The problem of the use of armed forces in a war is permanent for each state, because it is still considered one of the main ways to resolve interstate conflicts and contradictions, and at each stage of development of the armed forces it is carried out in the system of operations stipulated by historical traditions and features. There are traced the fundamental differences between the wars of the XIX century in two-dimensional space, the twentieth century in three-dimensional and the conduct of hostilities at the present time.
The experience of a number of recent conflicts involving the leading Western countries convincingly demonstrates that modern and especially promising wars will be fought in all environments - land, water, air, space, information. No one doubts that the center of gravity of warfare is shifting to the aerospace and information sphere. Therefore, the problem of the use of troops (forces) of aerospace defense in modern conditions is extremely acute and urgent.
Andrei Sedykh collage
The Armed Forces are used in certain forms and methods. In modern military science there are many formulations of the concepts "form" and "method". At the same time, their interrelation is always traced through the content of military actions. In addition, each of the categories expresses one of the sides of the content.
Therefore, under the form of military (combat) actions it is proposed to understand their organizational side, the interlocking goal, objectives, composition of the troops involved, the level of leadership and scale of action. Traditionally, these are operations, battles, single or systematic hostilities, battles, strikes and maneuvers by troops (forces).
Defense and attack
The form of hostilities has a complex structure, represented by a set of forms of the lower level (operations, military operations, battles, strikes). Each of these forms has its own distinctive features, which allow describing the form in question, for example, as an operation, and not combat actions or a blow.
Under the method of conducting military (combat) actions, it is proposed to understand the order, sequence and methods of using troops, forces and individual means to achieve the goal of a war, to solve the tasks of an operation, combat actions and strike. In contrast to the forms of hostilities, the methods are always mobile. Taking into account the considered approaches to the definition of the “form” category, a system of forms for the use of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020 was developed, which was the basis for the development of fundamental statutory documents on the preparation and conduct of hostilities in peacetime and wartime. These documents define the system of strategic operations of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
EKR troops take part in all strategic operations in the form of combat, reconnaissance, information and support actions. Conducting independent operations by Armed Forces troops is currently not envisaged.
EKR troops are a rather young, high-tech branch of the military created by 1 on December 2011 of the year on the basis of the Space Forces and the operational-strategic command of the EKR from the Air Force. For two and a half years from the moment of its establishment, a sufficient number of events were held in the Armed Forces of the East Kazakhstan region, including a strategic level.
Analyzing the results of the activities carried out, we can draw a number of conclusions, the main of which are the following:
1. Threats to the Armed Forces and the country as a whole by the forces and means of the enemy’s aerospace attack are underestimated. Therefore, the importance of the tasks solved by the Armed Forces of the East Kazakhstan region does not find due understanding.
2. The tasks of the EKR Troops in modern strategic operations are not defined in detail.
3. The tasks assigned to the Armed Forces in strategic operations do not correspond to their composition and capabilities.
The underestimation of threats from the forces and means of an aerospace attack of the enemy leads to the fact that the role of the Armed Forces of the East Kazakhstan region in the course of carrying out strategic level measures has been reduced.
There are subjective and objective reasons for this. One of the subjectives may be the attitude towards the Armed Forces of the East Kazakhstan region as the successor of the Space Forces, which in the strategic forms of military operations of the Armed Forces mainly provide tasks. The objective reason for today is limiting the capabilities of the Armed Forces of the East Kazakhstan region only to the Central industrial region.
The reasons for solving the identified problem follow in a logical way from the listed reasons:
1. Refinement, and sometimes revision of the role and place of the EKR Troops in the existing system of operations of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
2. Bringing the composition and capabilities of the Armed Forces of the East Kazakhstan region in strict accordance with the tasks facing them.
On the first point, I would like to note that during the implementation of a number of research projects, proposals were developed for revising the role and place of the EKR Troops in the modern system of strategic actions of the RF Armed Forces, particularly in a strategic operation involving the destruction of important objects on the enemy’s territory (SOPVOP) .
The results of the analysis of a number of recent strategic exercises showed that when planning a strategic operation involving the destruction of important objects in the enemy’s territory, only the offensive component of this operation was considered and practically the defensive component was not taken into account. It is obvious that the enemy will reveal the fact of preparation for the operation, he will take all measures for the advance failure. Most likely, the failure of our strategic operation will be carried out by conducting an air operation with the objectives of defeating the most important objects.
Such are the command posts of the Armed Forces and the state as a whole; alert centers; objects of the systems of intelligence, target designation, navigation, communication, collection and processing of information; SNF and EKR facilities, as well as economy, infrastructure and life support.
A similar action scenario confirms the nature of all recent NATO operations in Libya: “Odyssey. Breaking Dawn, Start of the Way and United Defender. In the course of the strikes by means of defeat of NATO, first of all, the objects of air defense, military and state administration, including the residence of the Libyan leader, media offices, and administrative management were destroyed. Secondarily, troops and military infrastructure were struck.
Consequently, before a strategic operation, during and after its conduct, a reflection of the blows of the enemy’s aerospace attack weapons should be planned. The main role in these operations should belong to the Armed Forces armies. They are entrusted with the solution of such basic tasks as covering critical objects in the territory of the Russian Federation and its allies, as well as groups of troops (forces) participating in the CPAAP.
When solving the first task, it should be borne in mind that a specific list of the most important objects on the territory of the Russian Federation and its allies, which a potential adversary is seeking to hit, should be determined by the General Staff of the RF Armed Forces based on the capabilities of the enemy's SVKN and conditions for the development of a strategic (operational-strategic) situation. I would like to note that the existing list of facilities subject to mandatory cover in wartime (that is, the most important facilities in the Russian Federation) should be revised as inconsistent with the capabilities of the modern EKO system and the predicted nature of the enemy’s actions.
The task of covering the most important objects on the territory of the Russian Federation and its allies will be considered to be solved by the EKR Troops, if the damage caused as a result of preemptive, retaliatory, counter-counter and retaliatory strikes by the enemy's SVKN does not exceed the amount of damage acceptable to the Russian Federation.
When solving the second task, it should be borne in mind that the created groupings of troops (forces) in the areas of their operational mission and long-range forces are subject to cover from missile attacks by the airborne missile systems during SOPVOP aviation on flight routes to the launch lines of the WTO database.
The task of covering groups of troops (forces) participating in the SOPVOP will be considered solved by the EKR Troops if the losses incurred by these groupings from the preemptive, retaliatory, counter and retaliatory strikes of the enemy's SVKN do not damage the most important enemy targets.
The peculiarity of the use of the EKR Troops during SOPVOP is that they perform the tasks of covering the strike forces, as well as the most important objects in the territory of the Russian Federation and its allies, at all stages of the operation - during preparation, during reference and after completion.
It should not be forgotten either that the EKR Troops in the course of the Secondary Vocational Education and Training will carry out tasks within one or several strategic directions, as well as adjacent ones, up to the solution of individual tasks throughout the territory of the Russian Federation and its allies. That is, in both temporal and spatial terms, the combat operations of the EKR Troops can and should go beyond the framework of the CPAW, for which they need to have the appropriate composition and capabilities. This is the second direction of their development, given the range of tasks that are defined in the presidential decree of the Russian Federation on October 2012.
We need a single governing body
Directions for improving the composition of the Armed Forces of the Armed Forces armies are analyzed in detail in publications of doctors of sciences Kirill Makarov and Sergey Yagolnikov. It is obvious that their implementation will fundamentally change the role and place of the EKR Troops in the forms of military operations of the RF Armed Forces.
At the same time, as regards the perspective structure of the Armed Forces of the East Kazakhstan region, there are a number of proposals that I would like to touch upon. First of all, it is about the need to create a single governing body with all the forces and means capable of fighting in the aerospace sphere. It can be called the chief or strategic command of the East Kazakhstan region, it does not matter. The main thing is that he has the appropriate authority to manage all the forces and means involved in solving the tasks formulated above.
It is doubtful whether the subordination of the missile defense compound to air defense and missile defense. It is well known that the system of rocket-space defense functionally consists of subsystems of the warning of a rocket attack, control of outer space, anti-missile, and in the long run and anti-space defense. All of these subsystems operate in a single system of combat algorithms, and their organizational rupture and subordination to two different associations is inexpedient.
It is proposed to create a separate operational association in which to include compounds of missile attack warnings, reconnaissance of the space situation, antimissile defense, and, in the long run, anti-space defense, which will cover Moscow and the Central industrial region.
To solve the tasks of air defense and non-strategic missile defense in each of the main areas ("West", "South", "Center", "East"), it is necessary to create operational associations of East Kazakhstan region. Since the successful solution of tasks is possible only by joint organized actions of anti-aircraft missile, radio engineering troops, fighter aircraft, EW forces and equipment, it is proposed to include in the unions, along with EKR units deployed in districts, military units of fighter aviation and electronic warfare. In the future, to solve the problem of non-strategic missile defense, first of all objects that carry out deterrence of aggression, it is necessary to include separate regiments in each association, armed with which there are means of effective struggle not only with aerodynamic, but also with ballistic objectives. That is C-500.
The advantage of the proposed option of the organizational structure lies primarily in the fact that the composition of the EKR Troops will correspond to the tasks assigned to them, defined by the VKO Concept and the presidential decree on improving the VKO RF, and the elements of this structure (VKO association) receive a clear list of not only tasks , but also defended objects.
In general, the proposed composition of the Armed Forces armies can destroy all classes of existing and prospective SVKNs in strategic directions, fight against the orbital grouping of the enemy, provide missile defense to the most important objects of the country.
It is obvious that the planned equipping of parts and formations with promising weapon systems will lead to a qualitative revolutionary leap and significantly expand the capabilities of the EKR Troops in the fight against the aerospace enemy. These are the C-400 and C-500 anti-aircraft missile systems, anti-satellite combat systems, kinetic and force destruction equipment and the functional suppression of SVCNs, as well as prospective reconnaissance stations, automation systems, space attack warning systems.
In this case, the Armed Forces armies will be able to carry out independently and in cooperation with other branches of the armed forces and the types of the Armed Forces, in solving which the operation of an appropriate defensive nature must be provided for in the system of strategic actions of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. As an option for discussion, this is a reflection of the enemy's aerospace attack (OVCNP).
The main role in this operation will be assigned to the East Kazakhstani Army. And the forces capable of fighting the SVKN of other types and genera of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for the period should be promptly subordinated to the authority managing the reflection of the ICS and responsible for its result - the command of the EKR Army, in the long term - the strategic command of EKR.
The operation can be carried out simultaneously or sequentially on several or all strategic aerospace directions. Targets can be the disruption (reflection) of an airborne (air) attack of the enemy; defeating his forces and weapons in air and near-earth space; covering the command posts of the state and the Armed Forces, SNF facilities, important objects of the economy and infrastructure, groups of troops (forces) in theaters of military operations; the conquest of domination (superiority) in the air and the strategic space zone.
In the future, the anti-missile and anti-space potential of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation will be increased by adopting strategic and non-strategic missile defense systems with capabilities to destroy all types of ballistic targets at ranges and altitudes up to 200 kilometers, means of kinetic and force destruction, and functional suppression of SVKN.
This will lead to the fact that in the near future as a possible form of use of the Armed Forces of the East Kazakhstan region should be considered anti-space and anti-missile operations, which are advisable not only in OVCNP, but also in other forms of strategic actions of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in wartime.
In a more distant future, it is likely that there will be a need and conditions will be created for the preparation and conduct of a strategic operation by the EKR forces to gain (prevent the enemy from gaining) superiority in the air and space zone. In developing and justifying the forms and methods of hostilities, one should proceed from the tasks to be solved, which are largely determined by the capabilities, as well as the forms and methods of the enemy's actions.