Military Review

Katana daimyo of the 16th century Toyotomi family

Presented katana made by the great master Kanesumi. He was the master gunsmith of the Nara school of the Mino tradition, who had the reputation of a master who made very sharp swords. The representative of the first generation Kanesumi was the son of the famous master Kanesada, one of the representatives of the Mino tradition to create swords during the Bunan era of the Muromachi period (before 1449). His birth name was Dzurazaemon.

This katana, made approximately in 1558-1570 yy, has a strong wavy jamon (pattern on the blade) of the gunom midar with a characteristic line.

Sori (curvature) blade is 2,1, see the length of the katana (always measured along the length of the cutting edge): 67,3, see the place of manufacture: Saku.

Refers to the category of someone - "old swords" (made before the XVII century. And are considered the best in Japan). The beautiful blade - jihad (jap. "Sword body") has a very high quality, the surface with a dense structure, itame (jap. "Grain") with nagare masame (jap. "Running steel").

Katana Kanesumi has a characteristic line of Jamon Gunome Midar (irregular wave pattern), which is described in the Japanese tradition as a combination of mountain peaks and arrow marks, or pigeon tails, known as yahazu-ba.

The wavy jamon on Japanese swords really resembles low Japanese mountains

The last time this katana was polished at the end of the twentieth century. respected polisher from the Kamakura area in Tokyo.

The katana is dressed in a unique and beautiful Tenzo Kosira utensified, so named after the Tenzo period (1573-1592), in which it was first created for a new sword. Kosirae - all the other elements of traditional Japanese swords and knives (except for the blade itself) - the handle, the details of the guard, the scabbard, made in the same decoration.

At the time of the Edo period (1603-1867), the details of this katana, like all other old katanas, were replaced with new ones - in the case of the katana presented, while maintaining the elegant, dark and elegant original style and many decorative elements.

Utsugatana is a compound word from: utsu - "strike" and gatan (or katana) - "sword". Together, utsugatana translates as "a sword suitable for strikes on the enemy." Utsugatana is an evolutionary stage in the development of Japanese swords, originating in the Muromachi period (at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries), when samurai begin to wear swords with the cutting edge upwards. This way of carrying swords was the opposite of that which had already existed since the 10th century. the traditional way of wearing swords, cutting edge down.

A new way of wearing swords, cutting edge up, allowed the samurai to snatch the sword from the sai (scabbard) and deliver a secant, lightning strike on the enemy in one very fast and refined movement over the years of training. Especially this technique was effective during melee.
Although it should be noted that on horseback the samurai still continued to use the old way of wearing long swords of tati - cutting edge down.

Katana daimyo of the 16th century Toyotomi family

Samurai on a black horse, snatching tati. Artist Utagawa Yositora. Edo period. Samurai holds tati (riders' longsword) with the cutting edge down

The tsuka (jap. "Handle") is shaped like a barely noticeable hourglass and covered with black, lacquered, traditional saekava - stingray leather.

From above, the handle is wrapped in a tsuka-ito — a black leather sheath that is much rarer than a silk one.

Copper hubs (coupling mounted at the base of the blade for fixing the guard) are coated with a zakudo (high-quality Japanese alloy that includes approximately 96% copper and 4% gold).

On a metal tsuba (guard), bamboo stalks are engraved, which among the Japanese is considered a symbol of health and longevity.

Fuchi (collar between tsuba and hilt) is decorated with a camon (generic emblem) with a paulownia flower of the Toyotomi family, founded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536 / 1537-1598) - daimyo (jap. "Great Name"), the largest feudal outstanding military leader and politician of the Sengoku period. He was one of the three great unifiers of Japan, following Oda Nobunaga along with Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Daimyo Toyotomi Hideyoshi

This emblem is one of the two imperial symbols of Japan. It consists of three leaves of the paulownia flower, on which are located three blossoming stems above.

Kamon daimyo Toyotomi family

At the time of the rise of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, he incorporated this imperial symbol into his kamon. The samurai of noble birth was taken to decorate their weaponor rather, the elements of the kosira family logo. This katana belongs to the genus Toyotomi since the 80-ies of the XVI century.

There is no exact information that this katana belonged to Toyotomi Hideyoshi, but given the time of its manufacture, the renowned name of the master Kanesumi and a very high cost, we can assume that if she did not belong to Hideyoshi himself, then the owner of this katana was an important samurai of the kind Toyotomi is a contemporary and associate of the great unifier of Japan.
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  1. DAGESTAN333
    DAGESTAN333 14 May 2014 09: 01
    Great review! Thanks for the work!
    1. crazyrom
      crazyrom 19 May 2014 06: 13
      The review is excellent, but where do we get hold of such beauty? And then soon the zombie apocalypse will be, katana is the most convenient and effective weapon (and against people, too, who have no cartridges).
      1. NataLyLegovaya
        NataLyLegovaya April 14 2015 06: 46
        you can get hold of such beauty) and even nearby - in St. Petersburg. Have you ever visited "KASUGAI" gallery? there it is, and a lot of different other, suitable for the apocalypse and not only))
  2. avt
    avt 14 May 2014 09: 25
    Yes, a beautiful review. With regards to weapons, she is a saber and a saber in Japan. Perhaps the checker will be closer. Well, the fact that the Japanese can make tea from a sex ceremony is beyond doubt, as well as the fact that we can easily make a tea from any tea ceremony. And what’s surprising - sometimes it’s not known what is healthier, it’s possible for me to live without tea in boiled water, but what about without sex? By the way, according to the recollections of veterans, blades for the Patriotic War because of the lack of finished forged from spring steel, so stronger than Nikolaev, from the time of imperialist it turned out. But this is true, by the way, and not on the topic of the article. Something koment do not miss because of the inadmissibility of the text!? However, maybe the moderators will indicate why?
    1. True
      True 14 May 2014 10: 02
      Quote: avt
      she is a saber and a saber in Japan
      In essence, a katana is a big knife.
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 14 May 2014 14: 15
        In essence, a katana is a big knife.
        No. But the checker - yes.
        1. Chicot 1
          Chicot 1 14 May 2014 19: 06
          Quote: True
          In essence, a katana is a big knife

          Quote: abrakadabre
          No. But the checker - yes

          I do not presume to state unequivocally, but I came across a statement that the word "katana" is translated from Japanese exactly as "big knife" or "long knife". As well as the word shashka comes from the Kabardino-Circassian (Adyghe) "sha-shkho" (or "sa-shkho), which has the same meaning -" long knife "...
          I am not a master of fencing, of course, but I can say one thing - the characteristics of the katana and checker blades are almost identical. Moreover, only a katana and a saber is worn in the sheath with the blade up. Everything else edged is suspended with the blade down. But the similarity ends and the differences begin ...
          The technique of working with them is strikingly different (but this is understandable even to people uninitiated in the intricacies of long-blade weapons) ...
          Both katana and checker are of the so-called type. "high-speed" bladed weapon. But the checker in this regard has one indisputable advantage - it can be removed from its sheath with one hand. To remove the katana, it is necessary to remove the weapon from its scabbard by pushing it with the thumb of the left hand behind the tsuba (guard) ...
    2. ImPerts
      ImPerts 14 May 2014 11: 09
      Better to change the cupcake)))
      1. avt
        avt 14 May 2014 11: 51
        Quote: ImPerts
        Better to change the cupcake)))

        A lot of starchy and sweet spoils the figure, so storing starchy flour is only a sax. laughing
        1. ImPerts
          ImPerts 14 May 2014 12: 38
          No question, then sanks and a strict diet hi
        2. abrakadabre
          abrakadabre 14 May 2014 14: 16
          so put the flour - only Sax
          Everything is much simpler:
          any of the letters "from" or "to" is replaced with an analogue from the Latin alphabet. And you will be happy.
    3. Black
      Black 14 May 2014 14: 13
      Quote: avt
      Well, the fact that the Japanese can make tea from a sex ceremony is beyond doubt, as well as the fact that we can easily make a tea from any tea ceremony.

      hi Bravo!
    4. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 14 May 2014 14: 14
      she is a saber and a saber in Japan. Perhaps the checker will be closer.
      It looks like. But there are big differences stemming from the functionality. The checker, which came from a large knife, at the time of occurrence and active distribution did not already meet with developed armor. Katana, on the other hand, appeared and actively used against a decently-hired opponent. And therefore:
      1. Developed two-handed grip, which is the main for the battle. This can significantly increase the power of the blow. Both chopping and piercing. It is possible to stab through the armor due to a slight bend with a very powerful two-handed grip.
      2. Significant thickness of the blade, and therefore mass and rigidity. Which also contributes to powerful shocks and increase the survivability of the blade when working on metal.

      Katana was originally a shortened backup sword of the second chance. The main one was tati - the same katana, but with a longer blade, a large deflection and just worn down blade. Since it would be problematic to grab it in the style of a katana or checkers because of the length (and drag along the floor). With the gradual abandonment of the tati, and after the unification of the country and with the direct participation of the government to seize the tati, as the main and unambiguous exclusively combat weapon, the katana in peacetime became the main sword. And her place was taken by an even shorter dagger-wakizashi.
      It’s like in Europe, a civilian light sword supplanted a much larger and heavier battle sword, the cavalry sword. And after the use of armor (except for the cuirassier version), the light civilian sword was successfully used in war.

      The checker all the time was, in general, a combat blade, but according to the unarmed enemy, therefore it was very light. But of decent length, as it was in service with the cavalry.
  3. brn521
    brn521 14 May 2014 10: 20
    Disposable and impractical weapons. It’s easy to junk, recovering after that is unrealistic. Real katanas were made quickly, they were cheap, and they were not spared.
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 14 May 2014 14: 28
      Disposable and impractical weapons.
      Do not tell. If you look at the hole in the tsuba (guard) under the blade, you will see that in the section the blade has a very dull wedge on the blade. And this means increased resistance to impact on metal. For example, you can compare with the sharpening angles of a conventional chisel.
      Considering that a samurai katana has always been an expensive and high-quality blade with good metal with an overall low quality of metal in Japan (especially raw materials), including those going for armor, the chances of a katana blade to survive even with frequent use of armor are very high. Problems can only be if the forehead in the forehead (and not in a sliding blow) fend off a katana of the same quality.
      But the checker, with its thin and light profile like an ordinary kitchen knife, has no chance of being left without a damn thing. Too narrow a wedge on the blade, which allows working without consequences only on much softer material - flesh, bones, felt cloak, etc.
      1. rereture
        rereture 14 May 2014 20: 10
        Actually, the article describes the ceremonial sword, in fact a work of art. And since Japan is not particularly rich in metal, almost all swords (except for some of the main ones) are made of shit quality metal, but the trick is that in some provinces there are sands with molybdenum content, which gave an alloying effect and corrosion resistance (such blades were worth very very expensive, and the masters were very famous and rich), but no matter how many such swords there were not many, and the masters often died taking their secret to the grave, not wanting to transfer their knowledge to competitors. European and Turkish, Arab swords of that time were superior in quality to Japanese ones.
        Japanese armor is another story. Since all samurai were primarily equestrian archers, this is why Japanese armor has a special form of shoulder pads: when raising arms, the shoulder pads moved down on their back and did not interfere with the shooting. Therefore, foot combat is an urgent need. The advantages of armor are lightness. The disadvantage is the very poor quality of the metal.

        One-and-a-halfs, scimitars, tulwars, fangs, shamshirs, scimitars are better than katanas in terms of quality and characteristics. By the way, in the 15-16th centuries Kriegsmesser'ry (literally translated from German "combat knife") were popular along with the lorry. Photo below
      2. rereture
        rereture 14 May 2014 20: 22
        By the way, you are not right about the checkers score. The first pieces of checkers generally belong to the XII-XIII century. And they could very well be used against armor (although, as for me, maces, dangers and axes are more effective against armor than swords). And the technique of fencing checkers and katana varies.
        1. abrakadabre
          abrakadabre 15 May 2014 11: 06
          The first pieces of checkers generally belong to the XII-XIII century. And they could very well be used against armor (although, as for me, maces, dangers and axes are more effective against armor than swords)
          1. At all times, everything that could be reached was used for armor, including a stool in a tavern, shafting on a courtyard or stone by the road or on the battlefield. And not just special military weapons.
          If we talk about the frequency of using this or that weapon in armor, then the first and second place with a giant margin from any swords and sabers are held by arrows (for Europe and crossbow bolts) and spears in all varieties. For these are the most massive and cheap types of weapons in the pre-powder era. The bulk of the troops everywhere were not the most prosperous.
          2. Whenever the first pieces of checkers appeared there, initially they were just large household knives. And in service with those who for one reason or another could not afford normal (by then standards) combat weapons. The geometry of the blade in cross section does not leave any ambiguities in this.
          3. The North Caucasus, where the checker came from and then spread, has never been a legislator and a center for the mass production of armor technologies. Highlanders who lived in relatively small and closed communities could not do this purely economically. Neither in the 12-13 centuries nor in the 17th.
          Therefore, the mountain contingents were used by the same Ottoman Empire exclusively as an irregular light cavalry for auxiliary purposes, and not for a decisive head-on collision.
          4. Working with a checker on serious armor is possible, but extremely inefficient. That is practically useless. It is too light for a stunning or breaking blow. The thickness of the blade and the sharp angle of sharpening makes the blade unstable to chipping upon impact with metal. The purely one-handed grip and the bend of the blade make an attempt to break through the armor with a stabbing strike as an extremely dubious event, in which you will most likely dislocate your own brush. It is long and thin, which means the flexibility and elasticity of the blade, when it hits a hard surface (heavy armor, for example) with heavy-duty impact, generate strong shock vibration that goes along the path of least resistance, that is, into the handle and further into the brush. Do not believe? Take a plate of an automobile spring, put it from Moskvich, and hit the concrete block with all the dope. Your brush will be very offended at you.
          Cutting down an opponent’s sword in armor to the saddle is from unscientific fiction. But the bare-backed abrek-ragged man — very charming and tireless to chop with a saber — is a light and very maneuverable blade with excellent sharpness.
          1. Absurdidat
            Absurdidat 15 May 2014 19: 17
            Dear, but about the mountaineers, the Caucasus, from the second millennium BC, has been a metallurgical center, an armory, respectively. I have in my collection knives of the Yamnaya culture, the tips of the Maykop culture, of the Scythian-Sarmatian period, the RZhV and the Middle Ages. According to the info of archaeologists, there is little imported metal, mostly local. The armor was wonderful. And they always loved and knew how to fight here. In Georgia, the center of Damascus steel and seemed to be able to cook damask steel. And for the Katanas, there is still the Mokume Gane technique, Denbe Shaomi invented in the 17th century, used it to decorate weapons, tsuba, etc. I make jewelry and accessories in this technique.
            1. abrakadabre
              abrakadabre 16 May 2014 12: 32
              From the second millennium BC, the Caucasus was a metallurgical center, an armory, respectively.
              Let's separate the flies from the cutlets. The center was ... local. Otherwise, a mass of written, visual and archaeological sources vying with each other would praise the massive export of arms from the North Caucasus to all parts of the ancient and medieval world. And the fame of this center would boom as well as of Augsburg, Milan, Toledo, Damascus. But this is not perfect. So do not bend.
              The armor was wonderful.

              1. Describe to me the standard armored complex of highlanders ... mmm ... 14-16 centuries (the heyday of armor). It was the highlanders, not the inhabitants of the foothill steppes. 2. The standard armor complex, say, of the steppes.
              3. A standard set of weapons and their characteristics for the same period.

              No one says that the checker is bullshit. This is a beautiful blade. But he has his own niche of application - for a weakly hospitable or unarmed opponent. Therefore, it became truly popular at a time when armor was a thing of the past. And before that it was an auxiliary combat or civilian regional weapon.
              The technique of working a checker is mainly high-speed chopping with wide movements. For this, the balance of the blade is appropriate, and the weight, and everything else.
              Against armor, this is pointless.

              In Georgia, the center of Damascus steel and seemed to be able to cook damask steel.
              In Europe, they also knew how to cook it in the second half of the first millennium. This is proved by the extant blades of various degrees of preservation. He knew how to cook a lot where in the world.

              Let's go back to the katana. Katana is better suited for battle against armor. But against medium-level armor. What were most of the armor of the Japanese samurai.
              This is confirmed not only by inferences, but also by direct experiments - crash tests using authentic armor and blades.
              Katana is able to STRANGE Japanese armor without a fatal effect when using the physical strength of a normally trained man. No more. And capable of piercing such armor.
              1. brn521
                brn521 16 May 2014 14: 28
                Puncture badly. Neither the shape of the tip fits, nor the balance. Thus, unless to finish lying. But the fact of the presence of the tip still speaks of anti-dangers, albeit moderate.
                1. abrakadabre
                  abrakadabre 16 May 2014 16: 46
                  Puncture badly. Neither the shape of the tip fits, nor the balance. Thus, unless to finish lying.
                  In this case, the situation saves several points:
                  1. Very slight bend of the blade.
                  2. Relatively thick, and therefore hard blade.
                  3. Two-handed grip with spread out palms.
                  4. A small change in the width of the blade over most of its length. Which facilitates deep penetration after the first 5-10 cm and removing the blade from a hosy body after an impact.
                  5. Japanese lamels are still less resistant to shock than solid cuirasses. Stacked helmets from many plates too.
                  1. brn521
                    brn521 16 May 2014 20: 06
                    In my case, the armor had a continuous cuirass. Something like Hotoke-do, although I do not really understand them. What happened with the blow testified more likely that the blow would rather throw the enemy in such armor than normally penetrate it. Here is a lying mannequin - please. Well, they tried to cut through the barmitsa, but she did a good spring.
                    And in general it is clear that the katana was an auxiliary weapon, like light swords in Europe at the same time. If it was required to stab someone, the samurai would take a spear that would cope with such a task much better, and there would be no need to spoil the polishing and grinding on a katana.
                    1. abrakadabre
                      abrakadabre 17 May 2014 10: 34
                      And in general it’s clear that katana was an auxiliary weapon
                      Exactly. And it became the main after the end of internal wars. That is, in peacetime. When a samurai was not supposed to wear armor in public without a special case. And sometimes it could be regarded by the authorities as a creep to rebellion. Which was brutally suppressed in the bud.
      3. brn521
        brn521 15 May 2014 15: 19
        Suppose you got the possession of a subject - Katana daimyo of the Toyotomi clan of the XNUMXth century. Will you venture to inflict at least one blow on her, not only with authentic armor, with an ordinary automobile hood? So I say that she survived to our times because she was a cult subject and a work of art, and not a military weapon of exceptional qualities. If the owners fought in battle, the weapon is simpler. It is this weapon that deserves the greatest respect. The hand does not flinch to cut the blade into the blade, if your life depends on it. And nothing will prevent you from replacing the crippled blade with another, just as cheap.
        Well, what about punching. Katana, forged from tamahagane, when struck on authentic armor, takes 1-2 mm deep damage. Given the wide wedge-shaped cross-section, 2 mm is the transition to the second grade, the blade cannot be fully restored. Why war such a weapon?
        1. abrakadabre
          abrakadabre 16 May 2014 12: 39
          Katana, forged from tamahagane, when struck on authentic armor, takes 1-2 mm deep damage.
          Crash tests do not support your point. Such serious damage to the katana can come from only three reasons: 1) defective blade, 2) not authentic armor of much greater hardness and overall strength (for example, unhistorically thick plates made of modern high-grade steel, possibly hardened), 3) crooked hands striking, for example with turning the blade in the palms of your hands when the blade comes into the target a little at an angle,
          1. brn521
            brn521 16 May 2014 14: 23
            Okay, I'll look for your crash tests. Only on condition that they are not from the series where the machine gun barrel is cut. Machine gun choppers carry their noodles to the ears of someone else.
            1. about the blade came across studies in which it was argued that the cutting edge is too hard, chips are inevitable. For European swords, the edge was not brought to such hardness. But again, this is all the Internet. There is a quote from some Japanese history book about the fact that the bulk were simple katanas, who were not spared in battle. Also it is impossible not to note the mountain of pretty old katanas (not late consumer goods) rejected during American cleaning, eliminated due to damaged blades. By the way, of course we are not talking about replicas made of tool steel. It is an expensive katana forged from tamahagane in limited quantities. This is what the real Japanese really appreciate.
            2. Judging by the dents and sound, the steel of the armor was nothing superhard and even less hardened. I looked on the Internet, in the vast majority of cases, authentic armor doesn’t forge on ancient technologies, but is selected from modern materials based on expert opinion.
            3. There the emphasis was not in cutting the metal, but in cutting the ties on the neck element of the armor, followed by cutting into the same point. In general, where the European armor, by then extinct, was covered with powerful shoulder pads. The same story with these ties seems to be the same as in Europe with bare arms and legs. As if on purpose, vulnerability was left.
            Rugs that closet with a katana cut dashingly, much better than John Clemens, for example. The emphasis was not on the unimaginable properties of "real katanas", but on the amazing sharpening and polishing done by the craftsmen. The polisher was exhibited almost more importantly than the blacksmith. Therefore, I do not argue, perhaps this cabinet really could have been suggested by the toad the idea of ​​replacing the katana with a cheaper version. And the real one, forged from tamahagane by masters who are considered state. property of Japan, and really has magical properties. But for some reason I can't believe it. Too disgusting source material. It would be at least crucible steel - another matter. And manual selection from pieces and forge welding are primitive.
            1. abrakadabre
              abrakadabre 16 May 2014 17: 02
              Okay, I'll look for your crash tests.
              In crash tests (of which I saw several different ones on the network), even some of the Discovery or National Geographic shows was noticed. With all the usual pranks of such programs, even they put this test at the level of:
              One katana was specially ordered in Japan from a certified craftsman demanding full compliance with the technology. The second was ordered to some state gunsmith from modern materials and with modern metalworking.
              Two sets of identical authentic armor were also ordered.
              Cutting and injections were carried out by a trained man. And the result is completely logical (in this case, we are interested in the result of an authentic katana): the armor with any force of an ordinary person is slightly cut through with a partial dissection of a pair of plates, a light cramming to a depth of not more than the thickness of the armor. That is, in battle, you can spoil the armor of the enemy and possibly make him bruise (due to some flexibility of the lamellar). Only a physically gifted fighter will be able to cut through to the flesh and go deep into the flesh in special cases (such as hitting a particularly weak spot, re-striking an exact shot in an already made cut, or if the enemy has very poor armor). Punctures are also possible and possible with a fatal outcome. But it is also quite difficult to do physically. More often with penetration to a shallow depth - that is, a trauma of small or medium severity. And this is also logical: none of the prosperous would put on a suit of armor that has illusory protection.
              The cutting edge passed this test with flying colors. And this is also logical: the blade sharpening angle is comparable to that of an ax. And this is a very strong wedge.

            2. abrakadabre
              abrakadabre 16 May 2014 17: 33
              The quality and authenticity of the armor.
              It all depends on the solvency of the customer. The average armor of the samurai was from mediocre iron (unlike the blade). Refining steel for hundreds and thousands of lamellar plates by repeated forging using blade manufacturing technology would be too dreary. This is not only extremely expensive but you will equip a large army for a hundred years.
              And still, such armor will be more or less vulnerable to arquebuses (the era of the country's unification) brought from Europe, traditional spears and arrows with an armor-piercing tip at a short distance.
              Even from mediocre iron, the lamellar is quite a worthy defense against chopping shocks. Solid cuirasses or large-plate armor have a higher resistance to cutting. And they don’t give armored bruises, since they do not bend over a large area.
              By hardening: even in Europe with its full armor, armor is very infrequently tempered. This happened for several reasons:
              1. It is extremely difficult when quenching to maintain the unchanged shape of a part of complex shape. When lowered into the quenching bath, it is easily warped. And this is far from always possible to correct without removing the hardening.
              2. The quality of European steel made it possible to obtain a product of acceptable strength without hardening.
              3. The hardened product is prone to bursting under a powerful breakthrough blow of a war hammer, halberd or klevets. This is not a blade with its differential hardening, where the core is made of soft metal. Non-hardened armor, due to slight crushing of the metal, dampens the force of impact.
              4. Repair (straightening and patches) of red-hot armor is extremely complicated and requires a very high qualification of the armor. Often this is annealing and re-hardening after repair.
              And the real one, wrought from tamahagane by masters considered state. the property of Japan, and the truth has magical properties. Only for some reason I can’t believe it. Too disgusting source material.
              I can't believe it - and rightly so. The modern bar steel replica shows (excellent, I must say) similar results to the traditional katana. And this without any "dancing with a tambourine" for almost a month.
              The material is initially slop. But just the skill of the Japanese blacksmith was to refine the workpiece to excellent condition. Another thing is that it was very expensive in terms of labor costs.
              1. brn521
                brn521 16 May 2014 20: 44
                It is because of this relatively thick wedge in the section of katana that it depends so much on sharpening and polishing. And the latter do not live long in combat conditions.
                And I remembered the armor. It turns out that a cloak with a hat is Caucasian armor. A very thick layer of dense felt, plus a wooden insert on the shoulders. They wrote, the army checker does not take in any. And in winter, it also doesn’t make it out of the Nagan (from a Colt of the 45th caliber it also means). I think that a well-polished katana against a burqa has more chances than a similar checker. Due to the greater mass and two-handed grip, more energy is stored. But a blunted katana is an iron stick. And jabbering for her is a disaster. Whereas a checker should chop not bad even in a dull state, and it is easier to grind a hole in it due to a narrower wedge in cross section. And the checker leaves the other hand free, hinting that you can also take something into it.
                1. abrakadabre
                  abrakadabre 17 May 2014 10: 52
                  It is because of this relatively thick wedge in the section of katana that it depends so much on sharpening and polishing. And the latter do not live long in combat conditions.
                  You contradict all the experience of materials science and metal cutting technology. Not to mention the well-known military consequences of this topic.
                  First, I will explain with a simple civilian example, an ordinary chisel:
                  The harder the metal being cut, the more obtuse is the sharpening angle of the edge of the chisel.
                  - for aluminum and zinc - 35 °,
                  - copper and brass - 45 °,
                  - steel - 60 °,
                  - cast iron and bronze - 75 °.
                  An attempt to chop hard metal with a chisel with a small angle of sharpening instantly leads to the destruction of the chopping edge of the chisel. I tried more than once at school, when I had not yet learned all this wisdom and sharpened a dull chisel incorrectly. And if you take a chisel with the correct sharpening angle, then the edge works without consequence for a very long time.
                  In this example, it doesn’t matter that the chisel doesn’t directly hit the metal, but puts it on the cutting line and is already hammering it. Anyway, the shock load is consistent.

                  Similarly from medieval military experience: the angle of sharpening armor-piercing arrows and crossbow bolts is a pyramid, not an awl.

                  With the excellent quality of the katana itself, it tolerates the cutting of armor very well. Although with a certain amount of curvature, just "luck" or extremely intensive use, chips and chipping of the cutting edge are inevitable.
                  1. brn521
                    brn521 17 May 2014 16: 53
                    About the chisel is understandable. On sharpening, the issue was resolved - Google found it right away. Combat anti-armor katana 50-60 degrees. Dueling, used later, 25-30. Katanas for cutting silk scarves in the air 5-10. Conclusion, there is no universal katana. The dueling will perfectly chop straw, but grab nicks when striking metal. Which I observed. It was just shown there that the type of katana was so sharpened that even an almost complete kettle could fulfill the standard for cutting mats.
                    1. abrakadabre
                      abrakadabre 18 May 2014 09: 46
                      About the chisel is understandable. On sharpening, the issue was resolved - Google found it right away.
                      I am glad that we have come to a full understanding of this phenomenon. For the benefit of yourself and all other visitors to the topic.
  4. ImPerts
    ImPerts 14 May 2014 11: 10
    A childhood dream inspired by video studios and Shaw Kosugi)))
    Have a katana and become a natural ninja)))
    The spring from the Belarus tractor turned out to be closer, more familiar and more reliable)))
  5. svp67
    svp67 14 May 2014 12: 28
    This is what MUST still be learned from Japan, and where are the swords of our masters, they were VERY much appreciated in their time too ...
    1. GP
      GP 14 May 2014 21: 11
      Quote: svp67
      That's what REQUIRED still learn from Japan, and where are the swords of our masters, they, too, were VERY appreciated in due time ...

      Absolute nonsense. Katana, whose overwhelming majority were naked-headed tribesmen - what can I learn? In Russia, chain mail and even spoken (from the shoulder of the most successful warrior) were valued much higher. Chainmail thing! Its purpose is to save the owner’s life, and it was worn from generation to generation until complete wear and tear, just at a certain moment of the absolute predominance of a firearm they stopped making them, because there was no point, but those that were used for their intended purpose. At the same time, guns were pouring in full and squealing.
      During the years of this katana - and this is the time of Ermak’s trip to Siberia, the conquest of Kazan, the war with powerful Poland (no kidding, then it was) - the manufacture of chain mail was at the highest level with us. Yes expensive, but worth it. Compared with katana, which life will not save, and efficiency is not better than low-quality sharpened consumer goods; maybe that’s why they have such an advertising attitude as to status weapons, where it is not so much the weapon itself that matters as emphasizing the status of the owner - a quality stupid craft.
      The approach to weapons in Russia was extremely practical in relation to the enemy, and the enemy was not a couple of the Japanese soldiers of that time - Tatars, Bashkirs, Poles, Western knightly orders and etc.
      Well, in general, I think the ax that everyone in the house has is the true price of a weapon. They built, and defended, and attacked. Over the entire period of the existence of Russia, not a single war has passed without this weapon, it has always been everywhere. Honor and respect. Does the Japanese have something like an ax?
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 15 May 2014 11: 17
        They wrote a lot. But the smart thought is only in the second sentence. Everything else, I quote your first sentence: "Utter nonsense."
  6. SPLV
    SPLV 14 May 2014 12: 41
    As for the quality of the blade, I can’t say - I did not have to face it. But the ad campaign of the Japanese and Chinese is impressive. Maybe you should go in search of a sword-treasure, canonize it, promote it? smile... We continue to admire the "high" oriental culture. It is just time to remember that in the Middle Ages, domestic armor and weapons were highly valued by both the khans and the emperors. It would be better if they made an excursion to the Armory.
  7. goland72
    goland72 14 May 2014 13: 18
    What is the second (oval) hole on the guard for?
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 14 May 2014 14: 18
      What is the second (oval) hole on the guard for?
      I do not know for sure. But present everywhere.
      Perhaps this is an eyelet for sealing the blade from being removed from the scabbard.
    2. report4
      report4 14 May 2014 17: 36
      Quote: goland72
      What is the second (oval) hole on the guard for?

      A small satellite knife is put in there.
  8. alex-cn
    alex-cn 14 May 2014 13: 27
    Extremely beautiful weapon. But as I understand it, such were considered pieces, well, maybe dozens. but they cost ...... The commander’s weapon is to indicate the direction of the attack and to demolish the head of the unqualified subordinate.
  9. Lone gunman
    Lone gunman 14 May 2014 13: 54
    The katana is not a weapon, but already an art, tomorrow at lunchtime this "katana" will be 500 years old - a saber is a "long knife", and a saber is a "Russian katana" ...
    1. Lone gunman
      Lone gunman 15 May 2014 21: 26
      I insist ... "The word" checker "came into Russian from the Adyghe or Circassian language, where it is pronounced as" seshue / sashkho "and means" long knife. "..." First in the Caucasus, and then in Russia checker supplanted the saber with the spread of firearms and the cessation of the use of metal armor. In the 19th century, it became one of the main types of cutting and stabbing weapons of the imperial Russian army. "..." By its main features, the saber is also similar to the sword, which is called Japanese, that is "katana" ... More details here:
      1. Lone gunman
        Lone gunman 15 May 2014 21: 58
        And one more thing ... "We, we call, sword a straight double-edged blade, a single-edged curved saber. So for us Japanese blades are sabers, but the world tradition interferes and we follow it, calling them swords."
  10. ICT
    ICT 14 May 2014 13: 56
    Quote: goland72
    What is the second (oval) hole on the guard for?

    Kozuka hitsu-ana - a hole for kozu-ki. This hole, opposite the kogai hitsu-ana, is for the co-gatana hilt. The hole is often in the shape of a half moon. Together, kogai hitsu-ana and kozuka hitsu-ana are called ryo-hitsu.

    in short it turns out, there is such a knife
    like this
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 14 May 2014 14: 38
      Kozuka hitsu-ana - a hole for kozu-ki.
      Do not confuse the hole in the shank for the peg that fixes the handle and the hole in the tsuba-guard.
      1. ICT
        ICT 14 May 2014 14: 53
        I am far from the structure of samurai swords
        but here, as it were, the alignment
  11. Free wind
    Free wind 14 May 2014 15: 08
    The Japanese make ceremonies out of everything. drinking tea, drinking ssake, admiring the sakura flower, contemplating the risen hour .... on, mourning not risen. . Of course a very beautiful sword. And probably some are delighted, but not with me. The series of articles is very interesting, we are waiting for the next, next to the Turkish scimitar.
  12. staryivoin
    staryivoin 14 May 2014 18: 05
    Lord! Your argument is about nothing. A checker and a katana are two swords with their own psychology and strategy of application. The most important thing is in whose hands. Give the most magnificent example of a katana to the moron in your hands and place a Cossack who passed fire and water against it. Will the result be clear? Equip the samurai with the most shitty samurai sword and put a hussar or a lancer with a saber who did not see the battlefield against it. There will be a full PPC. This is not the belittling of our Russian representatives of light cavalry. After all, lancers and hussars were not only in the Russian army. Any weapon is good in the hands of an experienced warrior. And it seems to me that katana is not our weapon, although of course it is enough and beautiful in its own way.
  13. Free wind
    Free wind 14 May 2014 18: 56
    The series of articles is very good, !!!!! And most importantly, no one swears. and no one argues. all politely read the article and comment, or express their point of view. AND THANKS THANKS FOR EVERYONE !!!! And who saw the argument in this! ??? yes would you go away !!!!
    1. staryivoin
      staryivoin 14 May 2014 19: 43
      I understand that "free wind" is like that "elusive cowboy". But to myself I’ll say I’ve been and not only where “away”. If you tell me it will not seem weak. Respect the interlocutor, not just yourself. Especially if you respect Japanese philosophy.
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 14 May 2014 20: 08
        I DO NOT RESPECT JAPANESE PHILOSOPHY !!! But it was in this series of articles that unity manifested itself. brotherhood? ... weapon lovers. It is in this series of articles, users will not be able to. but share experiences. and complement each other. Therefore, we do not argue, but tell each other. what we know !!!
    2. The comment was deleted.
  14. Bosk
    Bosk 14 May 2014 19: 23
    Maybe I'm not right, but something tells me that if Japan were in the middle of the continent and not on an island ... then over time the katana would redraw into a kind of checkers, and a kimono into something simpler and more practical ... although I must admit I like a lover of stylish katana somewhere and even like it.
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 15 May 2014 11: 25
      Maybe I'm wrong, but something tells me that if Japan would be in the middle of the continent and not on another island ...
      That Japan would not have refused a massive firearm in the troops, as it did after the completion of the unification under the Tokugawa clan. Until the armor went out of use, the Tati would remain the main battle sword, and the katana would be a peacetime sword and an auxiliary sword in the military. As it was originally. Samurai would keep themselves in good shape all the time thanks to external wars, and would not relax in self-isolation.
  15. ivanovbg
    ivanovbg 14 May 2014 19: 40
    Wonderful weapon, I'm fascinated.
  16. staryivoin
    staryivoin 14 May 2014 20: 15
    Dear fimusito

    Ancient Japanese masters certainly well done. They made a beautiful and practical weapon, but for a fairly narrow circle of warriors. Especially when you consider that the master made from 6 to 10 swords per year. But will we see something about European or, for example, Russian samples of cold steel.
    And what excuse me looks worse than this Russian checker arr. 1881 g. For the lower ranks. And that means more mass production than the samurai sword. I don’t think badly about the art of Japanese gunsmiths, but mine is nevertheless closer. Especially, due to the fact that my grandfather fought in the Urals in a civilian battle with such a saber.
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 14 May 2014 20: 39
      beautiful weapon !!!! Well, the Russians are much stronger physically. Therefore, with one hand they inflicted very enormous damage to the enemy, even against two-handed Japanese swords. HIS RUBI TO THE SADDLE, ONE HE WILL DECLINE !!!!! And they chopped it down !!!!
    2. gridasov
      gridasov 15 May 2014 10: 17
      The absolute superiority of Japanese swords is not in their external dignity, but in the content and quality of the sword itself. Japanese sword is multi-layered with the distribution of layers of hardness in depth. The dendritic pattern is the boundary of hardness. It is very important to note that longitudinal bending is a consequence of naturally longitudinal polarization during forging, and not an artificial shape, with all the ensuing consequences.
      1. brn521
        brn521 15 May 2014 15: 36
        Superiority over what? The quality of the sword itself is the victory of the master manufacturer. Received in a makeshift way from mediocre material a work of art. It is truly more an art than a craft. That Katana lives.
    3. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 15 May 2014 11: 37
      And what excuse me looks worse than this Russian checker arr. 1881 for the lower ranks.
      Nothing but the fact that this is a product of continuous factory production, and not the hand-made work of a master to order. The blade is excellent, but in the artistic and historical sense, the value is less.
      its all the same closer.
      So far, the cycle has been made up of only three articles: about armor, about the German cavalry sword, and here about the katana. If the author does not get tired, he will post more articles for our pleasure and broaden our horizons.
      Your phrase about your own and closer reminds me ... dill groaning about independence ... Well, do not seek, I speak not from evil. The development of the general horizons has not been canceled. And absolutely not at the expense of a checker.
    4. psiho117
      psiho117 3 June 2014 16: 54
      Quote: staryivoin
      And what excuse me looks worse than this Russian checker arr. 1881

      No one says she is worse. but when you look at a 500-year-old blade that has been forged, sharpened, polished for months, all this carefully, with love (even with religiously-mystical trepidation) ...
      Sorry, but "arr. 1881" doesn't lie there. Both purely aesthetically and spiritually. This is a work of art.
  17. Aslan
    Aslan 14 May 2014 20: 21
    unlike katana, they work with a saber with one hand. I saw a knife made of a piece of an old piece of the 18th century in operation, the sharpness is simply amazing. And I also read one report of a Japanese officer in the Russo-Japanese war, in direct melee our mountaineers and Cossacks with sabers were allowed to miscalculate)))
  18. padonok.71
    padonok.71 14 May 2014 21: 02
    As for the long knife - this is scramasax and this is a completely different story. There are all kinds of katanas and tsuba, kutsubs - beautiful, no doubt, but in terms of effectiveness (and beauty), there is no better bastard than a sword and this is not only my opinion (although I fully share it). Light, maneuverable, fast, powerful - the apotheosis of the sword.
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 15 May 2014 12: 19
      there is no better bastard than a sword ... Light, maneuverable, fast, powerful - the apotheosis of the sword.
      Easy bastard? .. You made a revolution in weapons science.
  19. Des10
    Des10 14 May 2014 22: 21
    M.V. Frunze fought in the army of his grandfather, a Cossack — two checkers hung cross on cross over a bed on a carpet.
    One with a brilliant frame and beauty, and the other with serrations and a handle made of chipped wood (like an old kitchen knife). So, when the Kyrgyz at the entrance didn’t heed his words --- don’t swear and speak quieter, but on the contrary - they called and swearing --- grabbed them too, they ran away of course ...
    Grabbed - the one that was shabby and not glamorous. And with anger - with a wave he demolished the Golden Balls at the entrance.
    In addition, it’s a working weapon ... it has a look --- a worker.
    1. kirpich
      kirpich 16 May 2014 16: 01
      Well, if golden balls are flowers, then no wonder wink But, actually, the Cossacks NEVER kept their weapons out of order. Sorry, Alexander, but I put you a minus.
      1. Des10
        Des10 16 May 2014 20: 51
        For the minus - thanks, at least someone else has looked into this topic :), but for malfunction - please do not confuse (I’m relevant in the service now laughing ) - with a workable one.
        "An operable object, unlike a serviceable one, must satisfy only those requirements, the fulfillment of which ensures the normal use of the object for its intended purpose. An operable object may be faulty, for example, if it does not satisfy aesthetic requirements, And deterioration of the appearance of the object does not interfere with its intended use."
        So, the appearance of rough wooden overlays on the handle and notches not aligned with the blade (because for this I would have to grind a fairly large part of the checker) - did not interfere with confident possession and sharp sharpening ... a silk scarf (m.) and wouldn’t cut when touched, but for cutting --- norms.
      2. The comment was deleted.
  20. kirpich
    kirpich 17 May 2014 00: 23
    Quote: Des10
    "A workable object, in contrast to a serviceable one, must satisfy only those requirements, the fulfillment of which ensures the normal use of the object for its intended purpose. A workable object may be faulty, for example, if it does not meet aesthetic requirements, and the deterioration of the object's appearance does not prevent its intended use."

    That's why I love our charters, so it's for streamlined phrases request
    1. Des10
      Des10 17 May 2014 07: 07
      This is from GOST 27.002-89, and not from "statutes". )
    2. The comment was deleted.
  21. kirpich
    kirpich 18 May 2014 11: 44
    Quote: Des10
    "A workable object, in contrast to a serviceable one, must satisfy only those requirements, the fulfillment of which ensures the normal use of the object for its intended purpose. A workable object may be faulty, for example, if it does not meet aesthetic requirements, and the deterioration of the object's appearance does not prevent its intended use."

    The main thing is that the scrap should be ... A straight line, or a curve, along the way we will understand soldier

    Direct chase, straighten the curve, roll back the square, pull the round. soldier drinks