Military Review

Yak-141 (Freestyle). Vertical Racing


In September-October 1991 in the North navy The Yak-41M vertical / short take-off and landing aircraft (V / KVP) was tested. The tests were carried out on the Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union S.G. Gorshkov, heavy aircraft carrier (TAKR) cruiser (TAKR) (before TAKR Baku), the Yak-1991M was not only the next stage in the development of Russian B aircraft after the Yak-41 / KVP, but also a staging machine in stories world aviation - the first supersonic aircraft of vertical take-off and landing.

The first studies of a supersonic vertically taking off fighter aircraft, designed to defend aircraft carriers from air attacks, were carried out at the Speed ​​Station in 1974. Taking into account the experience of creating and operating the Yak-38 aircraft in 1975, the design of the new aircraft under the symbol Yak-41 (product "48") began. A large amount of work was done on the choice of the aerodynamic scheme of the car, several alternative variants of the power plant were considered. The results of research and development formed the basis of proposals for the aircraft with a single up-and-down engine.

The Government Decree adopted in November 1977 of the year approved the proposal of the Air Force, Navy and the Ministry of Aviation Administration with the request of the Moscow Highway Plant "Speed" to create a supersonic vertical takeoff-landing fighter and submit it to state tests in 1982. At the same time, the Ordinance provided for the creation of a training version of the Yak-41UT aircraft, presenting it for testing in the 1983 year, and also developing a technical proposal for creating a ship-based SUVS attack aircraft in the 1978 year.

In 1977, the specialists of the branch of ZOCNII developed and then presented tactical and technical requirements (TTT) of the Navy Air Force to a new vertical take-off and landing fighter intended for basing on the aircraft carrying ships: 11433 (Novorossiysk), 11434 (Baku) ), 11435 ("Tbilisi"), as well as the TKR project 1143 ("Kiev" and "Minsk") after their modernization. In the event of a delay in the creation of a new aircraft, it was envisaged that the YN-11434М cruisers of the 38 project would be equipped with an aircraft group.

The development of a supersonic VTOL aircraft was conducted under the guidance of Deputy General Designer S.А. Yakovlev (son of AS Yakovlev) and was carried out exactly on time. Gradually, the designers. Began to give preference to the scheme of the aircraft with a combined power plant of the type used on the Yak-38. But work on the car with a single lift-main engine (PMD) did not stop.

Yak-141 (Freestyle). Vertical Racing

In March 1979, the OKB completed the development of the draft design of the aircraft with a single PMD R-79В-300 and built its layout. At the same time, materials on a multi-purpose fighter with an expanded armament and a combined power-plant were presented to the commission of the Ministry of Defense.

According to the results of the commission’s work, an instruction was taken by MAP to develop a preliminary design at the MMP “Speed” and build a model of a fighter with a combined power plant.

When creating a combined power plant, we decided to use two lifting engines RD-41 with a weight of each 4100 kg and one lifting and cruising engine Р-79 (Р-79В-300) with a load 15500 kg. The power plant of three engines with an electronic control system according to calculations could provide a vertical take-off or take-off with a short run-up (within the length of the deck of an aircraft carrier) of an aircraft with a maximum take-off weight of 19500 kg.

In the course of design work, aerotube and bench tests, the wing area of ​​the aircraft (initially 29,3 m2) had to be significantly increased.

Meanwhile, the timing of the development and creation of the power plant was delayed. In addition, views on the purpose of the aircraft have changed in accordance with the new tasks of the ship aviation. As a result, an addition was developed to the TTTT of the Navy Air Force, according to which it was prescribed to create the Yak-41 attack aircraft on the basis of the developed project.

At the beginning of 1980 of the year, in accordance with the directive of the General Staff on the reorientation of the aircraft fleet of the projected fifth TAKR to vertical and short take-off aircraft, the TTT was adjusted to the aircraft approved in 1978.

In November of the same year, the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force and Navy approved the TTT refinement to the Yak-41 fighter, according to which the Speed ​​Speed ​​Company was tasked to ensure a shortened take-off with the takeoff of 120-130 m, take-off from the springboard and landing with a short run. In the same month, the MoD (Navy Air Force) Commission reviewed the conceptual design and layout of the Yak-41, but it took almost half a year to approve the commission’s protocol.

Somewhat later, within the framework of the general development of views on a ship-based aircraft and the possibility of its creation, the following addition to the TTT was developed in time. The aircraft began to be created as a multi-purpose one - designed to intercept air targets, conduct agile air combat and attack sea and land targets. Taking into account the experience of using the Yak-38 aircraft from land aerodromes and small-sized platforms, the range of weapons was expanded upon the request of the customer.

In parallel with the design work, the MAP and Air Force specialists in 1982-1983 conducted theoretical studies that showed the possibility of a significant increase in the combat load and the Yak-41 locking time when patrolling from the PTB during takeoff with a short takeoff or springboard. On the Yak-38 aircraft, a method for taking off with a short run-up was worked out.

Due to delays in the creation of engines in November 1983, the Decision of the military-industrial complex under the Council of Ministers of the USSR was adopted to postpone the release of the test aircraft Yak-41 to 1985 year, but this period also had to be adjusted. The lift-propulsion engine P-79В-300 was prepared for full-scale tests only at the end of 1984 of the year.

The events of 1984 of the year: the death of Defense Minister D. F. Ustinov, who supported the development of VTOL aircraft, and the retirement of A. S. Yakovlev slowed down the work on the car. Resolution 1977 of the creation of the Yak-41 and all of its subsequent additions remained unfulfilled.

In May, the 1986 was adopted by another resolution on the creation of the Multi-Purpose Yak-41М shipboard aircraft at the Moscow Speedometer, using the reserve for the Yak-41 fighter aircraft. The deadlines for submitting to the state tests of the Yak-41М aircraft were 1988 year (the beginning of deliveries of naval aviation was 1990 year), and the training Yak-41 UT -1989 year. Work on the creation of attack aircraft based on the Yak-41 ceased.

With the change in the purpose and expansion of the tasks of the aircraft with a combined power plant, the TTT was subjected to regular adjustments in terms of flight performance: the maximum speed at altitude decreased, the practical ceiling and flight range during vertical takeoff; new characteristics of the flight range with PTB and maximum load with a shortened run (120 m) were approved.

GAA.Matveev was appointed the lead designer on the aircraft.

For testing Yak-41M was built a small series of four copies. One copy was intended for static tests, the second - with the tail number "48" - for assessing the forces and moments acting on the aircraft in various flight modes, and the work of the power plant. Two flight copies had onboard numbers "75" and "77". Under these numbers, they were tested at land airfields and the Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union, S. Gorshkov, located in the Northern Fleet. The aircraft with the onboard number "77" was a pre-production instance.

In the process of creating the aircraft, carrying out bench and factory tests, a number of scientific, technical and technological problems were solved. The temperature fields from the gas jets of the engines of the power plant were investigated and a system was created to protect the engines from the ingress of hot gases into the air inlets during their operation. Special attention was paid to the mutual influence of these fields on the power plants of the aircraft during group take-off.

The Yak-41M aircraft during the design was optimized for vertical takeoff and supersonic flight. It is capable of performing a vertical takeoff full load. For this purpose, afterburner mode of operation of the engines. The combined triplex digital electric remote control system of the aircraft and the power plant associates the deviation of the all-rotary stabilizer with the operating mode of the lifting and main-landing engines. The system controls the deflection of the nozzles of all three engines. Lifting engines can operate up to a height of 2500 meters with a flight speed of no more than 550 km / h.

Fuel capacity using outboard fuel tanks can be increased by 1750 kg. It is possible to install a suspended conformal fuel tank.

Jet control systems are used on the flight copies of the aircraft, and these systems have differences on different copies. During the tests, the effectiveness of the proposed options was evaluated. On the aircraft number XXUMX jet rudders installed in the tail and have ejectors in the channel control channel. On the aircraft number XXUMX rotary jet nozzle rudders installed in the nose of the fuselage.

The information display system includes a multifunctional electronic indicator (display) and an indicator on the cab windshield.

The sighting system has an onboard computer, around which the following are grouped: an onboard radar station M002 (C-41), a fire control system, a helmet-mounted target designation system and a laser-television guidance system.

Flight-navigation system allows you to determine the coordinates of the location of the aircraft in flight from both ground (ship) radio systems and satellite navigation systems. The complex has systems for remote and trajectory control of the aircraft, autonomous navigation computer, etc.

Empty weight kg 11650.

Built-in rifle armament is a high-performance 301 mm GS-30 cannon with 120 ammunition of various types of shells, ensuring the defeat of airborne and ground (surface) lightly armored targets.

The maximum combat load of the Yak-41M is 2600 kg and is placed on the external suspension on four pylons under the wing.

Weapon variants are formed depending on the nature of the targets being hit and are divided into three main groups: air-to-air (UR P-27R P-27T, P-77, P-73), air-to-sea (UR X-31А) and air-to-surface (UR X-25MP, X-31P.X-35).

The standard armament of the aircraft includes airborne melee and medium-range missiles with active and passive radar and thermal homing heads,

Uncontrolled missile weapons (C-8 and C-13 in blocks, C-24) and bombing (FAB, small cargo containers - KM GU) are provided in a fairly wide range.

In 1985, the first prototype of the Yak-41M was built (the “48M product”, onboard number 48), the bench tests of which began in the 1986 year.

The first flight on the Yak-41M during takeoff and landing "in an airplane" was made by test pilot A.A. Sinitsyn 9 March 1987 of the year.

However, it was not possible to submit the aircraft to the State tests in the timeframe stipulated by the resolution (in 1988). When adjusting the test dates, the designation of the aircraft, which became known as the Yak-141, was once again changed.

The Yak-141 has the following advantages over the Yak-38:

take-off without taxiing out to the runway directly from the shelter along an exit taxiway with the assurance of mass entry into the battle of the Yak-141 subunit;
aircraft operation from damaged airfields;
the distribution of aircraft on a large number of small-sized sites with increased survival and home base;
the reduction in 4 - 5 times the take-off time of the Yak-141 aircraft unit from the standby position No. 1 compared to the normal take-off unit;
the concentration of a fighter aviation group to intercept air targets in threatened areas regardless of the presence of a developed aerodrome network there;
conducting close maneuver combat, striking ground and surface targets;
short response time to the call of the ground forces due to the short flight time and the simultaneous take-off of a large number of aircraft from dispersed areas located near the front line;
basing both on the naval aircraft carriers, and on the navy vessels that do not have a developed flight deck, as well as on limited landing pads and road sections.
Testing of the vertical start mode with hovering began at the end of 1989 of the year. 13 June 1990 th pilot A.A. Sinitsyn performed the first flight with vertical takeoff and landing.

The unique characteristics of the new machine, revealed during the tests, made it possible to count on the opportunity to officially take the leading world positions among the aircraft of this class. By April, 1991, one of the flight copies of the Yak-41M with a set of test cargo was prepared for record flights. During 15 days, test pilot OKB im. A.S. Yakovleva A.A. Sinitsyn set 12 world records in the class of aircraft "N" (vehicles with vertical take-off and landing with reactive lifting force).

The active testing phase of the Yak-41M aircraft under ship conditions began in September 1991.

The test support team included specialists from various industry organizations and the Ministry of Defense. In the group was the author of these lines. We flew from the airfield LII on the Yak-42 aircraft and after about 2,5 hours were already in Severomorsk, where preparations were made for a meeting at the coastal aerodrome of two experienced Yak-41М aircraft.

We were preparing for the tests on the aircraft carrier. The cruiser was provided with rooms for the placement of special equipment, and the preparation of the deck for the reception of aircraft and their placement was carried out. The difficulty consisted in the fact that there were no delays for the Admiral Gorshkov TAKR, which are necessary to hold the aircraft when the afterburner starts up for a short takeoff. So that the plane does not slide along the deck when the engine is taken to take-off mode, in the OKB Design Bureau. A.S. Yakovleva developed the profile delays (stops). In preparation for the tests, these stops were attached to the deck, and if necessary they were easily removed.

In connection with the transfer on board the cruiser of the specialists involved in the trials, as well as representatives of the commission, residential and work premises were provided for them, the procedure for providing food, etc. was worked out.

KF Popovich, Deputy Chief Designer of the OKB, supervised all flight test activities.

As the ship was being prepared, the test program was updated. In addition to testing a single aircraft, various options for grouping aircraft from a ship, including non-traditional ones, were considered. According to the calculations made in the design bureau and research institutes, they could be implemented in practice.

Preparation for the Yak-41M tests both in the Design Bureau and on the ship was carried out taking into account the experience of testing and operation of the Yak-38 attack aircraft. During the operation of the Yak-38, there were incidents related to the misalignment of engines (lifting and cruising) on ​​the roll, swing of the aircraft in roll and pitch, spontaneous heeling and turning ("catching") on the course. To prevent such moments, the Yak-41M was equipped with more advanced jet rudders and automation, as well as a system to prevent hot gases from entering the power unit inlet. 24 September 1991 of the year began the flight of aircraft from the Zhukovsky airfield to the site of the next test phase.

After training at the airport "Severomorsk" aircraft flew to the ship. Takeoff was carried out in an airplane. Flights of new cars caused universal admiration. Schemes and flight conditions of the Yak-41M aircraft according to the dates of their execution when conducting tests on the Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union S. Gorshkov are given below.

The landing of the first aircraft was brilliant. Test pilot OKB A.A. Sinitsyn gently put the car on the deck of the ship, but when you turn off the power plant made an increase in pitch. This happened due to the fact that on the experimental machine there was a separate shutdown of the engines of the power plant, and the pilot first switched off the PMD and then the PD. As a result, the plane already on the deck began to bully and lightly touched the deck with a stabilizer and jet flaps. But everything ended well.

The second was successfully landed by test pilot OKB V.A. Yakimov. It should be noted that for him it was the first landing on the deck of an aircraft carrier.

Started ship trials of the new machine. An assessment was made of the possibility of operating the aircraft on the ship, the descent and ascent of the lifts, mooring options, and the possibility of placing it on the hangar deck and in the workshop. As a result, the aircraft was almost completely adapted to ship-based and operation. There were also some problems, but according to experts, they were easily resolved.

September 30 began test flights. In total there were three of them, including two with a short takeoff and one hover flight with a vertical takeoff. All landings were made vertically.

As already mentioned, to ensure a short take-off on the deck, profile stops were installed. For takeoff, the pilot taxied and installed the aircraft on these stops, put the engine into the afterburner and released the brakes. The plane rolled over the stops and began to run.

The test program envisaged the development of actions in real conditions of the location of the ship in the open sea. To do this, TAKR went to the Barents Sea, but flights did not take place due to bad weather conditions. The weather forecast did not promise improvement, and the ship returned to base.

In the course of testing, I had to compare the take-off with a short takeoff of the Yak-41M aircraft with the springboard takeoff of the Su-27K and MiG-29K aircraft. It was to compare with what, shortly before that, I had to visit the Tbilisi-based air traffic control center and participate in the testing of take-off and aerofi-nysher landing airplanes. The takeoff with a short run-up of the Yak-41M looked quieter compared with the dynamics of the Su-27K and MiG-29K springboard take-off. The Yak overclocking was slightly higher in time, but it was easier and faster to organize a group takeoff of the Yak-41M, using unconventional take-off options.

AA Sinitsyn devoted much attention to the problem of organizing a group take-off. We went to the Cape and measured the deck, made options for pre-launch placement of machines and developed proposals for achieving safe take-off conditions. These conditions were associated with some modifications of the deck elements that did not require the creation of summer No. XXUMX were made by A. A. Sinitsyn. The flight was successful, the task was completed.

The next V.Yakimov took off on the plane №77. The flight was normal, but during landing the pilot made an excess of the vertical speed, as a result of which an accident occurred.

All tests of the Yak-41M were terminated. Began to investigate this incident. Flight analysis took place in the cabin of the commander of the ship, here all the information came from the aircraft on-board recorders.

As the results of the investigation showed, an emergency occurred at the final stage of the flight. When approaching the ship, lateral forces from the air intakes arose from the plane due to the side wind, which the pilot compensated by deflecting the high-flow pedals.

In this position, the plane approached the deck. The flight leader gave commands to the pilot to hold the course. The strong side wind, the proximity of the ship's superstructure and the limited size of the deck - all this together created a desire for the pilot to land more quickly. There was no support from the flight leader to ensure safe vertical speed. Being above the deck at a height of 10-13 meters, the pilot allowed the maximum vertical speed of descent to be exceeded. The plane landed roughly, hitting the deck, the main landing gear struck the fuel tank, there was a fire. Pilot V.A. Yakimov after repeated flight control teams ejected.

The search and rescue service of the TAKR, which was on high alert, was not involved - Yakimov boarded up and the rescue boat quickly picked up. The fire on the plane was extinguished by the fire services of the ship using standard means.

We must pay tribute to the unique means of salvation Yak-41M, which worked flawlessly. The K-36LV chair was created in the Zvezda Scientific and Production Association (G.I. Severin, head of the company). From OKB im. A.S. Yakovlev work on creating a Yak-41M ejection seat was headed by B.S. Prusakov. The K-36LV armchair provides automatic rescue for the pilot in vertical and transient flight modes, as well as the safe escape of the aircraft in virtually all flight modes in the event of an emergency or combat defeat.

In aviation, especially when testing aircraft, unfortunately sometimes there are emergencies, although the safety of the flight and the preservation of the life of the crew in the event of an emergency are the basis for the development of aircraft. In a situation that occurred with the Yak-41M, the pilot safely ejected and soon flew again. But then we were all depressed about what had happened. Of course, V.A. Yakimov was the hardest.

We perfectly understood the situation in the country, and that the accident could be used to curtail work on this topic. But I didn’t even want to talk about this when we got together with the test leaders before leaving the ship. In memory of the first landing of the Yak-41M on the Admiral Gorshkov TAKR, I was left with a photograph of the aircraft, which was a pre-production aircraft complex and intended to arm Soviet aircraft carrier ships.

The Yak-141 (Yak-41М No. 75) after the termination of the tests was first publicly presented on 6-13 on September 1992, at the Farnborough air show, and later repeatedly demonstrated at other air shows. The second Yak-41М (tail number "77") after restoration became a museum exhibit.

The growing crisis and the collapse of the union state did not allow this machine to be put into mass production. The accident served only as a formal reason for first freezing and then completely covering the subject of development of V / KVP aircraft in our country. However, work on new promising projects continued for some time in the OKB.

In the process of creating and operating aircraft V / KVP had accumulated vast experience. As a result, the designers and scientists of our country managed to create a supersonic V / KVP aircraft, which has no analogues in the world. World records set on one of the experienced Yak-141 aircrafts by test pilot A.A. Sinitsyn testify to high flight tactical performance.

By the end of 1991, work at the Saratov aircraft factory on the preparation of the Yak-41М serial production was discontinued due to lack of funding.

The work on fine-tuning and improving the performance of the aircraft in the OKB in subsequent years was carried out with its own funds in the calculation of promising, including export orders. On the basis of the Yak-41M (Yak-141) and its promising modifications, a flexible mobile defense system with a high degree of combat survivability could be created that could ensure the preservation of the combat potential of the defending side in the event of a sudden massive strike by the enemy.

The emergence and development of the aircraft V / KVP was due to the entire course of scientific and technological progress. The authors of some publications argue that the development of the VTOL aircraft was the wrong direction, that they would never reach the normal technical characteristics of conventional take-off and landing aircraft. This is not quite true. The VTOL aircraft is an aircraft that received, compared to a conventional aerodynamic configuration aircraft, new properties and, therefore, new opportunities. So, for example, the experience of combat use of the AV-8V "Harrier" SVVP showed that when using tactical tactics of helicopters in melee air combat, it is 2-3 times more than the F-A-18 "Chorus-No" fighters and fighters 14A "Tomkat", although in long-range combat loses them with the ratio 1: 4.

With the further development of the design of the Yak-41M type aircraft, the aerodynamic schemes gained the right to life, by implementing which you can get an aircraft that is not much inferior to an ordinary (classical) plane, but has several advantages. Such schemes were later to be implemented in aircraft such as the Yak-141M, Yak-43, etc. These schemes were presented at various exhibitions and published in a number of scientific and technical journals.

In the projects of promising aircraft V / KVP worked out issues of increasing their combat effectiveness. To this end, it was proposed to follow in the direction of a significant increase in the combat range and time of locking in a given area, increasing the mass of the payload, increasing the range of weapons and improving fire control systems, reducing radar and infrared visibility. This is confirmed by the calculations, according to which the tactical and technical characteristics of the promising Yak-141М aircraft differ for the better in comparison with the Yak-141.

When a path of development of a direction is broken, inevitably there is a slowdown in progress in science, technology and knowledge, a loss of scientific, technical and technological reserve, as well as trained personnel of scientists, designers, engineers and other specialists.

At the beginning of the 1990s, the crash of the Yak-41M was just a “catch” to curtail all work on the subject of creating new generation V / KVP aircraft. The supersonic Yak-41М stood at the threshold of future ocean trips, which were prevented by the changed socio-political and economic situation in the country, which led to the collapse of the USSR and the failure to implement many new-generation aircraft complexes.

NATO designation: FREESTYLE

VTVP Yak-141 is made under the scheme vysokoplan, with a combined power plant and with the same layout of the engines as the Yak-38, two-vertical vertical tail and three-bearing chassis.

The airframe of the aircraft on 26% (by weight) is made of KM, including carbon-fiber tail surfaces, flaps, overflows and toes of the wing, and the rest of the design is made mainly of corrosion-resistant aluminum-lithium alloys to reduce weight.

According to Aleksandr Yermishin, General Director of the Saratov Aviation Plant JSC, the “complexity factor” of the Yak-141 aircraft as compared to the MiG-29 fighter is 1.7.

The layout of the engines is the same as on the Yak-38 - the previous VTOL aircraft design bureau named after AS Yakovlev - one lift-cruise engine is located in the rear fuselage and two cruise engines are located immediately behind the pilot's cabin.

The fuselage of rectangular section, made according to the rule of areas, has a pointed nose, which houses the cockpit with ejection seat K-36В, like on the Yak-38 aircraft, designed by the Zvezda Design Bureau, providing automatic escape of the aircraft on vertical and transitional flight modes when occurrence of a critical situation. This system automatically switches to ready mode when the PMD nozzle is deflected at an angle of more than 30 degrees. Forced automatic ejection of a pilot occurs when a specified pitch angle or a given combination of heel angle is exceeded and at an angular velocity of heel. Two lifting engines are located immediately behind the cockpit, lift-main engine is located in the tail section of the aircraft.

The wing is high, arrow-shaped, with a break of the rear edge and root swellings, has a negative transverse V 4 gr. and the sweep angle on the leading edge 30 gr. When placing an aircraft on a ship, the console can fold up, almost halving the wingspan. The wing has a well-developed mechanization consisting of rotary socks in the root and folding parts, flaps in the root part and allivons on the folding parts.

The tail unit is located on two cantilever beams, extended far back beyond the main-lift engine, and includes two keels with rudders installed with a slight collapse, and a full turning stabilizer located below the plane of the wing. From the keels forward along the fuselage are vertical partitions.

The tricycle landing gear with single-wheel racks attached to the fuselage, the front desk retracts back, the main - forward under the air intakes.

The power plant includes one lift-main engine P-79 of the Moscow NPO Soyuz and two lift engines RD-41 of the Rybinsk engine-building design bureau used for take-off and landing. Each of the box-shaped air intakes of the P-79 engine is distinguished by a large cross-sectional area, it is strongly beveled at the entrance and has an adjustable wedge and two bypass flaps, the round nozzle turns to an angle up to 95 gr. to deflect thrust. The resource of the nozzle rotation mechanism contributes not less than 1500 rotation cycles. The maximum turn is used for vertical takeoff and landing. In addition to the purely vertical take-off, the Yak-141 can use at least two more take-off methods. This is a short take-off and an ultra-short take-off with a slip. For both of these types of take-off, the normal deflection of the lift-sustainer engine nozzle is 65 gr., And during takeoff with a take-off run, the nozzle is rotated at this angle after the start of the run, and during take-off with slippage (with a run-up length of around 6 m) engine operation in the afterburner is set before the aircraft starts moving.

The use of non-vertical types of take-off increases the carrying capacity of the aircraft, as this eliminates the negative effect of the screen effect (reduced engine thrust as a result of hot jets reflected from the runways and the suction effect of these jets in the air intakes). By turning the nozzle into a vertical position, the thrust can reach 80% of the horizontal thrust. During takeoff and landing, an afterburner is used, which can make it difficult to use the aircraft from ground airfields due to increased erosion of the take-off area.

In the process of testing for the summer of 1991, turning the nozzles in horizontal flight for combat maneuvering was not used. By the fall of 1992, the 26 P-79 engines were built, of which 16 was ready for operation on an aircraft, and seven engines were tested in flight on an aircraft.

Lifting engines RD-41 are installed one after the other behind the cabin and have retractable flaps covering the air intakes and nozzles in horizontal flight. The engines are inclined by about 10 degrees forward relative to the vertical, their nozzles can be rotated in the range from + 12.5 to -12.5 gr. in the longitudinal plane, the cross-sectional area of ​​the nozzle can be adjusted in the 10% range. During vertical take-off, the nozzles of the lift engines are turned to each other to form a single jet (otherwise, two separate jets lead to undesirable formation of an ascending fountain), during take-off with a short run, the nozzles of both engines are rejected by a maximum back angle (the total angle of each nozzle, taking into account the slope The motor axis is about 22.5 degrees) to create a horizontal thrust component. By the end of 1991, about 30 RD-41 engines were built.

During a vertical take-off, two transverse partitions are extended under the air intakes to prevent the recirculation of hot gases (from the ascending fountain zone formed between the lifting and main jet engines) and foreign objects getting into the air intakes, and on the sides of the bottom air intakes - two longitudinal horizontal partitions - for organizing the flow of hot gases from the fuselage.

Digital three-channel engine management system, with full responsibility. During the transition from vertical flight to horizontal, the pilot manually reduces the thrust angle of the lift / cruise engine to 65 gr., The further rotation of the thrust vector to zero occurs automatically. Traction lifting engines decreases automatically, preventing unbalance of the aircraft throughout the transition to horizontal flight.

Flight navigation system provides manual, director and automatic control of the aircraft from take-off to landing at any time of day in various weather conditions at all geographic latitudes. The flight-navigation complex includes an INS, an ACS, a radio engineering system for near navigation and landing, a radio altimeter, an automatic radio compass, and a satellite navigation system. The horizontal position of the aircraft is controlled by aerodynamic surfaces (all-round stabilizer, ailerons, rudders), on hover and low-speed flight modes — jet rudders located at the ends of the wing (along the heel) and tail beams (along the yaw), as well as a differential change in the thrust of the lifting and main-prop engines (in pitch).

The air for the jet rudders is withdrawn from the main lift engine compressor. Aerodynamic and jet rudders are controlled by a digital electro-remote system with full responsibility and with a three-channel redundancy scheme developed by Avionika Moscow Scientific-Production Company, there is a backup mechanical flight control system (according to some reports, an EDSU without a backup mechanical is installed on one of the experimental aircraft systems).

The pilot ejection system provides automatic aircraft escape on vertical and transient flight modes in the event of critical situations. This system automatically switches to standby mode when the nozzle of the lift / main engine is deflected at an angle of more than 30 gr. Forced automatic ejection of the pilot occurs when a specified pitch angle or a given combination of roll angle and angular velocity of roll is exceeded.

Electronic and sighting equipment includes an armament control system with a multifunctional pulse-Doppler radar "Zhuk" (RP-29), which is also on the MiG-29, HUD and multifunction MFD on the front panel, it is possible to install a laser rangefinder and a television guidance system. (All of this equipment stood only on the lost 2 instance of the Yak-141). The on-board radar is capable of detecting air targets with an 3 ESR apt. m. at a distance of 80 km, the boat - at a distance of 110 km. An IR sensor of the search-tracking system coupled to the radar and laser rangefinder can also be installed.

Electronic suppression equipment is mounted in the wing tips and keels. In the partitions extending from the keels of the Yak-141 forward, devices for ejection of thermal false targets or dipole reflectors can be placed.

The weapons control system allows simultaneous attacks of several targets and a high-resolution review of the earth's surface.

The Yak-141 fighter is armed with an 301mm caliber HS-30 cannon located in the fuselage with an ammunition in 120 shells. On four (and later on six) underwing pylons, an air-to-air SD (medium P-27 and short-range P-73 or short-range P-60) and an air-surface (B-3 X-25 and X-29) can be suspended, gun mounts or rocket launchers.

Options for weapons suspension:

Air-to-air class UR -
-4 x P-77;
-4хР-77 + 1хПТБ (2000л);
-2xP-27E + 2xP-73E + 1xPTB (L 2000);
-2xP-60 + 2xP-73;
-2xP-60 + 2xP-77;

Air-to-sea class ur
-2ХХ-35 + 2хР-73Э + 1хПТБ (L 2000);
-4XX-35А + 1хПТБ (2000л);
-4XX-35P + 2хРВК-АЭ + 1хПТБ (L 2000);

Ammunition for ground targets -
-6XABSP (500 kg);
-4 unit with NURS caliber 80-249 mm + 1xPTB (2000 l);
-2ХХ-ЗШ + 2ХР-77 + 1хПТБ (L 2000);
-2xK-25 + 2xP-73Е x 1xPTB (L 2000);
- 4 x-cannon containers 23 mm (250 shells) + 1 PTB;

Tactical and technical characteristics of the aircraft Yak-141:
- in the unfolded position - 10,1 m
- in folded position - 5,9 m
Aircraft length - 18,3 m
Aircraft height - 5,0 m
Fuel Weight, kg
- in internal tanks - 4400
- in suspended - 1750
Maximum take-off weight, kg
- during the run 120 m - 19500
- with vertical takeoff - 15800
Engine type (thrust, kgf):
lift-march - TRDDF R-79 (1х15500 / 1х9000)
lifting - 2 x TRD RD-41 (2x4260)
Maximum speed km / h
- near the ground - 1250
- at the height of 11 km - 1800
Practical ceiling - 15000 m
Practical range with load, km
- near the ground - 1250
- at a height of 10-12 km - 2100
Combat range under load - 690 km
Barrage Time - 1,5 h
Maximum Operating Overload - 7
Crew - 1 pax

Armament: 1 x 30-mm gun GSH-301 (120 ammo). On four, and later on, six under-wing pylons, P-77 or medium-range P-27 airborne and short-range P-73 airborne or short-range air strikes P-60 and X-25 can be suspended, X-31, gun installations (23 mm, 250 cartridges) or NAR launch blocks with a caliber from 80 to 240 mm, up to six bombs with a 500 caliber kg.

"Military Aviation" Media 2000
Aviation Internet Encyclopedia "Corner of the Sky"
Aviation and Cosmonautics. Vadim Kolmogorov. The last aircraft of the Soviet Union
Wings of the motherland. Lev Bern. Yak-141 - supersonic "vertical"
Victor Markovsky. I ... Yak ... loser?
Aviation and Time. Yak-141: a critical moment biography
Aviapanorama. Dmitry Boev. Yak-141: and again grief from the mind?
Nikolay Yakubovich. ASJakovlev combat jets
Roman Astakhov. Russian Power. Deck multipurpose fighter of Yak-141 GDP
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  1. ziqzaq
    ziqzaq 6 July 2013 07: 20
    The only thought:
    What Gorbachev 3,14 darast, Lord what 3,14 darast .......
    1. nnz226
      nnz226 7 July 2013 00: 39
      In addition to Gorbachev, there is also the first EBN prize in Russia - a drunk who drank everything that is possible. Deserving not a monument on Novodevichy, but a spit on the grave ...
    2. Sakhalininsk
      Sakhalininsk 7 July 2013 06: 52
      Quote: ziqzaq
      What Gorbachev 3,14 darast, Lord what 3,14 darast .......

      I would say he was just a 3,14 gift! Yes, and the drunken man caught Borka the same.
      1. Revolver
        Revolver 7 July 2013 22: 37
        Yes, they are worse than any 3,14 gift. The blues basically have each other, and these two Great Powers were lowered below the baseboard.
    3. Comrade Kim
      Comrade Kim 5 February 2018 15: 12
      Catch a ghoul, and put it alive in a coffin to EBNu!
  2. SPACE
    SPACE 6 July 2013 07: 28
    YAK-141 Great plane!
    1. spanchbob
      spanchbob 6 July 2013 10: 19
      Why not start production now? Is there a lot of money now?
      1. svp67
        svp67 6 July 2013 13: 21
        Quote: spanchbob
        Why not start production now? Is there a lot of money now?
        We no longer need the Yak141, no matter how good it is, we need a new machine based on it, since over the period since 1991, new technologies have already appeared that allow us to achieve higher performance. And such a machine is necessary, in addition to the created PAK FA and possibly the created LFI
      2. Avenger711
        Avenger711 6 July 2013 14: 00
        Because the vertical is always wretched and God forbid us from them. Let the Yankees themselves suffer with their flawed F-35B.
        1. svp67
          svp67 6 July 2013 14: 17
          Quote: Avenger711
          Because the vertical is always wretched and God forbid us from them.

          No, they are also needed, since they have one indisputable advantage - the ability to take off both from a place and with a VERY short run, which allows them to be used then and in those places where the enemy does not expect aviation from us ...
        2. Taoist
          Taoist 6 July 2013 14: 40
          I like such categorical judgments ... You respected at least somehow sideways to these "poor verticals" were involved? But I served on them ... By the way, these "poor" ensured the victory of Britain in the Falklands War. What no "lousy plane" could do.
          1. yehat
            yehat 23 May 2017 12: 24
            the British pulled out a new AA-class missile, not the vertical. No need to mislead readers.
        3. Vlad_Mir
          Vlad_Mir 6 July 2013 16: 42
          Don't underestimate this plane! The F-35 is designed to work with new tactical schemes and new weapons! It will be integrated into the overall weapons and command and control system. In this respect, the F-35 is superior to the F-22. Perhaps rumors of problems are a common duck that many fell for. Even if this is true, such a complex technique without "struggle" has never been born anywhere!
          1. saturn.mmm
            saturn.mmm 7 July 2013 23: 20
            Quote: Vlad_Mir
            Even if this is true, such a complex technique without "struggle" has never been born anywhere!

            What are you talking about? Decide.
          2. Basarev
            Basarev 14 October 2013 21: 48
            Yes, they drive shamelessly on the F-35. The plane is very handsome. And what about the difficulties that have arisen - the plane is still very new and it’s very difficult to do without shortcomings
        4. Basarev
          Basarev 14 October 2013 21: 45
          Not always. The Yak-38, the only Soviet-made VTOL VTOL aircraft based on Kiev-style nose bombs, was very good - even Harrier was superior. And the Yak-141, in theory, was supposed to finally consolidate the USSR's world leadership in the field of vertical take-offs. But there was a collapse The Soviet Union, and therefore nothing came of it. That's how sad it is ...
          1. yehat
            yehat 23 May 2017 12: 26
            Harrier had a longer range than the Yak38, had a wider range of weapons, so it is somehow strange to say that the Yak-38 was better.
      3. Jarilo
        Jarilo 6 July 2013 16: 58
        Quote: spanchbob
        Why not start production now? Is there a lot of money now?

        Not all money is measured.
        There are no personnel, no allies, technology has been lost, and on the site of the Saratov Aviation Plant, shopping malls and business centers rise. Seeing the country now it has become more necessary. Oh ...
        1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Avenger711
      Avenger711 6 July 2013 14: 01
      MiG-29 is better and cheaper. Fact.
      1. Taoist
        Taoist 6 July 2013 14: 44
        As for cheaper, perhaps ... but as for "better" ... What do we compare with what? "soft with warm". For technology, especially military, the concept of "better or worse" does not exist. There is a concept of "compliance and non-compliance with the tasks set."
  3. Gromily4
    Gromily4 6 July 2013 08: 24
    Everything is good on airplanes with GDP, but there is a huge, enormous minus.
    Mama doesn’t cry for fuel to the vertical, and even carry excess cargo.
    Until antigravitators come up with, such aircraft will not take root.
    So, while these are only toys, expensive toys and nothing more.
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 6 July 2013 13: 43
      Do not confuse one with the other. The tasks that VTOL aircraft are performing cannot be performed by any other aircraft in the allotted conditions. Therefore, it is criminal not to develop this direction in aviation. Or do you think that the United States has "nowhere to put money" and therefore they are adopting more and more VTOL aircraft?
      1. bddrus
        bddrus 7 July 2013 11: 34
        I do not understand VTOL, but now there’s nowhere to put money into sysya)))
        1. Kassandra
          Kassandra 23 June 2014 10: 49
          nowhere to go, and they print them. and communicated first the English harrier and then the Soviet yak. By the way, paying for this in both cases existing pennies.
      2. yehat
        yehat 23 May 2017 12: 28
        in the allotted conditions cannot

        maybe it’s easier to change the conditions ??? I saw statistics on what the VTOL aircraft did.
        90% of these tasks are completely fulfilled by a bunch of reconnaissance drone + ship with a cannon and with the vertical launch of various missiles.
    2. Legioner
      Legioner 6 July 2013 15: 27
      And, I do not agree with you, VTOL is the future of aviation. Yes, there are problems with excessive consumption of fuel compared to the "traditional" takeoff, but there are also considerable advantages, and the designers, scientists, etc. must fight to eliminate the shortcomings.
      As for the "amerikosov", in my opinion, the F-35 for aviation (their aviation) gives at least a 15 or even 25 year breakthrough or a touchdown in front of their opponents.
      And, his future improvements and another generation of VTOL aircraft will be dominant.
      1. Kassandra
        Kassandra 23 June 2014 10: 53
        there is really no particular problem - in a pinch, a lift-up accelerator is suspended.
        F35B will fail. only F35C in small quantities and about 1000 F35A will bulge out
    3. svp67
      svp67 6 July 2013 15: 55
      Quote: Gromily4
      So, while these are only toys, expensive toys and nothing more.

      No, these are not "toys", these are vehicles necessary for the army and navy. And no one does not say that they should form the basis of aviation, in this case frontline, but they are needed, in a certain amount, especially for the fleet.
    4. Per se.
      Per se. 6 July 2013 16: 24
      Quote: Gromily4
      Everything is good on airplanes with GDP, but there is a huge, enormous minus.
      Fuel to the vertical goes mom do not worry, and even carry extra load

      You forget that VTOL can use the classic take-off take-off, if there is no need for a shortened or vertical one, ordinary planes have no such choice. God forbid war, one of the primary goals of the aggressor is kilometer runways and hangars, VTOL can take off from any hole here, being in shelters. Do not consider Americans fools, mattresses are preparing for a big war, and are preparing seriously.
    5. samoletil18
      samoletil18 7 October 2013 17: 14
      the Americans adopted the Harier.
    6. Kassandra
      Kassandra 23 June 2014 10: 48
      such aircraft (Harriers) took root in the 1960s
      just "some" like to have no way. as well as decent aircraft carriers, which are actually smaller and cheaper than some nuclear submarines
  4. Algor73
    Algor73 6 July 2013 10: 03
    Such airplanes are always a compromise - we lose one, we win in another. But the plane is unique.
    1. Kassandra
      Kassandra 23 June 2014 11: 14
      airplanes are always a compromise. overweight can also be understood as a radar, or even going further - chassis, brakes, armored rear and flaps.
  5. Constantine
    Constantine 6 July 2013 10: 08
    Good article) The myth of uniqueness, every time so hotly discussed F-35 should crumble a little after such articles, because the F-35, in fact, "Lego" with tuning. :)
  6. saturn.mmm
    saturn.mmm 6 July 2013 10: 18
    Thanks for the article, it was interesting.
    I would like to add a power plant diagram for clarity, I hope the author will not mind.
    And more.
    A new generation aircraft project (known as the Yak-201) is a 5th generation aircraft project based on the Yak-141 VTOL aircraft, designed by Yakovlev Design Bureau on its own initiative and at its own expense in the mid 1990s. Made according to the "duck" scheme using technology to reduce visibility. The power plant was supposed to include a new PMD with a maximum thrust of 17500 kgf and a mechanical drive for a lifting fan. The aircraft was supposed to have a lifting weight of 21500 kg (including 6000 kg of fuel) and a combat load of up to 4200 kg. The combat radius of the new VTOL aircraft was to be 2400 km with a combat load of 1 ton and 900 km with a combat load of 2 tons. It was planned to use new weapons systems and avionics. He participated in the competition for the LFI program (the creation of a light front-line fighter for the Russian Air Force), but was not accepted by the customer
    1. Argon
      Argon 6 July 2013 21: 20
      According to the content of the comment, Ah balls, balls!
    2. samoletil18
      samoletil18 7 October 2013 17: 19
      Something too tasty. Really, you can do it!
    3. Kassandra
      Kassandra 23 June 2014 11: 34
      this (Yak-201) was just not a very project. the picture you have by the way is not from him but from the Yak-141.
      the most successful VTOL aircraft is the Yak-143 with a nasal cop.
  7. 1c-inform-city
    1c-inform-city 6 July 2013 11: 30
    Chic plane.
  8. KG_patriot_last
    KG_patriot_last 6 July 2013 12: 22
    To understand this aircraft, you need to put it between the plane and the helicopter. And call it a new word. Come up with your tactical niche.
  9. Russ69
    Russ69 6 July 2013 12: 34
    The aircraft was needed when there were several aircraft carriers.
    Now, of course, there’s no point in returning to it. It’s better to let the T-50 start, after the launch of the series they will begin to redo it, under the possibility of being based on a new aircraft carrier, if they decide to build it all the same.
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 6 July 2013 13: 47
      VTOL aircraft does not mean "aircraft for an aircraft carrier." VTOL is an aircraft that can do without an airfield. In general, the impetus for the development of VTOL aircraft was the need to disperse aviation. And then 1 cassette "concrete-driving" and truncated. Nobody will take off anywhere.
      1. Kassandra
        Kassandra 23 June 2014 11: 38
        By the way, the opponent understands the "problem" exactly the opposite, because a naval VTOL aircraft means "an aircraft without an aircraft carrier" - for their basing, there are enough conversion merchant ships or UDC. even modernized frigates.
    2. dustycat
      dustycat 6 July 2013 22: 56
      This one can take off not only from a suitable sand-carrier barge.
      It can also be used with Mistral.
  10. Taoist
    Taoist 6 July 2013 13: 50
    Yes, I remember how we waited in the 41st regiment, which was supposed to replace our "mad cucumber" ... For this dirty trick alone, "Misha & Co" should have been hung by the balls. It was because of the "Gorbachev reduction" I was written off, and two years later our entire regiment went "on pins and needles" ... How much human labor did the reformers translate into?
  11. not good
    not good 6 July 2013 14: 03
    The aircraft is versatile and can operate not only from a ship, but also from unequipped sites. In case of war, airfields will be excellent targets, especially in the frontal zone, and it is easier to mask a glade in the forest for VTOL aircraft and it’s more difficult for the enemy to detect. So VTOL is still relevant today .
  12. Letnab
    Letnab 6 July 2013 14: 04
    it is a pity that work on this topic does not continue! The backlog of Soviet developments is enormous, so you should use it ...
    1. Argon
      Argon 6 July 2013 21: 23
      There is not some kind of injury, the "umbilical cord" was finally cut in 97g.
  13. The comment was deleted.
  14. arni
    arni 6 July 2013 15: 58
    Falkland Harriers

    Having found an Argentine fighter or a missile launched by it, the pilot of the Harrier changed the thrust vector of the engine, due to which he sharply slowed down. The seeker missile lost its target, and the enemy fighter skipped past, and the Harrier was already in a favorable position for firing. Trying to break away from the British who were behind, the Argentine pilots used their last trump card - afterburner, but this led to excessive consumption of fuel, and several planes fell into the sea before reaching the base.
  15. pensioner
    pensioner 6 July 2013 20: 07
    I knew one person in Sverdlovsk who worked on the Yak-141. We had such an enterprise - "Avionics". He died in Bose in the 90s. I pricked him, pricked him on information about the plane ... I could not. And now - I don’t want to read it.
  16. sergey158-29
    sergey158-29 6 July 2013 20: 59
    The plane was ahead of its time, and the Americans seem to have "studied" it well
    1. saturn.mmm
      saturn.mmm 6 July 2013 21: 22
      Quote: sergey158-29
      The plane was ahead of its time, and the Americans seem to have "studied" it well

      The Yak-201 is essentially the F-35V with some improvements in terms of stealth.
    2. combat192
      combat192 8 July 2013 03: 28
      Studied in the literal sense of the word. In 1992, in Russia, work on the Yak-141 was curtailed, one aircraft and ALL design and technical documentation were sold to the McDonell-Douglas company. Such is the sad fate of this undoubtedly original and advanced aircraft for its time.
  17. Starover_Z
    Starover_Z 6 July 2013 22: 42
    Quote: saturn.mmm
    Quote: sergey158-29
    The plane was ahead of its time, and the Americans seem to have "studied" it well

    The Yak-201 is essentially the F-35V with some improvements in terms of stealth.

    They wrote that like all the documentation for this project was sold to amers.
    For a few piles of 30 pieces of silver sold Power! am
    1. Kassandra
      Kassandra 23 June 2014 11: 50
      500 thousand dollars is not so simple, they were also advised for the money 1,5g. and all the key Yakovlevites who did not - were killed. sometimes they gave advance burial to their families.
  18. PistonizaToR
    PistonizaToR 6 July 2013 23: 04
    Some gentlemen: DO NOT NEED TO SPRAY A MANNA Porridge, they love, bl, to reason with the education of a sugar industry technologist, even if it’s real. Without having the slightest idea about the operation of the fleet, about the state of airfields on the first day of the war with the enemy, who has aviation and KR, which at this all self-respecting Papuans have a point in time. Even the ships for deploying a squadron of such aircraft is a third of Kuzi, and they cost an order of magnitude less.
    put yourself, instead of one atomic one we build five or six aircraft-carrying cruisers with a squadron capacity, put a marine version of the S-500 air defense system and get a ship that itself guards itself or someone instead of grazing it with a whole herd of shepherds and broadcasting its will to anyone who needs three ships accompanied by a pair of multipurpose submarines with a triple of such ships.
    1. Kassandra
      Kassandra 23 June 2014 11: 46
      and what to build them - they are remade from merchant ships. from container ships, tankers and bulk carriers in general in just 3 days.
      so who will "allow" you to have such a bird.
  19. studentmati
    studentmati 6 July 2013 23: 27
    Quote: Yarylo
    and on the site of the Saratov Aviation Plant

    How did you decide that the series was launched in Saratov?
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 7 July 2013 00: 31
      The serial vertical plant was in Saratov. They did 38 there and planned to build 41 ...
  20. Coast
    Coast 7 July 2013 00: 17
    I just can't understand why the 141st is always and everywhere called "the first supersonic vertical takeoff and landing aircraft."

    Here, for example, they write about the Harrier of 1970:

    Maximum flight speed:
    land, km / h 1180
    - at high altitude M = 1,3

    Where is the truth?
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 7 July 2013 00: 38
      This is mistake. "Freestyle" was certainly not the first VTOL aircraft to step over the speed of sound. But Harrier was not. Until the 41st supersonic, the experimental "Balzac" (France) and "Süd" (Germany) were overstepped - but these were purely experimental machines that did not carry any weapons. So to be precise, the 41st is the first supersonic combat car - VTOL.
      As for Harrier, he, like our 38th, refers to "transonic" - i.e. its maximum speed is close to M-1 numbers. Well, given the fact that the speed of sound depends on the density of the air, then theoretically at high altitudes it could slightly exceed this speed. Which, however, is unlikely - the Yak being faster than Harrier at all altitudes did not exceed the sound barrier.
      1. Kassandra
        Kassandra 23 June 2014 12: 01
        the first and only one of practical value.
        Balzac is a conversion Mirage, for a short time he could go to supersonic only by flying horizontally bully , and Sjud has Vmax = M1,04 and this crap crashed, refuse at least any 1 engine from its 6
        developed the same Vmax ... Subsonic MiG-17 bully
        as for the harrier, even Tallboy goes to a supersonic dive from a great height, but in order to not fly at a horizontal flight, at any height, this requires a supersonic nozzle. subsonic (2 small afterburner fittings by Harrier) on supersonic simply does not pull.
  21. Landwarrior
    Landwarrior 7 July 2013 02: 09
    Maybe a little offtopic, but ... We take a container ship, we fix the deck, cut off any nonsense and voila from the deck, a ready aircraft carrier for VTOL aircraft. smile Plus to all, if anything, you can mask planes with containers lol
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 7 July 2013 11: 31
      Well, such experiments were carried out - there’s nothing even to be redone there. Up to the fact that you can store aircraft in standard sea containers.
  22. Zomanus
    Zomanus 7 July 2013 04: 06
    Well, yes, the plane was awesome. But now we would not lose the pace in increasing the number of existing new aircraft. And vertical structures can be developed for now, it is not necessary to build right away. I am more worried about the lack of AWACS aircraft and electronic warfare aircraft in sufficient quantity. The Hawaiians have not yet made it for Kuzma. And the vertical is very vulnerable on takeoff, so it's not a panacea.
    1. Kassandra
      Kassandra 23 June 2014 12: 07
      she is vulnerable to take-off on takeoff much less than ordinary aircraft, because this take-off takes much less time, and for energetic maneuvers after it, she does not need speed.
  23. Nayhas
    Nayhas 7 July 2013 16: 02
    It seems that many think only with emotions. And Gorbachev personally is also to blame for perestroika (probably he directly supervised the development of the aircraft ..). Yakovlev Design Bureau spent 17 years! to create an airplane that burned out in the literal sense of the word at the State Customs Committee. Yak-41 did not pass the state. tests therefore was not accepted into service, and Yakovlev Design Bureau did not allow another 17 years to spend state. means, absolutely the right decision. Yakovleva Design Bureau has overdue all possible dates for the creation of the Yak-41, and not only him, the fate of the Yak-44 was even worse, in 12 years they created only a model! If the plane did not pass the test, then this is a bad aircraft and that’s the point, then the designers did not cope with the task and wasted millions of people's rubles.
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 7 July 2013 17: 50
      And what about emotions? In the first state tests were interrupted - because the gas contractor has stopped financing. Secondly, the plane burned out solely due to a pilot error and in no way due to CPN. In the third, the development deadlines were delayed not because of the design bureau but because of the engine drivers who did not issue the required unit on time.

      Personally, Gorbachev certainly did not saw the planes. He just created conditions in which instead of airplanes they began to produce frying pans. As a result, we have neither the one nor the other. And here he has enough worthy "successors".

      If moderation allows tomorrow an article will appear here about the fate of the same SAZ ... They did such things there that you involuntarily yearn for both Stalin and the shooting cellars ...
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 7 July 2013 22: 36
        Quote: Taoist
        Secondly, the plane burned out solely due to a pilot error and in no way due to CPN.

        If the machine is so difficult to operate that a high-class test pilot could not cope with landing, then what will be combatant pilots? And what tests should have been further conducted? Allocate funds for the construction of a new car, to correct the identified shortcomings that led to the death of the car?
        Quote: Taoist
        He just created the conditions in which instead of airplanes began to produce pans.

        There was no need for dirt, the scale of conversion under Gorbachev was not large, they could not be compared with the pogrom of industry by Chubais and Co., it was just AS MUCH armament that the USSR industry produced to hell was not necessary. Three types of tanks were produced at four factories, they riveted so much that they then clutched their heads where to put them all.
        In addition, production was converted, not OCD.
        1. Taoist
          Taoist 8 July 2013 00: 02
          With upscale it you bent ...
          "According to the 41st, or as they now call the Yak-141:
          The error of the young (test pilot thug) during the tests put an end to the fate of not only the aircraft itself but also thousands of specialists working with this aircraft.
          So many years have passed, but it’s still a shame, the picture is in front of my eyes ..., all the hopes collapsed overnight.
          Well, the sailors were not at a loss to put out ...
          Well, the developers of the chair are great ... it saved the life of this "woe to the pilot" ... "
          "In the early 1990s, the accident of the Yak-41M aircraft was only a" clue "to curtail all work on the creation of new-generation V / KVP aircraft. and the economic situation in the country, which led to the collapse of the USSR and the failure to implement many plans for the creation of aircraft complexes of new generations. "(c)

          And there is no dirt ... The fact that we "threw out the child with the water" is not even a fact - an axiom. Yes, it was possible (and necessary) to reduce mass production. But when “under the knife” both R&D and unique experimental production are pointlessly going as a result of which continuity and technological groundwork are lost? This is not a mistake - this is a crime. Maybe Misha himself was guided by "the best intentions" (which seems dubious to me personally), but it is known where the road is paved with them. It was with his submission that the destruction mechanism was launched - and the fact that "the students surpassed the teacher" does not at all reduce his "merits".
          1. Nayhas
            Nayhas 8 July 2013 21: 52
            Well, of course, the pilot is always to blame for us, the technique is a priori without sin. Test pilot V.A. Yakimov worked at Yakovlev Design Bureau since 1989. according to 1994, someone retroactively in order to justify the complexity of the machine poured mud over a person. If you think that an inexperienced pilot who does not know the car was involved in the State Customs Inspectorate, then it means that they were supervised by the OKB, but what else can I call it?
            I repeat once again, for seventeen years, the Yakovlev Design Bureau was unable to create a TTZ aircraft on VTOL topics, the Yakovlev Design Bureau, in addition, completely failed to create the YAK-44 AWACS plane by creating only a model repeating the E-2 Hokai. Termination of funding for both projects was fully justified. Just two years later, the question arose about the fate of ships of Project 1143, ships on raids exhausted the power plant’s life and, due to the futility of repairs, were sold as scrap (except for Gorshkov), this already suggests that there was no further funding for the Yak-41 meaning.
            1. Taoist
              Taoist 8 July 2013 22: 28
              Well, it's right, of course, to sell to the Chinese for a casino is a much more rewarding destiny ... than to find funds for PPR. I do not defend Yakovlev's design bureau ... there, too (and I wrote about it), the management took an active part in cutting ... And I already know the shortcomings of their technique ... because I myself "twisted nuts" on these machines ... But it has long been known "to break not to build".
              1. Nayhas
                Nayhas 9 July 2013 12: 24
                Gyrfalcons by that time were killed by merciless exploitation and barbaric service of conscripts. You, as I understand it, are a technician and must imagine what a turbine replacement on a warship is. To do this, cuts are made in the casing, turbines are replaced, after which all this needs to be properly brewed as it was. It is easy to describe in words, the performance is very difficult, time-consuming and quite expensive. In addition, it was necessary to replace boilers, and the entire boiler fittings, as well as pipelines, was a very difficult task. In addition, by that time all weapons systems were outdated, and modernization was required, in addition, the manufacturer was now in another country ... In general, the restoration of the Krechet was simply inexpedient in their combat capabilities. In the end, the moorings were never built for them and they were expected to repeat the same ...
                1. Taoist
                  Taoist 9 July 2013 13: 33
                  Well, it's not a problem with the car. This is the trouble of the organization and the "head". Cutting, disassembling for scrap and "making cheap" is certainly a solution to the issue. That's just (I just recently wrote about this), as a result, the "connection of generations" is destroyed - and we are losing irretrievably not even "hardware" ... and most importantly, human potential. Now, even if we want to build something like that, there is no one (and there is nothing).
  24. Watchman
    Watchman 7 July 2013 18: 33
    Now is not up to the vertical. Then the Su-50mi would saturate the Air Force, and then you can already think about the vertical.
  25. rudolff
    rudolff 7 July 2013 18: 34
    Will there be an article about SAZ? Interesting. In common people, the Combine was called. Was there not so long ago, a dreary sight. If he himself wrote an article about him, the problem would be without strong words. For the destruction of this plant, many would make sense somewhere to go to New Earth without the right to return. !
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 7 July 2013 18: 55
      Well, if the moderators do not kill it will be ... Already posted for verification.
  26. Zubr
    Zubr 7 July 2013 23: 56
    Ehhhhh damn our tinkers, ruined such a machine .... recourse
    1. iouris
      iouris 28 May 2017 11: 28
      If only this ...
  27. Taoist
    Taoist 8 July 2013 00: 06
    replica of my colleague who worked then in KB ...

    "It's just that if the tests were successful ... then everything could be a little different ...
    Chief pilot Sinitsyn pulled everything on his shoulders, and then the pilot with the units of flying hours, at the helm ..
    But then Dondukov came to the helm of OKB and it began ...
    He sold all the engine documentation for 500 thousand greens and, most importantly, the engine management system ...
    Well, the YAK-3 was sold from the museum, they spoke at 3 of the year, but he never returned.
    From the dynamic testing workshop, the machine and equipment were thrown out ... and they began to saw diamonds there, and then almost all the design bureaus were given to the Bank.

    Although what was expected from Dondukov .... "(c)
  28. studentmati
    studentmati 8 July 2013 00: 26
    Quote: Taoist
    "It's just that if the tests were successful ... then everything could be a little different ...

    I believe that everything would have happened as it happened. Unless, that a little later and in a slightly different format, work in the production of new machines (and those already in production) was curtailed at that time by "Stakhanov" methods, unfortunately. sad
  29. zWary
    zWary 9 July 2013 13: 51
    Great article. Thank. It is a pity that due to Gorbachev and Yeltsin's betrayal, this series of aircraft was not put into production.
  30. Assistant
    Assistant 10 July 2013 19: 26
    I am absolutely not an expert in aviation, therefore, enlighten me, please, if anyone can, on some issues:
    1) Why for the Yak-141 did not choose an integrated circuit with a partially supporting fuselage, used in the MiG-29 and Su-27. The only thing is the need to provide the narrowest vertical projection of the aircraft to reduce fuel consumption during vertical take-off, or were there more reasons?
    2) What fundamentally VTOL aircraft are better in terms of combat use than SUVP with a run length of 100 - 150 meters and a low (like piston aircraft) lift-off and landing speed (for example, due to the simultaneous use of a ground effect and a dynamic air cushion when blowing under the wing - the ekranoplan "Eaglet" was so detached from the water)? Such an SUVP will be able to take off / land on aircraft carriers, use damaged airfields - as long as there are sufficient areas on the runway. Of course, we can say that cluster-type concrete-piercing ammunition will be used against such aircraft on the runway, giving a greater accuracy of the destruction of the runway, but if such ammunition is available, they will be highly specialized.
    It is clear that the VTOL aircraft can take off from the container; vertically, with the correct operation of all systems, it is easier to board an aircraft carrier; theoretically, VTOL can be used instead of a helicopter on a regular, non-aircraft carrier ship. But the fundamental differences?
    Thanks in advance!
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 11 July 2013 12: 24
      1) Well, for starters, the 141go circuit is completely integrated. If you, for example, overlay the 29 projection, you will see this. And the fact that the fuselage projection is relatively small due to the layout of the engines.
      2) SKVP can partly solve the tasks set out by you, but you need to understand that they have such problems as "take-off distance" ie. no matter what methods of increasing the lift of the wing we use, we still need acceleration and also need a distance to damp the speed. At the same time, the take-off and landing (glide path) trajectories are still rather flat. those. working from limited areas is possible only if these glide paths are free, which is not always the case. Yes, this can partly solve the issues of takeoff in the event of a defeat of the GDP, but it does not solve the issues of basing cars on "jump sites". VTOL aircraft can take off (and most importantly land) directly from the caponier.

      In general, the questions you raised are correct. But it is worth remembering that miracles do not happen and any system is primarily a compromise. And here the main task for which "the machine is sharpened" will be decisive. The 141st is unique in this regard in that it turned out to be the most fully adequate aircraft for its purpose, and at the same time its sad fate showed what happens when "the doctrine changes".
      1. Kassandra
        Kassandra 23 June 2014 13: 26
        The fundamental difference in the application is that the VTOL aircraft can take off immediately by the whole group and go to the mission area or proceed to cover the base point / ship, while the aircraft carrier or the usual airfield launches its SUVP at a fairly low pace, therefore, it simply will not be able to defend itself adequately . and even if it is not sunk, then the deck will be disfigured and nothing will sit back on it. even what managed to take off.
        therefore, as soon as such a supersonic aircraft appeared in the USSR, "the doctrine immediately changed" and the Navy was even allowed to "fly like the Americans" (although Kuznetsov is not a CATOBAR a STOBAR), although this was not welcomed before, if only there was no Yak, and the Penndosian country further owned the seas. the aircraft carrier (which, with the advent of the new Yak, became obsolete as once battleships), it was decided to allow the Navy only one, so that it would not have a rotational replacement. And with Yugoslavia they did what they did to it naturally when Kuznetsov, having no rotation replacement, left there, and there was no one to replace him.
    2. sumcream56
      sumcream56 15 July 2013 16: 24
      There is such an airplane called Dingo. The fact is that the screen effect with planes is "Not on friendly terms": ekranolets are bad flyers outside the screen. But the idea is interesting - the Ivolga / Orion-12P ekranoplan, with the help of turning the propellers and wing mechanization, enters a static air cushion - slightly - slightly detaching from the surface by 10-15 cm, and then accelerates and switches to dynamic. You just need a flat surface. But the speed of the fastest ekranoplan -KM is -500 km / h, and all ekranoplanes currently being tested are 240 km / h. Not a single ekranoplane has ever flown above 300 meters. Except VVA-14 R. Bartini, but this is a purely experimental machine, not completely ekranolet.
  31. Assistant
    Assistant 15 July 2013 15: 12
    Thanks for the explanation!
  32. samoletil18
    samoletil18 7 October 2013 17: 56
    For a country with areas like Russia, this is a strategic plane. How many airfields are needed, if any world conflict is brewing? I understand satellites and all that, but the smaller the object, the easier it is to mask. Moreover, near the borders. Someone needed it. Really needed. And if such a tool is given to the General Staff? There would be how many options for using and plugging huge holes in the country's defense? A "birthmark", or rather a hemangioma in this goat, could become malignant (become malignant) before the April 1985 Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU. What would our country be like?
    1. iouris
      iouris 28 May 2017 11: 50
      Quote: samoletil18
      What would our country be like?

      I think I'm even sure that everything would be exactly the same, because the KGB stood behind him (aka the Cheka, the MGB, the NKVD). The country was run not by the CPSU Secretary General, but by a structure that had objective information. The KGB possessed objective information under Andropov. The main problem of Andropov was to defeat the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Armed Forces. He solved this problem. The main question, to which there is no answer, and who is behind the "bodies".
      The world conflict in the presence of the USSR was unlikely due to the uniqueness of the outcome. The collapse of the West was more likely, so the Yak-141 is not a panacea, but the logical result of technological development. So I noticed that the USSR was used to test many technologies, which eventually turned out to be deadlocks. But in the end, it brought great benefits. But the beneficiaries are not us.
  33. samolet il-76
    samolet il-76 12 December 2013 16: 41
    Yak-141 is a good aircraft, but, unfortunately, the project was closed.
  34. Kassandra
    Kassandra 23 June 2014 12: 37
    not "the project was closed" and not put into series - the project was successfully completed.
    no one writes that the F-16 is a closed project, although they are not released anymore.
  35. Pate
    Pate 23 June 2015 12: 31
    It’s a pity this unique car, if the 5th generation VTOL were started to be developed on its basis, this would be a serious challenge for their F-35Bs. After all, when designing the F-35B, they stole the Yak-141 circuit, as evidenced by the location of the engines.
  36. air wolf
    air wolf 16 January 2016 12: 28
    He studied specifically on Ka-27 (SVVAUL), then to transfer to the Yak-38 and Yak-141, but the liberals sold the whole country and I went to the fire department, one joy at least sat in the cabin of the Yak-38 laughing I would be glad if they resume production of the Yak-141M. soldier