Military Review

Balanced automatics of the system I.Yu. Artemyeva and Yu.E. Ashurova

One of the most urgent tasks in the field of creating small weapons is to increase the accuracy and accuracy of fire. To improve these parameters, various methods and technical solutions are proposed that have pros and cons. A promising and promising way to improve accuracy is the so-called. balanced automatics: weapon mechanisms in which special parts compensate or reduce the effect of arising forces (recoil, toss the barrel, etc.). It should be noted that several variants of balanced automation have already been tested in practice and have shown their high characteristics. In addition, new systems of similar purpose are constantly appearing. For example, in the late nineties of the last century, the inventors I.Yu. offered their own solution to the problem. Artemyev and Yu.E. Ashurov. The inventors received a patent number RU 2152582.

Artemyev and Ashurov offered a submachine gun with balanced automatics of the original design. When creating a new system, designers relied on the need to reduce or even completely quench the pulses affecting the weapon during firing. It was proposed to do this by reducing the action of the moving parts of the automation on the body of the weapon. An additional objective of the project was to simplify the design.

To solve this problem, the designers proposed to equip the prospective submachine gun not only with a movable gate, but also with a movable barrel. These parts must have the same mass and be connected to each other through a special mechanism of opposite motion. The mechanism consists of a "bloodworm" (swinging on the axis of the rocker) and two connecting rods pivotally connected with it. The connecting rods should connect the "bloodworm" with the barrel and bolt. The design of the mechanism is such that when the bolt moves backwards, the opposite connecting rod pushes the barrel forward and vice versa. Between the barrel and the bolt, it is proposed to place a return spring simultaneously acting on both these parts. When the bolt and barrel are in extreme positions, the spring is fully compressed.

In addition, in the design of the Artemyev and Ashurov submachine gun there is an original barrel locking system designed to hold it in place during the shot and reduce its speed of movement. In the breech breech gas chamber is provided, which includes a piston rigidly connected with the gate. The gas chamber, in turn, is connected with the breech breech: the gas outlet is located directly in front of the chamber. During the shot, the powder gases enter the chamber, their pressure at this moment is too high to allow the piston to quickly enter the chamber. Due to this, the movement of the shutter should slow down.

The design of the firing mechanism is not described. The inventors proposed only the original principle of the automation with the repayment of the recoil momentum. At the same time, the general scheme of the prospective weapon is attached to the patent. Thus, the pistol grip fire control with a trigger and protective bracket should be located under the middle part of the receiver. The reception shaft of the store was proposed to be placed in the rear of the weapon, due to the design features of the applied automation.

The work of the original automation is as follows. In the cocked and ready to fire weapon, the bolt and barrel are in extreme positions and are held by the return spring. When you press the trigger spring returns the barrel and bolt in the center position. In this case, the back of the bolt hooks the cartridge from the magazine and sends it to the chamber. Drummer, placed on the gate, hits the primer and there is a shot. Powder gases through the gas outlet enter the gas chamber. Their pressure does not allow the piston to enter the chamber and thus slows down the displacement of the shutter under the action of recoil. After the bullet leaves the barrel, the pressure in the gas chamber drops, due to which the recoil can move the bolt to the extreme rear position. At the same time, the trunk is transferred to the frontmost position and the return spring is compressed. The cycle is completed, the weapon is ready for a new shot.

The bolt and barrel of the Artemyev and Ashurov design submachine guns have the same mass, which accordingly affects the parameters of their movement. Receiving recoil energy, these parts should diverge in different directions with the same speed. Thus, the pulse gate and the barrel are the same in magnitude, but opposite in direction. Due to this, the recoil impulse is extinguished. Accuracy and accuracy of shooting improves.

Like any other invention, the balanced automation of Artemyev and Ashurov has pros and cons. The first should include the very possibility of damping the recoil pulse. Another plus of the proposed design is visible in comparison with other systems of balanced automation. For example, the Russian AEK-971, AK-107 and AK-108 automatic machines use a special movable balancer to absorb recoil. This detail, by compensating for the pulse of the bolt, increases the overall weight of the weapon. In the Artemyev and Ashurkov system, the barrel plays the role of a balancer. Thus, the number of parts in the proposed submachine gun is reduced to the required minimum.

At the same time, the proposed system of balanced automation has a noticeable disadvantage, directly related to its design. A special mechanism based on levers and a rocker arm is used to set the barrel in motion. Such a system can reduce the stability of the mechanics in conditions of pollution. In addition, the mechanism of the opposite movement may impose special requirements on the accuracy of production of parts.

When creating weapons based on automatics I.Yu. Artemyeva and Yu.E. Ashurov designers will have to solve several serious problems. The main difficulty is to ensure the correct combination of masses of various parts and forces acting on them. The design of the weapon should be designed in such a way that the pressure of the powder gases of the cartridge is enough to lock the bolt for some time; and the recoil energy must be large enough to move both the bolt and the barrel. The latter task can be solved by alleviating these details, but a reduction in the mass of the trunk may affect its strength.

With all the flaws and ambiguous features, the design of Artemyev and Ashurov balanced automation is of great interest. The inventors were able to offer their original solution to the old problem, which does not lead to a significant complication or weighting of weapons. In addition, they managed to reduce the number of parts to the required minimum and thereby simplify the design. However, as far as we know, for almost a half decade since the issuance of the patent RU 2152582, a new idea has not received further development. Information on the development of weapons based on the automation of Artemyev and Ashurov is not available. Apparently, gunsmiths are not interested in the proposal of the inventors.

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  1. bigELDAK
    bigELDAK 15 May 2014 08: 53
    resembles a homemade "Karakurt"
    1. Nova
      Nova 15 May 2014 13: 02
      I didn’t know about that. Very innovative design. Thank! It would be necessary to dig more information.
  2. bunta
    bunta 15 May 2014 09: 34
    The use of the barrel as an anti-mass in a system with SA is self-evident, for those who are at least a little familiar with TRIZ (theory of solving inventive problems). But the practical implementation is still waiting for its beautiful solution.
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 15 May 2014 10: 31
      Quote: bunta
      But the practical implementation is still waiting for its beautiful solution.

      Greetings, Andrew! That's for sure, there are many solutions to this kind of schematic, but not one worthy of attention. In any case, a mobile trunk is a dispersal, which again carries with it attempts to eliminate them.
      1. bazilio
        bazilio 15 May 2014 13: 38
        An interesting design .. The wear resistance of the lever system and their performance in the event of contamination is doubtful.
        The presented circuit is designed for pistol cartridge. It seems to me that the dispersion problem is not as tragic for the PP as for the assault of rifles. But the adaptation of this automation scheme to an intermediate (not to mention rifle) cartridge looks extremely doubtful.
  3. Tankist_1980
    Tankist_1980 15 May 2014 10: 07
    The circuit resembled Watt's parallelogram.
  4. The comment was deleted.
  5. Signaller
    Signaller 15 May 2014 17: 04
    Personal opinion - like mind work - evaluation is excellent. As a practical option, not. So many cranks, joints, when you just need to send a bullet in flight in the direction of the target. Judging by the size, it was a jump shot. And the handles of the fighters are shaking after a run. Here, at least to get into the target contour is great. A sea of ​​simpler schemes has been created, according to the accuracy and working out of the automation scheme, why is this ?? 7 Just like - "flight of thought" no more. Personal opinion, I do not impose.
    1. 225chay
      225chay 15 May 2014 19: 56
      Quote: Signaller
      As a practical option, unsuccessful.

      That's why the idea was not developed ...
  6. bunta
    bunta 15 May 2014 20: 12
    These parts must have the same mass and be connected to each other through a special mechanism of the opposite movement.

    Not necessary. The main thing is that at the moment of meeting the counter-masses, their impulses are the same. That is, if the barrel is heavier, it should move more slowly. I recently warmed up with the same pattern. For me, the barrel was slowed down by twisting it along the axis as in GSh-18 and a return spring. There was no "opposite movement" mechanism. The synchronization of the strike of the counter-masses was provided not by the mechanism, but by the calculation of the meeting point plus or minus the error. Carriage scheme. It seems to have found a solution for self-centering of a moving barrel to maintain accuracy. Doubt took over the power of the low-pulse cartridge. And I got stuck with one problem with feeding a cartridge from the store. Postponed the decision until retirement wink

    From the news.
    Recently I learned that Aleksandrov and Kalashnikov Jr. worked on a combined feed (magazine + tape) for machine guns in the 80's. So my statement was confirmed - that if something appeared in the weapons of the villains, it does not mean that this solution was not worked out with us.

    There is good material on Schmeisser and Sturmgever. It takes some kind of creative pendell to sit down for an article.
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 18 May 2014 04: 29
      Hm. And how do you ensure reliability in various operating conditions? Just similar units in which there was no mechanical synchronization system already existed. And all of them were unsuccessful precisely because of the inconsistency of movement of various parts of the mechanism.
  7. ramsi
    ramsi 15 May 2014 20: 43
    according to the proposed scheme: if you select the angle of the rocker arm (almost along the trunk line), then in the locked state the barrel-shutter will be close to the dead point, overcoming it could well replace the gas outlet. Not so hot, of course that, but it seems easier ... At the expense of the pistol cartridge there are also doubts whether he will pull such mechanics?
  8. Droid
    Droid 16 May 2014 10: 32
    The use of the barrel as an anti-mass has already been tested. Competition Abakan, 1984, Kalashnikov assault rifle AKB-1. Needless to say, he did not reach the final, like the rest of the balanced automation? This is about the "Izhevsk Kalashnikov lobby".
    In the same PP sample, the return spring around the barrel bothers me. It's still not a gun, but a gun-machine gun, when firing in bursts, the barrel heats up quickly and the overheating spring loses its properties.
  9. kirpich
    kirpich 16 May 2014 14: 45
    Somehow on the Internet on the forums I saw a schematic diagram of a recoil compensator for "AK". I depicted it as best I could, forgive me for the curvature. I hope that the principle of action is clear from the diagram? The device was invented by an Armenian.
  10. bunta
    bunta 16 May 2014 15: 47
    Not an Armenian, but either a Kyrgyz or a Kazakh.
    Considered this question:
    1. kirpich
      kirpich 16 May 2014 16: 10
      Already confused in nationalities. recourse laughing. Great was the USSR drinks
  11. wasjasibirjac
    wasjasibirjac 18 May 2014 07: 31
    if this design is a simplification of the design of the submachine gun, then I can no longer imagine complicated. bloodworms, crank gears, a gas chamber, a return spring around the barrel, etc.
  12. Motoroll
    Motoroll 17 July 2015 10: 38
    I like the AK-12 more.