker Otsuka sends a 1-pound titanium can filled with Pocari Sweat powder sports drink to the moon. This specially designed container marks a new alarming frontier for humanity: our civilization is delivering the first commercial product to another planet with marketing goals.

    The container will be delivered to the moon by the Falcon 9 rocket, developed by Elon Mask SpaceX. Falcon 9 has already completed three successful supply missions to the International Space Station, but the operation planned for October 2015 will be its first flight to the nearest celestial body. After the rocket launches its second-stage engines and makes a 4.5-day journey to the moon, the beverage container will be placed on the satellite’s surface with the Griffin landing module of the private company Astrobotic Technology.
  7. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 24 May 2014 23: 46 New
    0
    A great opportunity to work out the elements of a flight to the moon ... to check the reliability of systems in a long flight ...
  8. oleg34
    oleg34 28 May 2014 08: 50 New
    +1
    Met the destroyer Cole (the same bun-torn side that once blew up in Aden)
    1. oleg34
      oleg34 28 May 2014 08: 52 New
      +1
      Here it is - on the right
  9. oleg34
    oleg34 28 May 2014 08: 54 New
    +1
    The serious security of the base
  10. Santa Fe
    9 September 2014 06: 31 New
    0
    secrets of our town)))
  11. Santa Fe
    9 September 2014 06: 33 New
    0
    Incidentally, was visiting Lyalya