"If I forget you, O Jerusalem,
Let my right hand wither,
Let my tongue cling to my palate ... "
Recently, I have repeatedly heard: "Stalin created Israel." There was a desire to understand this in detail. I present in chronological order the milestones of the formation of the state of Israel. I omit the period of the Egyptian pharaohs, Roman legionaries and crusaders, and begin the chronological description from the end of the 19 century.
Year 1882. The beginning of the first Aliya (waves of Jewish emigration to Eretz Israel). In the period up to 1903, about 35 of thousands of Jews fleeing persecution in Eastern Europe moved to the province of the Ottoman Empire of Palestine. Baron Edmond de Rothschild provides tremendous financial and organizational assistance. The cities of Zichron Yaacov were founded during this period. Rishon Lezion, Petah Tikva, Rehovot and Rosh Pina.
Year 1897. The first world Zionist congress in the Swiss city of Basel. Its purpose is the creation of a national home for the Jews in Palestine, then ruled by the Ottoman Empire. At this conference, Theodor Herzl is elected president of the World Zionist Organization. (It should be noted that in modern Israel there is practically no city where one of the central streets would not be named after Herz. Something reminds me of it ...) Herzl holds numerous talks with leaders of European powers, including the German Emperor Wilhelm II and the Turkish Sultan Abdul-Hamid II in order to enlist their support in creating a state for the Jews. The Russian emperor told Herzel that, apart from distinguished Jews, he was not interested in the rest.
Opening of the congress
Year 1902. The World Zionist Organization establishes the Anglo-Palestinian Bank, which later became the National Bank of Israel (Leumi Bank). The largest bank in Israel, the Bank of Hapoalim, was established in 1921 by the Israeli trade union association and the World Zionist Organization.
Anglo-Palestinian Bank in Hebron. 1913 year
Year 1902-th. In Jerusalem, the hospital is founded Shaare Zedek. (The first Jewish hospital in Palestine was opened by German doctor Chaumon Frenkel 1843 in Jerusalem. In 1854, the hospital Meir Rothschild opened in Jerusalem. Although Bikur Holim Hospital was founded in 1867, though it existed with 1826 he had only three wards in the year of 1843. In the 1912 year in Jerusalem, the Hadassah Hospital was founded by a single-shift women's Zionist organization from the USA. The Assuta Hospital was founded in 1934, the Rambam hospital in 1938. .)
Former Shaare Zedek Hospital building in Jerusalem
Year 1904. The beginning of the second Aliya. In the period up to 1914, about 40 of thousands of Jews moved to Palestine. The second wave of emigration was caused by a series of Jewish pogroms in the territory of the Russian Empire, the most famous of which was the Kishinev pogrom of 1903. The second Aliya organized the kibbutz movement. (Kibbutz is an agricultural commune with common property, equality in labor, consumption by other attributes of communist ideology.)
Winery in Rishon Lezione 1906 year.
Year 1906-th. Lithuanian painter and sculptor Boris Schatz founded the Bezalel Jerusalem Academy of Arts.
Bezalel Academy of Arts
Year 1909-th. The creation in Palestine of a militarized Jewish organization, Ha-Shomer, whose goal was self-defense and the protection of settlements from the raids of Bedouins and robbers who hijacked herds from Jewish peasants.
Year 1912-th. In Haifa, the Ezra Jewish Foundation of Germany founded the Technion Technical College (from the 1924 of the year, the Institute of Technology). The language of instruction is German, subsequently - Hebrew. In 1923, Albert Einstein visited him and planted a tree there.
Albert Einstein during a visit to the Technion
In the same 1912 year Naum Tsemakh, together with Menachem Gnesin, gathers in Bialystok in Poland a troupe that became the basis for the professional Habim theater created in 1920 in Palestine. The first theatrical productions in Hebrew in Eretz Israel refer to the period of the first Aliya. At Sukkot 1889 in Jerusalem, the school "Lemel" hosted the play "Zrubavel, O Shivat Zion" ("Zrubavel, or Return to Zion") based on the play by M. Lilienblum. The play was published in Yiddish in Odessa in 1887, translated and staged by D. Elin.
Founder of the first Hebrew Theater Nahum Tsemach
Year 1915-th. On the initiative of Jabotinsky and Trumpeldor (more here и here) as part of the British Army, a "Mule Drivers Unit" is being created, consisting of 500 Jewish volunteers, most of whom are immigrants from Russia. The detachment takes part in the landing of British troops on the Gallipoli peninsula on the coast of Cape Helles, losing 14 dead and 60 wounded. The squad disbanded in the 1916 year.
Hero of the Russian-Japanese War, Joseph Trumpeldor
Year 1917-th. The Balfour Declaration is the official letter of the British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour to Lord Walter Rothschild. After the defeat in the First World War, the Ottoman Empire lost its power over Palestine (the territory that came under the rule of the British crown). Content of the declaration:
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2 Nov. 1917 of the year
Dear Lord Rothschild,
On behalf of His Majesty’s Government, I have the honor to convey to you the following declaration, which expresses sympathy for the Zionist aspirations of the Jews, submitted to the Cabinet of Ministers and approved by it:
“His Majesty’s Government is approving the creation of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine and will make every effort to help achieve this goal; it is clearly understood that no action should be taken that would violate the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country. "
I would be very grateful to you if you brought this Declaration to the attention of the Zionist Federation.
Arthur James Balfour.
In 1918, France, Italy, and the United States supported the declaration.
Arthur James Balfour and the Declaration
Year 1917-th. On the initiative of Rotenberg, Zhabotinsky and Trumpeldor, the Jewish Legion is being created within the British army. It includes the 38 Battalion, which was based on the disbanded "Mule Drivers Unit", Jews of British origin and a large number of Jews of Russian origin. The 1918 Battalion, consisting primarily of Jewish volunteers from the United States and Canada, is created in 39. The 40 Battalion consists of Ottomans. The Jewish Legion takes part in the hostilities in Palestine against the Ottoman Empire, the losses are of the order of 100 people with a total number of about 5000 people.
Soldiers of the Jewish Legion near the Western Wall in Jerusalem in 1917
Year 1918-th. The creation of a university in Palestine was discussed at the First Zionist Congress in Basel, but the laying of the foundation stone of Jerusalem University took place in 1918. The university officially opened in 1925. It is noteworthy that Albert Einstein bequeathed to the Hebrew University all his letters and manuscripts (more than 55 thousands of names), as well as the rights to commercial use of his image and name. Every year it brings the university a profit of millions of dollars.
Opening Ceremony, 1925 Year
Year 1918-th. The newspaper HaAretts has been published. (The first Hebrew newspaper was published in Jerusalem in 1863, the year Halabanon. The Jerusalem Post was published in 1938, and the most popular today is Yediot Ahoronot (“Last news") In 1939.)
Khalebanon Newspaper, 1878 Year
Year 1919-th. Third Aliya. Because of the violation by the British of the League of Nations mandate and the introduction of restrictions on the entry of Jews, 1923 of thousands of Jews, mainly from Eastern Europe, are moving to Palestine before 40.
Harvesting in 1923 year
Year 1920-th. The creation in Palestine of the Jewish military underground organization Hagan in response to the destruction by the Arabs of the northern settlement of Tel Hai, which killed 8 people, including the hero of the war in Port Arthur Trumpeldor. In the same year, a wave of pogroms broke out in Palestine, when armed Arabs robbed, raped and killed Jews with non-intervention and sometimes complicity with the police. After Arabs killed 133 and wounded 339 Jews within one week, the highest elected body of Jewish self-government appointed a special Defense Council, headed by Pinchas Rutenberg. In 1941, the Hagan fighters under the British command carried out a series of sabotage raids into Vichy Syria. In one of the operations in Syria, Moshe Dayan was injured and lost an eye. By May 1948, there were about 35 thousands in the ranks of Hagana.
One of the founders of the Hagana Pinhas Rutenberg
Year 1921-th. Pinchas Rutenberg (revolutionary and associate of the priest Gapon, one of the creators of the Hagan Jewish self-defense units) founded the Jaffa Electric Company, then the Palestinian Electric Company, and from 1961 of the Israeli Electric Company.
Hydroelectric Power Station Naharaim
Year 1922-th. Stalin is elected to the Politburo and the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (b), as well as the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the RCP (b).
Year 1922-th. Representatives of the 52-countries of the League of Nations (the predecessor of the UN), officially endorse the British Mandate in Palestine. Palestine then meant the current territories of Israel, the Palestinian Authority, Jordan and parts of Saudi Arabia. The mandate containing 28 paragraphs implied "establishing political, administrative and economic conditions in the country for the safe education of a Jewish national home". For example:
Article 2. The mandate is responsible for creating such political, administrative and economic conditions that will ensure the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine, as set out in the preamble, and the development of self-government institutions to also protect the civil and religious rights of Palestinians regardless of race or religion.
Article 4. The relevant Jewish Agency will be recognized as a public body to consult and interact with the Palestinian Authority on economic, social and other issues that may affect the establishment of a Jewish national home and the interests of the Jewish population in Palestine, and being controlled by the Administration, promoting and participating in development country.
The Zionist Organization, if its organization and establishment would be appropriate in the opinion of the Mandate Holder, will be recognized by such an agency. She will take steps to consult with the Government of His British Majesty to ensure the cooperation of all Jews who wish to promote the establishment of a Jewish national home.
Article 6. The Palestinian Authority, while ensuring non-neglect of the rights and conditions of other groups of the population, will promote Jewish immigration under suitable conditions, and will encourage, in cooperation with the Jewish Agency, as stipulated in Article 4, the dense settlement of land by Jews, including state lands and vacant lands that are not necessary for public needs.
Article 7. The Palestinian Authority will be responsible for drafting national legislation, which will include provisions that facilitate the acquisition of Palestinian citizenship by Jews, who will choose Palestine as their place of residence.
Details here. It is noteworthy that under the "Palestinian Authority" the League of Nations meant the Jewish authorities and did not at all mention the idea of creating an Arab state on a mandated territory also including Jordan.
Territories covered by the British Mandate
Year 1924-th. Under the Presidium of the Council of Nationalities of the USSR CEC, a Committee on the Land Management of Jewish Workers (KomZET) is set up “in order to attract the Jewish population of Soviet Russia to productive work”. Among other things, KomZET aims to create an alternative to Zionism. In 1928, the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR adopts a decree "On assigning KomZET for the needs of full settlement of free lands by working Jews in the Amur zone of the Far Eastern Territory." Two years later, the CEC of the RSFSR adopts a decree “On the formation of the Biro-Bijan national region as part of the Far Eastern region”, and in 1934, it receives the status of an autonomous Jewish national region.
Year 1924-th. Fourth Aliya. For two years, about 63-x thousand people moved to Palestine. Emigrants are mainly from Poland, since by that time the USSR already blocks free travel to Jews. At that time, in the Jezreel Valley, the city of Afula was founded on the lands purchased by the American development company Eretz Israel.
City of Raanana 1927 year
Year 1927-th. A Palestinian pound is being circulated. In 1948, it was renamed the Israeli lira, although the old name Palestine Pound was present in the bills in Latin. This name was present in the Israeli currency until 1980, when Israel switched to shekels, and from 1985, to the present day, a new shekel is in circulation. From 2003, the new shekel is one of the 17-and international freely convertible currencies.
Sample banknotes of the time
Israeli lira in 1960's.
Year 1929-th. Fifth Aliya. In the period before 1939, in connection with the flourishing of the Nazi ideology, about 250 of thousands of Jews moved from Europe to Palestine, thousands of 174 of whom were from 1933 to 1936. As a result, tensions between the Arab and Jewish populations of Palestine are increasing. According to Arab pressure in 1939, the British authorities issue the so-called “White Book”, according to which, in violation of the terms of the League of Nations mandate and the Balfour declaration, 10 years after the publication of the book in Palestine, a single binary state of Jews and Arabs should be created. Jewish immigration to the country for the next 5 years is limited to 75 by thousands of people, after which it was supposed to stop altogether. Arab immigration is required to increase immigration quotas. On 95% of the territory of Mandatory Palestine, it is prohibited to sell land to Jews. From that moment on, the immigration of Jews to Palestine almost became illegal.
Packaging of citrus fruits in Herzilia in the year 1933
Year 1933-th. The largest to this day transport cooperative Eged is being created.
British checkpoint at the entrance to Tel Aviv from Jerusalem, 1948 year.
Year 1944-th. A Jewish brigade is being created within the British Army. The British government initially opposed the idea of creating Jewish armed formations, fearing that this would give more weight to the political demands of the Jewish population of Palestine. Even the invasion of Rommel’s army in Egypt did not alter their fears. Nevertheless, the first recruitment of volunteers to the British army was held in Palestine at the end of 1939, and already in 1940, Jewish soldiers in British units took part in battles in Greece. A total of about 27000 volunteers from Mandatory Palestine serve in the British Army. In 1944, Britain changes its mind and creates a Jewish brigade, yet having assigned 300 English soldiers to it, just in case. The total number of the Jewish brigade is about 5000 people. The losses of the Jewish brigade were 30 killed and 70 injured, 21 fighter won military awards. The brigade was disbanded on 1 on May 1946 of the year. Veterans of the brigade Maklef and Laskov subsequently became chiefs of the General Staff of the Israel Defense Forces.
Jewish brigade soldiers in Italy in 1945 year
Year 1947-th. 2 April. British government refuses from the mandate to Palestine, arguing that it is not able to find an acceptable solution for Arabs and Jews and asks the UN to find a solution to the problem. (It was stated that the United States.)
Year 1947-th. 10 November, organized by Sherut Avir ("Air Service"). On the 29 of November 1947, the "weapon" had 16 aircraft purchased by private individuals:
One Dragon Rapide (the only twin-engine aircraft), 3 Taylorcraft-BL, one RWD-15, two RWD-13, three RWD-8, two Tiger Moth, Auster, amphibious RC-3 Seabee and Beneš-Mráz Be-550.
In addition, the Zlín 12 aircraft was at the disposal of the Ötzel organization
Amphibian RC-3 Seabee
Year 1947. 29 November. The United Nations adopts a partition plan for Palestine (UNGA Resolution No. 181). This plan provides for the termination of the British Mandate in Palestine by August 1 1948, and recommends the creation on its territory of two states: Jewish and Arab. Under the Jewish and Arab states, 23% of the mandated territory transferred to the UK by the League of Nations is allocated (for 77%, the United Kingdom organized the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, 80% of whose citizens are so-called Palestinians). Under the Jewish state, the UNSCOP commission allocates 56% of this territory, under the Arab 43%, one percent is placed under international control. Subsequently, the section is adjusted taking into account Jewish and Arab settlements, and 61% is allocated for the Jewish state, the border is transferred so that 54 Arab settlements enter the territory allocated for the Arab state. Thus, for the future, the Jewish state is allocated only 14% of the territories allocated by the League of Nations for the same purpose 30 years ago.
For the adoption of the plan, 33 countries vote: Australia, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela, Haiti, Guatemala, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Iceland, Canada, Costa Rica, Liberia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Nicaragua, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, USSR, USA, Ukrainian SSR, Uruguay, Philippines, France, Czechoslovakia, Sweden, Ecuador, South Africa. Of the 33s who voted “For”, 5 is under the influence of the USSR, including the USSR itself: the Byelorussian SSR, Poland, the USSR, the Ukrainian SSR, and Czechoslovakia.
13 countries vote against the plan: Afghanistan, Egypt, Greece, India, Iraq, Iran, Yemen, Cuba, Lebanon, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey.
10 countries abstain: Argentina, United Kingdom, Honduras, Republic of China, Colombia, Mexico, El Salvador, Chile, Ethiopia and Yugoslavia. (There were no Stalin satellites among the abstentions.) Thailand did not vote.
Palestinian Jewish authorities happily accept the UN plan to divide Palestine, Arab leaders, including the League of Arab States and the Supreme Arab Council of Palestine, categorically reject the plan.
Year 1948-th. On February 24, a decision is made to create an Armored Service, which is armed with improvised armored vehicles. The first and only armored battalion was created in June 1948. It includes just purchased in France 10 tanks Hotchkiss N-39, a Sherman tank bought from the British in Israel and two Cromwell tanks stolen from the British. By the end of the year, 30 decommissioned Sherman are purchased in Italy to replace the unsuccessful Hotchkiss, however, their technical condition allows only 2 tanks to enter the battle. Of the total number of Israeli tanks, only 4 have guns.
Tank Hotchkiss H-39 at the Latrun Museum
Year 1948-th. March 17 issued an order to create the "Maritime Service" - the future of the Israeli Navy. Beitar’s naval school was opened in Italy in 1934, in which future Israeli sailors were trained, in 1935 a marine department was opened at the Jewish Agency, in 1937 a shipping company began operating in Palestine, and in 1938 in Akko, the School of Naval Officers, still operating, has been opened. Since 1941, in the ranks of the British Royal fleet 1100 Jewish volunteers from Palestine, including 12 officers, are serving. In January 1943, the PalYam marine division ("Marine Company") was created in Palm. From 1945 to 1948, they managed to deliver about 70 thousand Jews to Palestine, bypassing the British authorities. In 1946, the Jewish Agency and the Federation of Trade Unions created the shipping company Tsim.
At the time of the proclamation of the independence of Israel, the fleet includes 5 large ships:
Corvette A-16 “Eilat” (former USCG Northland American icebreaker with a tonnage of 2 thousand tons)
K-18 (former Canadian corvette HMCS Beauharnois tonnage 1350 tons, arrived in Palestine 27.06.1946 with 1297 th immigrants on board)
K-20 "Hagan" (former Canadian corvette HMCS Norsyd with a displacement of 1350 tons)
K-24 "Maoz" (former German cruise liner "Sitra" with a displacement of 1700 tons, up to 1946 of the year in the US Coast Guard under the name of USGG Cythera)
K-26 "Leg" (the former American patrol ship ASPC Yucatan displacement 450 tons)
P-25 and P-33 (former German amphibious boats with a displacement of 309 tons, purchased in Italy)
P-51 "Ramat Rachel" and P-53 "Nitsanim" (amphibious assault boats with a displacement of 387 tons, donated by the Jewish community of San Francisco)
P-39 "Gush Etzion" (former British tank-landing craft LCT (2) with a displacement of 300-700 tons)
W-45 "Khatag Haafor" (former American tugboat acquired in Italy, with a displacement of 600 tons)
W-29 "Drome Africa" (a former whaling vessel with a displacement of 200 tons, donated by the Jewish community of South Africa)
"Hana senesh" (former trading schooner with a displacement of 260 tons, arrived in Palestine 25.12.1945 "with a load" of 252 "illegal immigrants"
Coast Guard Ships:
M-17 "Haporcim" (former British boat MLFAIREMILE B with a displacement of 65 tons, purchased in Italy)
M-19 "Palmach" (former British boat left by the British fleet to the municipality of Haifa during the withdrawal of troops from Palestine)
M-21 Dror, M-23 Galit and M-35 Tirtse (former coast guard boats of the British Mandate with a tonnage of 78 tons, M-21 and M-23 were abandoned by the British, and M-35 was bought from Cyprus )
The personnel of the fleet consisted of the fighters of PalJam, civilian sailors, Jewish volunteers from the US Navy and the British Royal Navy.
Year 1948-th. 14 May The day before the end of the British Mandate for Palestine, David Ben-Gurion proclaims the creation of an independent Jewish state in the territory allocated according to the UN plan.
Palestine partition plan on the eve of the war of independence, 1947-th year.
Year 1948-th. 15 May The League of Arab States declares war on Israel, and Egypt, Yemen, Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Trans-Jordan attack Israel. Trans-Jordan annexes the West Bank, and Egypt - the Gaza Strip (the territory allocated under the Arab state).
Year 1948-th. On May 20, a week after the independence of the state was declared, the first of ten modified Czechoslovak Messerschmitts was delivered to Israel - Avia S-199 - priced at $ 180000 per plane. For comparison, the Americans sold fighters for $ 15000, and bombers for $ 30000 per plane. The Palestinian Air Service bought in different countries medium-sized C-46 Commando transport aircraft for $ 5000, four-engine C-69 Constellation transport aircraft for $ 15000 per unit, B-17 heavy bombers for $ 20000. All in all, Czechoslovak aircraft accounted for about 10-15% of the Israeli Air Force combat strength in 1948. By the end of 1948, out of the 25 and all of the supplied S-199, twelve were lost for various reasons, seven were at different stages of repair and only six were fully operational.
Avia S-199 in a museum in Israel
Year 1949-th. In July, a cease-fire agreement is signed with Syria. The war of independence is over.
Ceasefire line 1949 year
Myths about how Stalin created Israel:
The myth of 1: If it were not for Stalin, then in 1947, the partition plan would not have been approved and an independent state of Israel would not have been created.
If we assume that Stalin would be against the plan of partitioning Palestine (I wonder what alternative he would suggest? To leave Palestine under the eternal mandate of his sworn enemy of Great Britain, which itself had already refused the mandate?), Then even with the votes of the socialist camp, the number of countries voting for "more left (28 vs. 18). Of the 33s who voted “For”, 5 was under the influence of the USSR, including the USSR itself: the Byelorussian SSR, Poland, the USSR, the Ukrainian SSR, and Czechoslovakia. Yugoslavia led an independent policy; there were no Soviet troops on its territory. Gromyko’s speech at the UN was very touching, but no more. Do not forget that after the end of the Second World War, the UK was not able to keep its colonies and protectorates. Thus, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Malaysia, Malta, Cyprus, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain and many others gained independence. Palestine was no exception, and Britain itself brought the keys to this territory (where the national liberation struggle was in full swing), of course, with all she could. Whether the UN would vote for partition or not, the state of Israel actually existed by that time. It created its own financial system, including currency, health and education systems (schools and universities), transport, infrastructure, power generation, and agriculture. Local governments were organized, in fact, there were military units and enterprises for the production weapons, existed its own cultural life, the press, theaters. To all of the above, Stalin had no relation. Moreover, many things were not created thanks to, but in spite of Stalin.
Myth 2. Apart from the USSR, no one else in the world wanted the emergence of a Jewish national center.
The USSR also did not want to create such a center in Palestine. As an alternative, he unsuccessfully tried to create such a center in the Far East. After the creation of the Jewish Autonomous Region, Jews made up about 16% of its inhabitants (only 17 thousand of the 3 million Jews living in the USSR at that time), and today it is less than one percent. Stalin did not allow Soviet Jews to leave for historical After the creation of Israel, he began his anti-Jewish campaign (“Assassins in White Coats”, “Rodless Cosmopolitans,” etc.).
Myth 3. Stalin saved Israel by allowing the delivery of captured German weapons from Czechoslovakia.
Deliveries of arms from Czechoslovakia were indeed, but they were not decisive. So, the Navy did not receive any assistance at all, there were no deliveries of heavy equipment (tanks, armored personnel carriers, etc.). Deliveries were limited to 25-th reworked "Messerschmitts" of poor quality at astronomical prices and small arms. Anticipating indignation, I agree that at that time any trunk was very valuable, but one should not exaggerate the value of these supplies either. In Czechoslovakia, about 25 thousands of rifles were purchased, more than 5 thousands of light machine guns, 200 heavy machine guns, more than 54 million cartridges. For comparison: only in March of the 1948 year on one underground factory Palestine has already been in production of 12 000 submachine guns Stan, 500 machine guns Dror, 140 000 grenades, 120 three-inch mortars and 5 million cartridges. The same Czechoslovakia supplied weapons to the Arabs. For example, during the operation "Shoded", the Hagany fighters intercepted the ship Argyro with eight thousand rifles and eight million rounds of Czechoslovakia, intended for Syria. Artillery, for example, during the war of independence mainly consisted of French cannons purchased in Switzerland. Moreover, after the war, the so-called Slansky process took place in Czechoslovakia. During a demonstration trial of a group of prominent figures of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, among whom was a veteran of the Spanish Civil War, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia Rudolf Slansky, and also 13 other high-ranking party and state leaders (11 of whom were Jews), were accused of mortal sins, including the "Trotsky-Zionist-Titovsky conspiracy." They were reminded of the supply of weapons to the Zionists, although Slansky was the only one who opposed these supplies. As a result, 11 people were executed, and 3s were sentenced to life imprisonment.
Myth 4. The Jewish front-line soldiers, as a rule, the Communists, were sent to Palestine as a business trip - essentially the same way as "volunteers" from the USSR to Spain went to 15 years before.
Stalin did not intend to let anyone out of the country "where a man breathes so freely," although General Dragunsky came up with the idea of forming a Jewish front-line division for sending to Palestine. There were no Soviet volunteers either in the army or in aviationnor on the fleet of Israel. Volunteers from other countries (primarily from the USA, South Africa and Great Britain) were, but not from the USSR.
Conclusion: Stalin did not create Israel.