In September-October 1991 in the North navy The Yak-41M vertical / short take-off and landing aircraft (V / KVP) was tested. The tests were carried out on the Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union S.G. Gorshkov, heavy aircraft carrier (TAKR) cruiser (TAKR) (before TAKR Baku), the Yak-1991M was not only the next stage in the development of Russian B aircraft after the Yak-41 / KVP, but also a staging machine in stories world aviation - the first supersonic aircraft of vertical take-off and landing.
The first studies of a supersonic vertically taking off fighter aircraft, designed to defend aircraft carriers from air attacks, were carried out at the Speed Station in 1974. Taking into account the experience of creating and operating the Yak-38 aircraft in 1975, the design of the new aircraft under the symbol Yak-41 (product "48") began. A large amount of work was done on the choice of the aerodynamic scheme of the car, several alternative variants of the power plant were considered. The results of research and development formed the basis of proposals for the aircraft with a single up-and-down engine.
The Government Decree adopted in November 1977 of the year approved the proposal of the Air Force, Navy and the Ministry of Aviation Administration with the request of the Moscow Highway Plant "Speed" to create a supersonic vertical takeoff-landing fighter and submit it to state tests in 1982. At the same time, the Ordinance provided for the creation of a training version of the Yak-41UT aircraft, presenting it for testing in the 1983 year, and also developing a technical proposal for creating a ship-based SUVS attack aircraft in the 1978 year.
In 1977, the specialists of the branch of ZOCNII developed and then presented tactical and technical requirements (TTT) of the Navy Air Force to a new vertical take-off and landing fighter intended for basing on the aircraft carrying ships: 11433 (Novorossiysk), 11434 (Baku) ), 11435 ("Tbilisi"), as well as the TKR project 1143 ("Kiev" and "Minsk") after their modernization. In the event of a delay in the creation of a new aircraft, it was envisaged that the YN-11434М cruisers of the 38 project would be equipped with an aircraft group.
The development of a supersonic VTOL aircraft was conducted under the guidance of Deputy General Designer S.А. Yakovlev (son of AS Yakovlev) and was carried out exactly on time. Gradually, the designers. Began to give preference to the scheme of the aircraft with a combined power plant of the type used on the Yak-38. But work on the car with a single lift-main engine (PMD) did not stop.
In March 1979, the OKB completed the development of the draft design of the aircraft with a single PMD R-79В-300 and built its layout. At the same time, materials on a multi-purpose fighter with an expanded armament and a combined power-plant were presented to the commission of the Ministry of Defense.
According to the results of the commission’s work, an instruction was taken by MAP to develop a preliminary design at the MMP “Speed” and build a model of a fighter with a combined power plant.
When creating a combined power plant, we decided to use two lifting engines RD-41 with a weight of each 4100 kg and one lifting and cruising engine Р-79 (Р-79В-300) with a load 15500 kg. The power plant of three engines with an electronic control system according to calculations could provide a vertical take-off or take-off with a short run-up (within the length of the deck of an aircraft carrier) of an aircraft with a maximum take-off weight of 19500 kg.
In the course of design work, aerotube and bench tests, the wing area of the aircraft (initially 29,3 m2) had to be significantly increased.
Meanwhile, the timing of the development and creation of the power plant was delayed. In addition, views on the purpose of the aircraft have changed in accordance with the new tasks of the ship aviation. As a result, an addition was developed to the TTTT of the Navy Air Force, according to which it was prescribed to create the Yak-41 attack aircraft on the basis of the developed project.
At the beginning of 1980 of the year, in accordance with the directive of the General Staff on the reorientation of the aircraft fleet of the projected fifth TAKR to vertical and short take-off aircraft, the TTT was adjusted to the aircraft approved in 1978.
In November of the same year, the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force and Navy approved the TTT refinement to the Yak-41 fighter, according to which the Speed Speed Company was tasked to ensure a shortened take-off with the takeoff of 120-130 m, take-off from the springboard and landing with a short run. In the same month, the MoD (Navy Air Force) Commission reviewed the conceptual design and layout of the Yak-41, but it took almost half a year to approve the commission’s protocol.
Somewhat later, within the framework of the general development of views on a ship-based aircraft and the possibility of its creation, the following addition to the TTT was developed in time. The aircraft began to be created as a multi-purpose one - designed to intercept air targets, conduct agile air combat and attack sea and land targets. Taking into account the experience of using the Yak-38 aircraft from land aerodromes and small-sized platforms, the range of weapons was expanded upon the request of the customer.
In parallel with the design work, the MAP and Air Force specialists in 1982-1983 conducted theoretical studies that showed the possibility of a significant increase in the combat load and the Yak-41 locking time when patrolling from the PTB during takeoff with a short takeoff or springboard. On the Yak-38 aircraft, a method for taking off with a short run-up was worked out.
Due to delays in the creation of engines in November 1983, the Decision of the military-industrial complex under the Council of Ministers of the USSR was adopted to postpone the release of the test aircraft Yak-41 to 1985 year, but this period also had to be adjusted. The lift-propulsion engine P-79В-300 was prepared for full-scale tests only at the end of 1984 of the year.
The events of 1984 of the year: the death of Defense Minister D. F. Ustinov, who supported the development of VTOL aircraft, and the retirement of A. S. Yakovlev slowed down the work on the car. Resolution 1977 of the creation of the Yak-41 and all of its subsequent additions remained unfulfilled.
In May, the 1986 was adopted by another resolution on the creation of the Multi-Purpose Yak-41М shipboard aircraft at the Moscow Speedometer, using the reserve for the Yak-41 fighter aircraft. The deadlines for submitting to the state tests of the Yak-41М aircraft were 1988 year (the beginning of deliveries of naval aviation was 1990 year), and the training Yak-41 UT -1989 year. Work on the creation of attack aircraft based on the Yak-41 ceased.
With the change in the purpose and expansion of the tasks of the aircraft with a combined power plant, the TTT was subjected to regular adjustments in terms of flight performance: the maximum speed at altitude decreased, the practical ceiling and flight range during vertical takeoff; new characteristics of the flight range with PTB and maximum load with a shortened run (120 m) were approved.
GAA.Matveev was appointed the lead designer on the aircraft.
For testing Yak-41M was built a small series of four copies. One copy was intended for static tests, the second - with the tail number "48" - for assessing the forces and moments acting on the aircraft in various flight modes, and the work of the power plant. Two flight copies had onboard numbers "75" and "77". Under these numbers, they were tested at land airfields and the Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union, S. Gorshkov, located in the Northern Fleet. The aircraft with the onboard number "77" was a pre-production instance.
In the process of creating the aircraft, carrying out bench and factory tests, a number of scientific, technical and technological problems were solved. The temperature fields from the gas jets of the engines of the power plant were investigated and a system was created to protect the engines from the ingress of hot gases into the air inlets during their operation. Special attention was paid to the mutual influence of these fields on the power plants of the aircraft during group take-off.
The Yak-41M aircraft during the design was optimized for vertical takeoff and supersonic flight. It is capable of performing a vertical takeoff full load. For this purpose, afterburner mode of operation of the engines. The combined triplex digital electric remote control system of the aircraft and the power plant associates the deviation of the all-rotary stabilizer with the operating mode of the lifting and main-landing engines. The system controls the deflection of the nozzles of all three engines. Lifting engines can operate up to a height of 2500 meters with a flight speed of no more than 550 km / h.
Fuel capacity using outboard fuel tanks can be increased by 1750 kg. It is possible to install a suspended conformal fuel tank.
Jet control systems are used on the flight copies of the aircraft, and these systems have differences on different copies. During the tests, the effectiveness of the proposed options was evaluated. On the aircraft number XXUMX jet rudders installed in the tail and have ejectors in the channel control channel. On the aircraft number XXUMX rotary jet nozzle rudders installed in the nose of the fuselage.
The information display system includes a multifunctional electronic indicator (display) and an indicator on the cab windshield.
The sighting system has an onboard computer, around which the following are grouped: an onboard radar station M002 (C-41), a fire control system, a helmet-mounted target designation system and a laser-television guidance system.
Flight-navigation system allows you to determine the coordinates of the location of the aircraft in flight from both ground (ship) radio systems and satellite navigation systems. The complex has systems for remote and trajectory control of the aircraft, autonomous navigation computer, etc.
Empty weight kg 11650.
Built-in rifle armament is a high-performance 301 mm GS-30 cannon with 120 ammunition of various types of shells, ensuring the defeat of airborne and ground (surface) lightly armored targets.
The maximum combat load of the Yak-41M is 2600 kg and is placed on the external suspension on four pylons under the wing.
Weapon variants are formed depending on the nature of the targets being hit and are divided into three main groups: air-to-air (UR P-27R P-27T, P-77, P-73), air-to-sea (UR X-31А) and air-to-surface (UR X-25MP, X-31P.X-35).
The standard armament of the aircraft includes airborne melee and medium-range missiles with active and passive radar and thermal homing heads,
Uncontrolled missile weapons (C-8 and C-13 in blocks, C-24) and bombing (FAB, small cargo containers - KM GU) are provided in a fairly wide range.
In 1985, the first prototype of the Yak-41M was built (the “48M product”, onboard number 48), the bench tests of which began in the 1986 year.
The first flight on the Yak-41M during takeoff and landing "in an airplane" was made by test pilot A.A. Sinitsyn 9 March 1987 of the year.
However, it was not possible to submit the aircraft to the State tests in the timeframe stipulated by the resolution (in 1988). When adjusting the test dates, the designation of the aircraft, which became known as the Yak-141, was once again changed.
The Yak-141 has the following advantages over the Yak-38:
take-off without taxiing out to the runway directly from the shelter along an exit taxiway with the assurance of mass entry into the battle of the Yak-141 subunit;
aircraft operation from damaged airfields;
the distribution of aircraft on a large number of small-sized sites with increased survival and home base;
the reduction in 4 - 5 times the take-off time of the Yak-141 aircraft unit from the standby position No. 1 compared to the normal take-off unit;
the concentration of a fighter aviation group to intercept air targets in threatened areas regardless of the presence of a developed aerodrome network there;
conducting close maneuver combat, striking ground and surface targets;
short response time to the call of the ground forces due to the short flight time and the simultaneous take-off of a large number of aircraft from dispersed areas located near the front line;
basing both on the naval aircraft carriers, and on the navy vessels that do not have a developed flight deck, as well as on limited landing pads and road sections.
Testing of the vertical start mode with hovering began at the end of 1989 of the year. 13 June 1990 th pilot A.A. Sinitsyn performed the first flight with vertical takeoff and landing.
The unique characteristics of the new machine, revealed during the tests, made it possible to count on the opportunity to officially take the leading world positions among the aircraft of this class. By April, 1991, one of the flight copies of the Yak-41M with a set of test cargo was prepared for record flights. During 15 days, test pilot OKB im. A.S. Yakovleva A.A. Sinitsyn set 12 world records in the class of aircraft "N" (vehicles with vertical take-off and landing with reactive lifting force).
The active testing phase of the Yak-41M aircraft under ship conditions began in September 1991.
The test support team included specialists from various industry organizations and the Ministry of Defense. In the group was the author of these lines. We flew from the airfield LII on the Yak-42 aircraft and after about 2,5 hours were already in Severomorsk, where preparations were made for a meeting at the coastal aerodrome of two experienced Yak-41М aircraft.
We were preparing for the tests on the aircraft carrier. The cruiser was provided with rooms for the placement of special equipment, and the preparation of the deck for the reception of aircraft and their placement was carried out. The difficulty consisted in the fact that there were no delays for the Admiral Gorshkov TAKR, which are necessary to hold the aircraft when the afterburner starts up for a short takeoff. So that the plane does not slide along the deck when the engine is taken to take-off mode, in the OKB Design Bureau. A.S. Yakovleva developed the profile delays (stops). In preparation for the tests, these stops were attached to the deck, and if necessary they were easily removed.
In connection with the transfer on board the cruiser of the specialists involved in the trials, as well as representatives of the commission, residential and work premises were provided for them, the procedure for providing food, etc. was worked out.
KF Popovich, Deputy Chief Designer of the OKB, supervised all flight test activities.
As the ship was being prepared, the test program was updated. In addition to testing a single aircraft, various options for grouping aircraft from a ship, including non-traditional ones, were considered. According to the calculations made in the design bureau and research institutes, they could be implemented in practice.
Preparation for the Yak-41M tests both in the Design Bureau and on the ship was carried out taking into account the experience of testing and operation of the Yak-38 attack aircraft. During the operation of the Yak-38, there were incidents related to the misalignment of engines (lifting and cruising) on the roll, swing of the aircraft in roll and pitch, spontaneous heeling and turning ("catching") on the course. To prevent such moments, the Yak-41M was equipped with more advanced jet rudders and automation, as well as a system to prevent hot gases from entering the power unit inlet. 24 September 1991 of the year began the flight of aircraft from the Zhukovsky airfield to the site of the next test phase.
After training at the airport "Severomorsk" aircraft flew to the ship. Takeoff was carried out in an airplane. Flights of new cars caused universal admiration. Schemes and flight conditions of the Yak-41M aircraft according to the dates of their execution when conducting tests on the Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union S. Gorshkov are given below.
The landing of the first aircraft was brilliant. Test pilot OKB A.A. Sinitsyn gently put the car on the deck of the ship, but when you turn off the power plant made an increase in pitch. This happened due to the fact that on the experimental machine there was a separate shutdown of the engines of the power plant, and the pilot first switched off the PMD and then the PD. As a result, the plane already on the deck began to bully and lightly touched the deck with a stabilizer and jet flaps. But everything ended well.
The second was successfully landed by test pilot OKB V.A. Yakimov. It should be noted that for him it was the first landing on the deck of an aircraft carrier.
Started ship trials of the new machine. An assessment was made of the possibility of operating the aircraft on the ship, the descent and ascent of the lifts, mooring options, and the possibility of placing it on the hangar deck and in the workshop. As a result, the aircraft was almost completely adapted to ship-based and operation. There were also some problems, but according to experts, they were easily resolved.
September 30 began test flights. In total there were three of them, including two with a short takeoff and one hover flight with a vertical takeoff. All landings were made vertically.
As already mentioned, to ensure a short take-off on the deck, profile stops were installed. For takeoff, the pilot taxied and installed the aircraft on these stops, put the engine into the afterburner and released the brakes. The plane rolled over the stops and began to run.
The test program envisaged the development of actions in real conditions of the location of the ship in the open sea. To do this, TAKR went to the Barents Sea, but flights did not take place due to bad weather conditions. The weather forecast did not promise improvement, and the ship returned to base.
In the course of testing, I had to compare the take-off with a short takeoff of the Yak-41M aircraft with the springboard takeoff of the Su-27K and MiG-29K aircraft. It was to compare with what, shortly before that, I had to visit the Tbilisi-based air traffic control center and participate in the testing of take-off and aerofi-nysher landing airplanes. The takeoff with a short run-up of the Yak-41M looked quieter compared with the dynamics of the Su-27K and MiG-29K springboard take-off. The Yak overclocking was slightly higher in time, but it was easier and faster to organize a group takeoff of the Yak-41M, using unconventional take-off options.
AA Sinitsyn devoted much attention to the problem of organizing a group take-off. We went to the Cape and measured the deck, made options for pre-launch placement of machines and developed proposals for achieving safe take-off conditions. These conditions were associated with some modifications of the deck elements that did not require the creation of summer No. XXUMX were made by A. A. Sinitsyn. The flight was successful, the task was completed.
The next V.Yakimov took off on the plane №77. The flight was normal, but during landing the pilot made an excess of the vertical speed, as a result of which an accident occurred.
All tests of the Yak-41M were terminated. Began to investigate this incident. Flight analysis took place in the cabin of the commander of the ship, here all the information came from the aircraft on-board recorders.
As the results of the investigation showed, an emergency occurred at the final stage of the flight. When approaching the ship, lateral forces from the air intakes arose from the plane due to the side wind, which the pilot compensated by deflecting the high-flow pedals.
In this position, the plane approached the deck. The flight leader gave commands to the pilot to hold the course. The strong side wind, the proximity of the ship's superstructure and the limited size of the deck - all this together created a desire for the pilot to land more quickly. There was no support from the flight leader to ensure safe vertical speed. Being above the deck at a height of 10-13 meters, the pilot allowed the maximum vertical speed of descent to be exceeded. The plane landed roughly, hitting the deck, the main landing gear struck the fuel tank, there was a fire. Pilot V.A. Yakimov after repeated flight control teams ejected.
The search and rescue service of the TAKR, which was on high alert, was not involved - Yakimov boarded up and the rescue boat quickly picked up. The fire on the plane was extinguished by the fire services of the ship using standard means.
We must pay tribute to the unique means of salvation Yak-41M, which worked flawlessly. The K-36LV chair was created in the Zvezda Scientific and Production Association (G.I. Severin, head of the company). From OKB im. A.S. Yakovlev work on creating a Yak-41M ejection seat was headed by B.S. Prusakov. The K-36LV armchair provides automatic rescue for the pilot in vertical and transient flight modes, as well as the safe escape of the aircraft in virtually all flight modes in the event of an emergency or combat defeat.
In aviation, especially when testing aircraft, unfortunately sometimes there are emergencies, although the safety of the flight and the preservation of the life of the crew in the event of an emergency are the basis for the development of aircraft. In a situation that occurred with the Yak-41M, the pilot safely ejected and soon flew again. But then we were all depressed about what had happened. Of course, V.A. Yakimov was the hardest.
We perfectly understood the situation in the country, and that the accident could be used to curtail work on this topic. But I didn’t even want to talk about this when we got together with the test leaders before leaving the ship. In memory of the first landing of the Yak-41M on the Admiral Gorshkov TAKR, I was left with a photograph of the aircraft, which was a pre-production aircraft complex and intended to arm Soviet aircraft carrier ships.
The Yak-141 (Yak-41М No. 75) after the termination of the tests was first publicly presented on 6-13 on September 1992, at the Farnborough air show, and later repeatedly demonstrated at other air shows. The second Yak-41М (tail number "77") after restoration became a museum exhibit.
The growing crisis and the collapse of the union state did not allow this machine to be put into mass production. The accident served only as a formal reason for first freezing and then completely covering the subject of development of V / KVP aircraft in our country. However, work on new promising projects continued for some time in the OKB.
In the process of creating and operating aircraft V / KVP had accumulated vast experience. As a result, the designers and scientists of our country managed to create a supersonic V / KVP aircraft, which has no analogues in the world. World records set on one of the experienced Yak-141 aircrafts by test pilot A.A. Sinitsyn testify to high flight tactical performance.
By the end of 1991, work at the Saratov aircraft factory on the preparation of the Yak-41М serial production was discontinued due to lack of funding.
The work on fine-tuning and improving the performance of the aircraft in the OKB in subsequent years was carried out with its own funds in the calculation of promising, including export orders. On the basis of the Yak-41M (Yak-141) and its promising modifications, a flexible mobile defense system with a high degree of combat survivability could be created that could ensure the preservation of the combat potential of the defending side in the event of a sudden massive strike by the enemy.
The emergence and development of the aircraft V / KVP was due to the entire course of scientific and technological progress. The authors of some publications argue that the development of the VTOL aircraft was the wrong direction, that they would never reach the normal technical characteristics of conventional take-off and landing aircraft. This is not quite true. The VTOL aircraft is an aircraft that received, compared to a conventional aerodynamic configuration aircraft, new properties and, therefore, new opportunities. So, for example, the experience of combat use of the AV-8V "Harrier" SVVP showed that when using tactical tactics of helicopters in melee air combat, it is 2-3 times more than the F-A-18 "Chorus-No" fighters and fighters 14A "Tomkat", although in long-range combat loses them with the ratio 1: 4.
With the further development of the design of the Yak-41M type aircraft, the aerodynamic schemes gained the right to life, by implementing which you can get an aircraft that is not much inferior to an ordinary (classical) plane, but has several advantages. Such schemes were later to be implemented in aircraft such as the Yak-141M, Yak-43, etc. These schemes were presented at various exhibitions and published in a number of scientific and technical journals.
In the projects of promising aircraft V / KVP worked out issues of increasing their combat effectiveness. To this end, it was proposed to follow in the direction of a significant increase in the combat range and time of locking in a given area, increasing the mass of the payload, increasing the range of weapons and improving fire control systems, reducing radar and infrared visibility. This is confirmed by the calculations, according to which the tactical and technical characteristics of the promising Yak-141М aircraft differ for the better in comparison with the Yak-141.
When a path of development of a direction is broken, inevitably there is a slowdown in progress in science, technology and knowledge, a loss of scientific, technical and technological reserve, as well as trained personnel of scientists, designers, engineers and other specialists.
At the beginning of the 1990s, the crash of the Yak-41M was just a “catch” to curtail all work on the subject of creating new generation V / KVP aircraft. The supersonic Yak-41М stood at the threshold of future ocean trips, which were prevented by the changed socio-political and economic situation in the country, which led to the collapse of the USSR and the failure to implement many new-generation aircraft complexes.
NATO designation: FREESTYLE
VTVP Yak-141 is made under the scheme vysokoplan, with a combined power plant and with the same layout of the engines as the Yak-38, two-vertical vertical tail and three-bearing chassis.
The airframe of the aircraft on 26% (by weight) is made of KM, including carbon-fiber tail surfaces, flaps, overflows and toes of the wing, and the rest of the design is made mainly of corrosion-resistant aluminum-lithium alloys to reduce weight.
According to Aleksandr Yermishin, General Director of the Saratov Aviation Plant JSC, the “complexity factor” of the Yak-141 aircraft as compared to the MiG-29 fighter is 1.7.
The layout of the engines is the same as on the Yak-38 - the previous VTOL aircraft design bureau named after AS Yakovlev - one lift-cruise engine is located in the rear fuselage and two cruise engines are located immediately behind the pilot's cabin.
The fuselage of rectangular section, made according to the rule of areas, has a pointed nose, which houses the cockpit with ejection seat K-36В, like on the Yak-38 aircraft, designed by the Zvezda Design Bureau, providing automatic escape of the aircraft on vertical and transitional flight modes when occurrence of a critical situation. This system automatically switches to ready mode when the PMD nozzle is deflected at an angle of more than 30 degrees. Forced automatic ejection of a pilot occurs when a specified pitch angle or a given combination of heel angle is exceeded and at an angular velocity of heel. Two lifting engines are located immediately behind the cockpit, lift-main engine is located in the tail section of the aircraft.
The wing is high, arrow-shaped, with a break of the rear edge and root swellings, has a negative transverse V 4 gr. and the sweep angle on the leading edge 30 gr. When placing an aircraft on a ship, the console can fold up, almost halving the wingspan. The wing has a well-developed mechanization consisting of rotary socks in the root and folding parts, flaps in the root part and allivons on the folding parts.
The tail unit is located on two cantilever beams, extended far back beyond the main-lift engine, and includes two keels with rudders installed with a slight collapse, and a full turning stabilizer located below the plane of the wing. From the keels forward along the fuselage are vertical partitions.
The tricycle landing gear with single-wheel racks attached to the fuselage, the front desk retracts back, the main - forward under the air intakes.
The power plant includes one lift-main engine P-79 of the Moscow NPO Soyuz and two lift engines RD-41 of the Rybinsk engine-building design bureau used for take-off and landing. Each of the box-shaped air intakes of the P-79 engine is distinguished by a large cross-sectional area, it is strongly beveled at the entrance and has an adjustable wedge and two bypass flaps, the round nozzle turns to an angle up to 95 gr. to deflect thrust. The resource of the nozzle rotation mechanism contributes not less than 1500 rotation cycles. The maximum turn is used for vertical takeoff and landing. In addition to the purely vertical take-off, the Yak-141 can use at least two more take-off methods. This is a short take-off and an ultra-short take-off with a slip. For both of these types of take-off, the normal deflection of the lift-sustainer engine nozzle is 65 gr., And during takeoff with a take-off run, the nozzle is rotated at this angle after the start of the run, and during take-off with slippage (with a run-up length of around 6 m) engine operation in the afterburner is set before the aircraft starts moving.
The use of non-vertical types of take-off increases the carrying capacity of the aircraft, as this eliminates the negative effect of the screen effect (reduced engine thrust as a result of hot jets reflected from the runways and the suction effect of these jets in the air intakes). By turning the nozzle into a vertical position, the thrust can reach 80% of the horizontal thrust. During takeoff and landing, an afterburner is used, which can make it difficult to use the aircraft from ground airfields due to increased erosion of the take-off area.
In the process of testing for the summer of 1991, turning the nozzles in horizontal flight for combat maneuvering was not used. By the fall of 1992, the 26 P-79 engines were built, of which 16 was ready for operation on an aircraft, and seven engines were tested in flight on an aircraft.
Lifting engines RD-41 are installed one after the other behind the cabin and have retractable flaps covering the air intakes and nozzles in horizontal flight. The engines are inclined by about 10 degrees forward relative to the vertical, their nozzles can be rotated in the range from + 12.5 to -12.5 gr. in the longitudinal plane, the cross-sectional area of the nozzle can be adjusted in the 10% range. During vertical take-off, the nozzles of the lift engines are turned to each other to form a single jet (otherwise, two separate jets lead to undesirable formation of an ascending fountain), during take-off with a short run, the nozzles of both engines are rejected by a maximum back angle (the total angle of each nozzle, taking into account the slope The motor axis is about 22.5 degrees) to create a horizontal thrust component. By the end of 1991, about 30 RD-41 engines were built.
During a vertical take-off, two transverse partitions are extended under the air intakes to prevent the recirculation of hot gases (from the ascending fountain zone formed between the lifting and main jet engines) and foreign objects getting into the air intakes, and on the sides of the bottom air intakes - two longitudinal horizontal partitions - for organizing the flow of hot gases from the fuselage.
Digital three-channel engine management system, with full responsibility. During the transition from vertical flight to horizontal, the pilot manually reduces the thrust angle of the lift / cruise engine to 65 gr., The further rotation of the thrust vector to zero occurs automatically. Traction lifting engines decreases automatically, preventing unbalance of the aircraft throughout the transition to horizontal flight.
Flight navigation system provides manual, director and automatic control of the aircraft from take-off to landing at any time of day in various weather conditions at all geographic latitudes. The flight-navigation complex includes an INS, an ACS, a radio engineering system for near navigation and landing, a radio altimeter, an automatic radio compass, and a satellite navigation system. The horizontal position of the aircraft is controlled by aerodynamic surfaces (all-round stabilizer, ailerons, rudders), on hover and low-speed flight modes — jet rudders located at the ends of the wing (along the heel) and tail beams (along the yaw), as well as a differential change in the thrust of the lifting and main-prop engines (in pitch).
The air for the jet rudders is withdrawn from the main lift engine compressor. Aerodynamic and jet rudders are controlled by a digital electro-remote system with full responsibility and with a three-channel redundancy scheme developed by Avionika Moscow Scientific-Production Company, there is a backup mechanical flight control system (according to some reports, an EDSU without a backup mechanical is installed on one of the experimental aircraft systems).
The pilot ejection system provides automatic aircraft escape on vertical and transient flight modes in the event of critical situations. This system automatically switches to standby mode when the nozzle of the lift / main engine is deflected at an angle of more than 30 gr. Forced automatic ejection of the pilot occurs when a specified pitch angle or a given combination of roll angle and angular velocity of roll is exceeded.
Electronic and sighting equipment includes an armament control system with a multifunctional pulse-Doppler radar "Zhuk" (RP-29), which is also on the MiG-29, HUD and multifunction MFD on the front panel, it is possible to install a laser rangefinder and a television guidance system. (All of this equipment stood only on the lost 2 instance of the Yak-141). The on-board radar is capable of detecting air targets with an 3 ESR apt. m. at a distance of 80 km, the boat - at a distance of 110 km. An IR sensor of the search-tracking system coupled to the radar and laser rangefinder can also be installed.
Electronic suppression equipment is mounted in the wing tips and keels. In the partitions extending from the keels of the Yak-141 forward, devices for ejection of thermal false targets or dipole reflectors can be placed.
The weapons control system allows simultaneous attacks of several targets and a high-resolution review of the earth's surface.
The Yak-141 fighter is armed with an 301mm caliber HS-30 cannon located in the fuselage with an ammunition in 120 shells. On four (and later on six) underwing pylons, an air-to-air SD (medium P-27 and short-range P-73 or short-range P-60) and an air-surface (B-3 X-25 and X-29) can be suspended, gun mounts or rocket launchers.
Options for weapons suspension:
Air-to-air class UR -
-4 x P-77;
-4хР-77 + 1хПТБ (2000л);
-2xP-27E + 2xP-73E + 1xPTB (L 2000);
-2xP-60 + 2xP-73;
-2xP-60 + 2xP-77;
Air-to-sea class ur
-2ХХ-35 + 2хР-73Э + 1хПТБ (L 2000);
-4XX-35А + 1хПТБ (2000л);
-4XX-35P + 2хРВК-АЭ + 1хПТБ (L 2000);
Ammunition for ground targets -
-6XABSP (500 kg);
-4 unit with NURS caliber 80-249 mm + 1xPTB (2000 l);
-2ХХ-ЗШ + 2ХР-77 + 1хПТБ (L 2000);
-2xK-25 + 2xP-73Е x 1xPTB (L 2000);
- 4 x-cannon containers 23 mm (250 shells) + 1 PTB;
Tactical and technical characteristics of the aircraft Yak-141:
- in the unfolded position - 10,1 m
- in folded position - 5,9 m
Aircraft length - 18,3 m
Aircraft height - 5,0 m
Fuel Weight, kg
- in internal tanks - 4400
- in suspended - 1750
Maximum take-off weight, kg
- during the run 120 m - 19500
- with vertical takeoff - 15800
Engine type (thrust, kgf):
lift-march - TRDDF R-79 (1х15500 / 1х9000)
lifting - 2 x TRD RD-41 (2x4260)
Maximum speed km / h
- near the ground - 1250
- at the height of 11 km - 1800
Practical ceiling - 15000 m
Practical range with load, km
- near the ground - 1250
- at a height of 10-12 km - 2100
Combat range under load - 690 km
Barrage Time - 1,5 h
Maximum Operating Overload - 7
Crew - 1 pax
Armament: 1 x 30-mm gun GSH-301 (120 ammo). On four, and later on, six under-wing pylons, P-77 or medium-range P-27 airborne and short-range P-73 airborne or short-range air strikes P-60 and X-25 can be suspended, X-31, gun installations (23 mm, 250 cartridges) or NAR launch blocks with a caliber from 80 to 240 mm, up to six bombs with a 500 caliber kg.
"Military Aviation" Media 2000
Aviation Internet Encyclopedia "Corner of the Sky"
Aviation and Cosmonautics. Vadim Kolmogorov. The last aircraft of the Soviet Union
Wings of the motherland. Lev Bern. Yak-141 - supersonic "vertical"
Victor Markovsky. I ... Yak ... loser?
Aviation and Time. Yak-141: a critical moment biography
Aviapanorama. Dmitry Boev. Yak-141: and again grief from the mind?
Nikolay Yakubovich. ASJakovlev combat jets
Roman Astakhov. Russian Power. Deck multipurpose fighter of Yak-141 GDP