19 December 2013 of the Year The Russian Academy of Rocket and Artillery Sciences received a new charter, approved by a decree of the Russian government, which places the academy in a number of organizations that are fully involved in the development and implementation of the military-technical policy of the state. Thus, the Academy received a new impetus in its development. Over the past year, the Academy has completed a number of major research projects that cover the most important areas of the military-technical policy of our state. The president of the Russian Academy of Rocket and Artillery Sciences, Vasily Burenok, spoke at a general meeting of the 18 academy of April 2014 at the general meeting of the XNUMX academy of April XNUMX.
The most significant results were obtained in the development of proposals for the draft forecast of the development of science and technology in the interests of defense and security for the period up to 2030 in the field of basic and applied research in the field of aircraft armament and equipment (justification of how to create a strategic intelligence system aviation complex YES, the rationale for creating a promising high-speed helicopter).
The work carried out by the Russian Academy of Rocket and Artillery Sciences (RARAN) together with the head NRU MO helped to achieve a common understanding of problematic issues and formed the basis for the relevant decisions of the Scientific and Technical Council of the MIC. This greatly contributed to the adoption of important decisions at the state level. For example, on the PAK DA, the President of the Russian Federation decided to conduct a full-scale R & D project. On topical issues of creating an airborne intelligence system, reports have been prepared to the leadership of the Russian Ministry of Defense.
The Academy is involved in the development of conceptual documents of the development of the WTO, and in specific R & D on this topic. The results were tested in real conditions of the exercises "West-2013" and were highly commended by the command.
One of the most important areas for the development of advanced weapons is the development of an integrated combat equipment system for servicemen of the main military specialties of the Air Forces, Airborne Forces, the Marine Corps and special forces units of the Russian Armed Forces. The presence in equipment of a large number of interdependent means and elements directly influencing the results of hostilities, as well as severe restrictions on weight and dimensions, makes it necessary to conduct comprehensive scientific studies to substantiate its composition, structure, appearance and tactical and technical requirements. It is necessary to ensure a balanced combination of elements of equipment and, on this basis, an increase in the efficiency of the accomplishment of the assigned combat tasks by the subunits. The Academy has developed a scientific and methodological apparatus that allows high-quality preliminary testing of elements and a complete set of combat equipment of military personnel as a whole, as well as speeding up the processing of test results and making decisions on the selection of samples that best meet the requirements of the TTZ.
In the field of creation weapons The non-lethal action of the Academy interacts with the Ministry of Defense and other law enforcement agencies of the country on the introduction of industrial developments in specific models and their adoption, the organization of trial operation during combat training of troops.
In the field of international military cooperation, the Academy actively participates in events held in the Council of Defense Ministers of the CIS member states and in the Organization of the Collective Security Treaty.
Prospects for military construction
One of the main tasks of the academy is its participation in the formation and implementation of a military-technical policy, in particular, determining the prospects for the development of an armament system. During the reporting period, the research teams of the Academy analyzed trends in the development of weapons, military and special equipment abroad, the views of the military leadership of the advanced countries of the world on their use in wars and military conflicts. On this basis, proposals for clarifying the directions of development of the domestic weapon system were formed. These proposals were included in the reports on the results of research and were used in the preparation of materials for the new State Armaments Program currently being developed for the 2016 – 2020 years.
As practically all military analysts of our country recognize, the nature of domestic military construction in the near and long term will be decisively influenced by the West’s unrelenting attempts to increase its influence in the world and in close proximity to the borders of Russia - in Europe, in the Middle East, in North Africa, recently in Ukraine. It is necessary to take into account the growth of economic and military power, and with it the expansionist sentiment in China. The danger of large-scale terrorist threats to our country, especially in the Caucasus, remains.
As the analysis conducted by RARAN scientists showed, the main threats to the security of the Russian Federation in the military-technical sphere during this period will be the following:
-creation of a complete US missile defense system and the main elements of China’s missile defense;
- Adoption of the US Army hypersonic cruise missiles before 2025;
-creation by NATO countries of high-speed kinetic weapons, laser complexes, high-precision on-board control systems for weapons, combined weapon guidance systems, high-precision strap-down inertial navigation systems, new explosives, etc .;
- intensive development of space technologies in the leading foreign countries, including those based on mini- and nano-satellites of various functional purposes (combat, reconnaissance, electronic suppression);
-expansion of the scale of the use of forces and means of information warfare against the Russian Federation, the use of forces and means of cyber operations;
creation and introduction of technologies of the sixth technological order in the VVST. Development of technical solutions based on nanotechnologies (technologies for creating alternative energy sources, etc.), biotechnologies (chemical and information technologies, technologies of robotics, genetic engineering methods, etc.), information and cognitive technologies (technologies of "biological element base", solutions of poorly formalized creative tasks) will allow you to move on to the creation of fully intelligent samples of the VVST, to implement previously unattainable tactical and technical characteristics and the concept of reference eskoy "war;
-creation and actual replacement of traditional weapons systems by unmanned aerial vehicles for various purposes, land and sea robotic complexes developed based on the technology of fundamentally new autonomous sources of energy supply, artificial intelligence and capable of independently solving combat missions in any situation.
Behind all this, there is the desire of leading foreign countries, primarily the United States, to realize the concept of technological war, that is, to achieve technological superiority over any likely adversary by creating samples of VVST based, among other things, on new physical principles.
This requires the development of a set of measures to significantly improve the effectiveness of the weapons system of the RF Armed Forces to ensure counteraction to the above-mentioned threats.
What are the ways to improve the effectiveness of the weapons system, what parameters should it have in order to meet modern threats and challenges, to ensure the conduct of hostilities in accordance with modern views and requirements? If you look into the distant future, the question can be put like this: which way of technical and technological development should Russia go in order to ensure its security at the new stage of civilization development?
Possibilities for an adequate response
Taking into account the requirements of the main regulatory legal documents in the field of military construction, one of the priorities of the Russian Federation is the creation of modern Armed Forces, the armament of which should be composed of systems and complexes of VVST, providing the possibility of an adequate response to a technologically superior enemy, as well as parrying the entire spectrum of both existing and potential threats to the state’s military security.
This can be achieved through the preservation and enhancement of strategic nuclear potential, as well as the development of the existing weapons system through the implementation of one of two strategies:
- wide-scale equipping of troops with VVST samples currently produced by the domestic defense industry complex. Maximum use of the modernization potential, the creation of a scientific and technical reserve to support the activities planned in the State Armaments Program;
-development and delivery to the troops of the new generation of high-tech assembly models based on innovative technical and technological solutions. Orientation to the advance creation of a scientific and technical reserve across the entire spectrum of critical military technologies, a sharp reduction in the type of specimens of military equipment that are in service with the Armed Forces, due to a significant increase in their tactical and technical characteristics and expansion of the range of tasks.
The first strategy is characterized by a low risk of implementation, the possibility of intensive re-equipment of troops mastered in the production of samples. But at the same time, in the long term, the effectiveness of the armament system being formed on the basis of such a strategy will be intensively reduced compared with the armies of advanced foreign countries. Accordingly, the risk of implementing the second strategy is higher, but it is possible to create a weapon system that meets the new technological and military challenges and threats. Consider the essence of these strategies in more detail.
With the implementation of the traditional strategy, the progressive development of the existing weapons system of the types (types of troops) of the Armed Forces is possible mainly due to the renewal of the existing fleet with samples currently in serial production, and partly through the creation of new types of military equipment based on traditional principles of construction and combat application.
The main efforts are focused on full-scale serial production and supply of modern WWTE samples to the Armed Forces, ensuring the share of modern VVST up to 2020 percent by 70 and maintaining it no later than this level. In addition, within the framework of the traditional strategy, the troops are supposed to create and equip the troops with unmanned (unmanned) weapon systems, separate weapon subsystems and single samples of non-traditional AMIS, including laser and microwave suppression and protection complexes, hypersonic means of operational destruction.
Such a strategy has the right to life only for a fairly short historical period. The new technological order, to which the world will inevitably move in the coming decades, requires a concentration of attention and resources on the implementation of an innovative strategy for developing a weapon system.
At the same time, the traditional version of the development of the weapons system of the Armed Forces is characterized by:
- insufficient readiness to conduct combat operations in information and cognitive spaces;
-low efficiency in the conduct of conventional war with a technologically superior adversary;
-a wide range of (more than three generations) samples of weapons of military expertise, standing on arms, leading to a significant increase in the cost of operation, maintenance and overhaul;
-the impossibility or unreasonableness of further increasing the combat capabilities of VVST samples created using known technologies, according to the “cost-effectiveness” criterion.
Pave the way for innovation
The overall focus of the innovation strategy is the emphasis on equipping the Armed Forces of Russia with high-tech weapons of new generation and weapons based on new physical principles, a sophisticated intelligence system with a single command center distributed by a protected automated command and control system for troops and weapons that ensure contactless and information wars.
The implementation of an innovative strategy for the development of the weapons system of the Armed Forces should include:
large-scale re-equipment of the types (branches of the armed forces) of the Armed Forces with prospective models of the Higher Military Instrument based on the application of artificial intelligence technologies and knowledge-centric control, energy-information impact in all environments (space, air, land, sea, underwater and underground space) and at any distance, without technical equipment delivering a damaging factor to a target;
- an increase in the share (up to 20 – 30 percent) of robotized samples of weapons of military technology in the weapons systems of the types (combat arms) of the Armed Forces;
-development and delivery of weapons to the troops on the basis of new physical principles, means ensuring confrontation in cyberspace;
-significant reduction in the type of specimens of weapons of military service, armed with the types (types of troops) of the Armed Forces. By the year 2030 in service should be no more than two generations of the ATT;
-enhance the combat capabilities of the models of military equipment through the implementation of breakthrough scientific and technological achievements.
The creation of the listed samples of VVST, provided for by the innovation strategy, is possible due to the implementation of innovative technical solutions and technological developments obtained so far by domestic enterprises of the military-industrial complex, the Russian Academy of Sciences and a higher school, including:
-line-jet hypersonic jet engines and flight control systems;
-powerful combat units;
-laser weapons for various purposes;
- unified basic robotic platforms of small, medium and large classes, as well as information and control systems with a network structure for group use of robotic complexes;
- power plants based on electrochemical generators and hydrogen-powered batteries for unmanned aerial vehicles of long duration;
-high-speed throwing systems with electrothermochemical and electrodynamic method of accelerating striking combat elements;
heavy-duty generators to destroy enemy radio electronic equipment;
- multispectral optical homing heads;
- ultra short-pulse and ultra-wideband radar stations with an active phased antenna array based on radiophotonic elements;
- combined guidance systems of high-precision weapons based on optical-electronic systems with infrared channels with matrix photo-receiving devices;
-zonal rapidly-developed active-passive sonar systems for underwater lighting;
-inertial navigation systems, including free-form, based on laser and fiber-optic gyros, as well as micromechanical sensitive elements of the new generation (MEMS technologies);
- means of providing covert noise-resistant radio communications based on ultra-wideband transceivers with antenna-feeder system;
- means of conducting information and cyberwar, cognitive control of troops and weapons, and others.
Considering the potential threats to the security of the Russian Federation, the forecast of the development of science and technology, the trends of the development of VVST in leading foreign countries, the need to implement the requirements of regulatory legal and doctrinal documents in the field of military construction, the most appropriate strategy for the long-term development of the Armed Forces should be considered innovative. Its implementation is possible with a significant increase in the share of allocations for research and development. If you allocate the same amount of financial resources, this may adversely affect the achievement of formal indicators of the renewal of the weapons system set in the governing documents for the 2015 and 2020 years. But an attempt to ensure the achievement of the required values of such indicators in a short historical period can have a catastrophic effect on the future, when such a weapon system begins to rapidly become morally obsolete, rapidly losing efficiency compared to the weapons systems of the advanced countries of the world built on innovative principles. If Russia positions itself as an advanced power capable of playing a leading global role, there is no alternative to the innovative development of the weapons system.
However, the formation of an innovative army is not an easy task. And not only in terms of the development and organization of the production of new types of VVST. It is important to rationally integrate an innovative product into the weapons system. Otherwise, we will get an increase in the nomenclature of weapons, the cost of their operation, training of personnel, etc. And it may turn out that the effect obtained from innovative development will be absorbed by disproportionately high costs.
To determine the rational ways of innovative development of the weapons system, it is necessary to consolidate the efforts of teams of military scientists and defense industry scientists. Of course, this task cannot be solved without creative cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences. The involvement in the process of developing coordinated proposals from the Academy of Military Sciences, the Russian Academy of Engineering, the Academy of Geopolitical Problems and others can be productive. Together, we will be able, on the basis of threat analysis, assessing achievements in basic research, identify ways to improve weapons, military and special equipment, formulate proposals for the content of tactical and technical requirements for new designs, prepare tactical and technical tasks for their development and determine the capabilities of defense enterprises implementation of these tasks.
RARAN can play a unifying, systemic role in determining ways of innovative development of the weapons system. The profound knowledge of the members of the academy will be in great demand here.