Military Review

Anti-tank grenade launcher RRB M49 (Yugoslavia)

1
The Second World War clearly showed the importance of a new class of weapons - hand-held anti-tank grenade launchers. Despite the relatively low efficiency, Panzerfausty and Bazuki noticeably increased the combat capability of the infantry units. Therefore, immediately after the end of the war, the development of such anti-tank systems continued. In addition, the creation of grenade launchers began to engage in new countries that had not previously worked on such projects. In the late forties, Yugoslavia entered the "club" of the creators of hand-held anti-tank grenade launchers.


Shortly after the end of the war, the Yugoslav leadership created the “Military Industry and Shipbuilding Plan for the 1947-1951 Years”. In accordance with this document, it was planned to lead the development of various branches of the defense industry. In addition, it stipulated plans for the creation of various weapon systems and military equipment. Among other things, the document included an item on the creation of a hand-held anti-tank grenade launcher. Trials of this weapons it was required to start no later than 1947-48, and mass production and supplies to the troops were to start in 49. The creation of the first Yugoslav grenade launcher was entrusted to the Institute №11, the Armaments Department of the Military Technical Institute (VTI) and the plant “Redva ​​Zastada” (Kragujevac).

Anti-tank grenade launcher RRB M49 (Yugoslavia)


For obvious reasons, the Yugoslav engineers had no experience in creating hand-held anti-tank grenade launchers. Therefore, it soon became clear that the composition of enterprises engaged in the project, determined by the country's leadership, would not allow the task to be completed on time. In connection with this project, the Military-Technical Plant in the city of Valevo was appointed the project headquarters. This plant was engaged in the production of grenades, mines and fuses, which was the main reason for choosing. Anton Meshichek, who headed the design bureau of the plant, became the head of the new project. Since 1946 years under his leadership, engineers studied foreign anti-tank rocket launchers, especially German.

The first Yugoslav anti-tank grenade launcher, like some foreign developments, was proposed to be used with an original above-caliber grenade. This made it possible to provide acceptable combat characteristics in combination with the small dimensions of the weapon itself. The development of a grenade with the code designation “Srno” ended in the autumn of 1948. The creation of ammunition led engineer Buklysh.

The grenade with a total length of 552,5 mm had a characteristic large head of the caliber 76,2 mm, in which a shaped charge was located. A wooden core with a diameter of 43,7 mm was used as the tail of the grenade. It was proposed to place a number of grenade elements in the cavities of the rod. The rod itself was to be placed in the barrel of a grenade launcher. A propelling charge was attached to its rear. On the tail rod it was proposed to place four metal plates-stabilizers, which were straightened after leaving the barrel. For use with a grenade "Srno" proposed new fuse K-301. 1949 tests of the year showed that the grenade of the new model is capable of penetrating up to 100 mm of homogeneous armor.


The principle of operation of the fuse K-301


The fuse K-301 had a metal body in the shape of a truncated cone. In its upper cavity there was a wooden cork, which should have been in contact with the target when hit. When hitting the target, the cork had to be sunk into the fuse body and set in motion the drummer hitting the primer. To keep the impactor in a neutral position and to ensure safe use, the K-301 fuse had a protection system made from a spring-loaded sleeve and two metal balls. In the traveling position, the balls blocked the movement of the bush and the drummer. When they hit the target, they had to leave their seats and “release” the corresponding details.

The propellant charge of the grenade was a cardboard tube divided by several partitions. Inside the “compartments” of the tube there was a charge of gunpowder (420 g) and some sand. The latter, remaining inside the weapon for some time, was supposed to increase the pressure of the powder gases in the barrel.

The design of the Mesichek grenade launcher is of great interest, since it used the original trigger mechanism (USM). The barrel of the grenade launcher was a seamless tube caliber 44 mm long 970 mm. In front of the trunk was attached folding bipod. Close to the rear of the weapon there was a folding shoulder rest. In the middle part of the barrel fastened trigger mechanism, the design of which used components borrowed from small arms. The grenade launcher received an optical and auxiliary open sight. The total weight of the structure was 6,2 kg.


USM with fuse trigger RRB M49 old and new type


Directly under the barrel were a receiver with a sliding gate, trigger and a magazine borrowed from one of the small-caliber rifles. Under these units were located pistol grip and trigger with a protective bracket. The grenade launcher trigger was equipped with a detachable box magazine for idle annular ignition cartridges of caliber 5,6 mm.

Similar original design USM affected the process of the shot. Preparing a grenade launcher for firing, the soldier had to place a grenade into the barrel, as well as firing the trigger, sending the blank cartridge into the chamber. Hovering a grenade launcher at the target, the shooter pulled the trigger, after which the idle cartridge ignited. Through the seed hole that connected the chamber of the USM grenade launcher with the barrel, the fire came to the throwing charge of the grenade placed in the cardboard case. After the burning of the cardboard, the propellant ignited and a shot occurred.

Despite the seeming complexity, this design of the trigger allowed the Yugoslav engineers to ensure the performance of the required characteristics, as well as to simplify and cheapen the production of weapons through the use of existing components. The recoilless grenade launcher of the Mesichek system fired the Srno cumulative grenade at a speed of 87 m / s. Target range was equal to 200 meters. A trained rocket launcher could make up to three rounds per minute.

In 1948, the team of the design bureau of the Military Technical Plant in Valevo presented its development to the commission of the General Staff of the Yugoslav People’s Army (JNA). Interestingly, for the first time, new grenade launchers were shown to the public already on 1 in May 1948, i.e. before adopting. Especially for the parade was made several layouts of new weapons.

On tests, the Meshichek grenade launcher had to contend with a competing project, which involved the use of a relatively complex rocket grenade. To carry out the shot, this weapon had to use primer-igniters placed in a special shop. The Commission of the General Staff compared both grenade launchers and rendered its verdict: in 1949, the Mechnichek grenade launcher was adopted by the JNA. The weapon received an army designation RRB М49. Serial production of grenade launchers was soon launched at the plant “Redvents outpost” in Kragujevac. The release of ammunition was assigned to the Krusik factory in the city of Valevo.


Variants of the RRB М49 anti-tank grenade launcher


Until the end of 1949, the industry manufactured more than 230 grenade launchers of the new model. The first months of operation of the M49 grenade launcher revealed its shortcomings. Soon the designers of the Valevsky Military Technical Plant presented an updated version of the project. Antabas for a belt appeared on the trunk, the mounting system of the open sight and the shoulder rest changed (they suggested using welding instead of fastening rings), and the handle was also modified. In addition, the optical scope of the sight has changed: the new version allowed the grenade launcher to quickly determine the necessary amendments. For some time there were big problems with the production of flexible stabilizers. These parts had to be ordered to the EMO plant (Celje), which made the production process difficult.

In 1950, the new M50 grenade was adopted. It differed from the Srno product with a silumin tail bar and a new K-302 fuse. The previous K-301 fuse could not provide a grenade exploding when meeting with a target from a large angle. K-302 was deprived of this flaw.

In 1949, Yugoslav enterprises transferred the 230 army new grenade launchers. In 1950, 6625 units of new weapons were assembled, in 51, 3437. The latest M49 grenade launchers were assembled in the 1952 year, there were a total of 20 pieces. Despite all the innovations and improvements, the first Yugoslav anti-tank grenade launcher had some serious problems. In addition, in the late forties and early fifties, the United States transferred about 6 thousands of anti-tank grenade launchers and about half a million grenades of their own production to the Yugoslav military. American grenade launchers were not inferior in their characteristics, and in some cases even surpassed the Yugoslav "competitors". It was decided to create a new grenade launcher of its own design. However, the RNB M49 grenade launchers were used by the Yugoslav National Army until the end of the sixties, until they were finally replaced by a new weapon.


On the materials of the sites:
http://otvaga2004.ru/
http://dogswar.ru/
http://tonnel-ufo.ru/
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  1. cosmos111
    cosmos111 16 May 2014 09: 37
    +1
    better than RPG-7, there are no reusable grenade launchers ....

    South Africa's modernization ..... simple and convenient ...
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 16 May 2014 12: 43
      +1
      Quote: cosmos111
      South Africa's modernization ..... simple and convenient ...

      Oh, live and learn! And I thought it was meridian modernization ......
  2. inkass_98
    inkass_98 16 May 2014 11: 41
    0
    An interesting shaitan trumpet. A pistol grip with a clear German accent.
  3. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 16 May 2014 12: 54
    +2
    So, why not start the production of technologically simple weapons in the Southeast: RPG-2, RRB M49 grenade launchers; mortars and rocket launchers of a simplified design; "rifle" muzzle grenade launchers and mortars (example: Transnistria)?
  4. Roman 1977
    Roman 1977 16 May 2014 15: 36
    +1
    Yugoslavia has a fairly developed history of the development of grenade launchers:
    The first rocket-propelled grenades in the JNA were American: to 1953, based on the "Agreement on aid" Yugoslavia has received from the US 1000 modern rocket-propelled grenade launchers "Bazooka" M9 and M9A1 caliber 60 99600 mm anti-tank missiles and M6A1 4890 grenade «Super Bazooka» M20, M20A1B1 and M20B1 caliber 90 mm with 419114 89 mm anti-tank missiles.
    However, after the appearance of the M49 RRB in 1957, the UNA adopted a grenade launcher designed by Captain Tsvetich under the code RB 44 mm M57 (Batsach Rouge 44 mm M57 - a hand grenade caliber 44 mm of the 1957 model of the year), which was put into mass production. Until 1966, 26000 units of this weapon were produced. The corrected version of the grenade launcher with a reinforced rear of the barrel received the name RB M57A1. The final weapon model with the designation M57A2 had a thickened rear of the barrel, a shoulder rest with a ring and special recesses for the sling rings.
    From 1965 to 1967, the Kragujevac arms factory “Crvena Zastava” released 4331 fixed grenade launchers, and before 1975, it also produced 12600 RB M57A2. Prior to 1970, the Kragujevac plant produced a total of 47751 M57 units of all variants.

    RB M57

    Russian volunteer Oleg Bondarets from Kiev with a Y-Yugoslav-made M-57 anti-tank grenade launcher in Sarajevo
    The next model was the M-79 "Wasp", equipped with a cumulative projectile with a piezoelectric effect in it, which made it possible to destroy armored vehicles with an armor thickness of up to 400 mm. The grenade launcher effectively hits armored vehicles at a distance of 350 meters, other targets at a distance of up to 600 meters. The maximum range of damage is 1350 meters.
    The maximum elevation angle is 70 degrees. It is possible to mount a riflescope type CN-6 3.5x with a horizontal viewing angle of 10 °.


    Russian volunteers in March 1993 of the year on positions on the mountain of Zaglavak under Gorazde with a Yugoslav-made M-79 anti-tank grenade launcher.