Domestic MANPADS: "Arrows"

After the appearance of the battle aviation ground forces began to need effective air defense systems. In the mid-fifties, it became clear that the rapid development of rocket technology allows you to create not only stationary or self-propelled missile systems, but also systems suitable for use by a soldier alone. By the end of the fifties, the first successful tests of promising portable air defense systems were carried out.


By the beginning of the fifties, the Soviet military knew that work was underway on creating advanced MANPADS in the United States and other foreign countries. After receiving information about the first tests of such systems and, as a result, about the fundamental possibility of creating a portable anti-aircraft missile system, the USSR military wanted to get their own weapon of this class. The development of the first domestic MANPADS started in accordance with the decision of the Council of Ministers on August 25 1960 of the year.

The developers of promising missile technology were required to create an easy air defense system, suitable for the implementation of air defense of troops on the march and in positions. Within the framework of the new project, it was supposed to develop a self-propelled air defense missile system (it later became the Strela-1 complex), as well as a portable system of similar purpose. The design bureau of both anti-aircraft complexes was assigned to SKB GKOT (now KB engineering, Kolomna). The chief designer was B.I. Shavyrin. After his death in 1965, all the works were supervised by S.P. Invincible.

MANPADS "Strela 2" was the first such development of the Soviet designers, because of which the creation of the project was associated with serious difficulties. Work on the complex began with a brainstorming session. Employees of SKB GKOT analyzed the features of the operation of the new system, and also discussed a number of proposals. The result of several days of continuous discussion was the overall appearance of the complex, which, with minor changes, reached the stage of mass production. Later, having received the first information about the American FIM-43 Redeye MANPADS, the Kolomna designers learned that their foreign colleagues used the same or similar technical solutions.

Domestic MANPADS: "Arrows"

The Strela-2 complex was to consist of several elements: a launch tube with a block of necessary equipment and a guided missile. According to the results of the comparison of existing systems, it was decided to equip the rocket with an infrared homing head. Such a seeker had acceptable dimensions and sufficiently high target detection characteristics. Development of the homing head was entrusted to Leningrad OKB-357. In addition, the State Optical Institute was involved in the work.

When developing the 9М32 rocket, several important issues needed to be resolved. The first of these concerned infrared hf: it was required to create a compact and lightweight device to gyrostabilize the head (the so-called coordinator). Despite all the difficulties, OKB-357 designers managed to create a homing head weighing about 1,2 kg. The second major problem was ensuring the launch of the rocket in various conditions. The rocket had to be launched by the anti-aircraft gunner both in a standing or knee position, as well as from trenches or hatches of armored vehicles. This issue was resolved with the help of a launch charge, which was supposed to throw a rocket out of the launch tube. It was proposed to launch the sustainer after the rocket was removed from the shooter to a safe distance.

SKB GKOT engineers had to work on the aerodynamic shape of the rocket. The use of infrared seeker required to equip the rocket with a hemispherical head fairing, which accordingly affected flight data. Because of such a fairing, a rocket could quickly lose speed after burning a charge on a solid-fuel engine. To reduce aerodynamic drag, the rocket was made in a small caliber (72 mm) and a large elongation (product length 1420 mm).

Launch of the Strela-2 MANPADS onboard the infantry combat vehicle BMP-1

Rocket 9М32 had a cylindrical body with rudders in the bow and stabilizers in the tail. It is noteworthy that the rocket had only two rudders installed in the same plane. Guidance on the target was proposed to be carried out using rocket pitch control during its constant rotation around the longitudinal axis. When the rocket was in the launch tube, the rudders were sunk into the hull, and the stabilizers folded behind the tail section. After ejection from the pipe, they had to be decomposed using special springs. Ammunition with a launch weight of 9,15 kg was equipped with a high-explosive fragmentation warhead weighing 1,17 kg. With such dimensions and mass, the combat unit could ensure effective destruction of the target only with a direct hit.

The new engine allowed the Strela-9 32М9 complex of the Strela-32 complex to reach speeds up to 2 m / s and hit targets at a distance of up to 600 meters and an altitude from 3600 to 50 m. MANPADS. Effective defeat of the target was possible only when shooting in pursuit. To detect a target from the front hemisphere, the head had insufficient sensitivity. MANPADS "Strela 1500" allowed to fire aerial targets flying at speeds up to 2 m / s.

In addition to the rocket, the launch tube and the trigger mechanism were included in the Strela-2 MANPADS. The launch tube 9P54 served as a transport and launch container and was designed for the safe transportation and use of the rocket. The 9P53 starting mechanism included a number of equipment necessary for launching a rocket: an electronic unit, a starting mechanism, mechanisms for attaching a device to a pipe, etc. The Strela-2 complex, ready for use, weighed 14,5 kg.

The use of the first domestic MANPADS looked as follows. After the air target was visually detected, the anti-aircraft gunner had to turn on the power source and bring the complex into a combat position. For about 5 seconds, the automatics spun the gyroscope. After this, the shooter was to use a sighting device to direct the missile at the target. When the GOS produced its capture, the complex alerted the operator with a light and sound signal. Then, by pressing the trigger, the homing head was switched to the target tracking mode and the starting charge was ignited.

With a speed of about 30 m / s, the 9М32 rocket left the launch tube, simultaneously unfolding the steering wheels and stabilizers. When ejected from the pipe, the rocket was rolled up to 15 revolutions per second. In addition, at this moment, the first fuse level was turned off. After 0,3 seconds after the launch of the rocket from the launch tube, the main engine was started and the second stage fuse was switched off. To catch up and hit the target, the Strela-2 missile had no more than 12-14 seconds. After this time, the self-destruct functioned.

The Strela-2 portable anti-aircraft missile system was put into service in the 1967 year. Soon after, the delivery of new anti-aircraft systems to friendly countries began. Egypt was the first foreign country to receive Strela-2. Soviet specialists and the Egyptian military quickly tried out new weapons in battle and were convinced of their high efficiency. Hiding from the well-known anti-aircraft missile systems, Israeli aircraft broke through to targets at low altitude. In the middle of 1969, the Egyptians were able to control these heights. As a result, the enemy began to suffer losses. For example, on one of the days of August 69, Israel lost 6 aircraft from Egyptian MANPADS. All other elements of the Egyptian air defense on that day were able to destroy only 4 aircraft.

MANPADS 9K32 “Strela-2” were supplied to more than 50 countries and were actively used in various armed conflicts. On account of these systems dozens of destroyed enemy aircraft and helicopters. The first domestic portable anti-aircraft missile system clearly showed all the advantages of this class of weapons.


Despite the positive aspects shown, the Strela-2 MANPADS had a number of serious drawbacks. A light warhead could not cause serious damage to the target, and the impossibility of an attack from oncoming courses did not allow an increase in damage. Thus, it was necessary to modernize the rocket in order to improve its characteristics. Resolution of the Council of Ministers on the modernization of Strela-2 MANPADS issued 2 September 1968.

During the 9K32M project, the Strela-2M created an updated 9М32М rocket. It differed from the base product by a large number of new elements and, as a result, by higher characteristics. After upgrading the length of the rocket increased to 1438 mm, and weight to 9,6 kg. The new engine allowed not only to save, but also to improve the performance of the rocket. The heavier product of the 9K32M complex could hit targets at a distance of up to 4200 m and a height from 50 to 2300 m. The maximum rocket speed increased to 630 m / s.

The 9М32М rocket received a new more advanced infrared homing head. Due to the greater sensitivity, the new system could ensure destruction of targets not only on catch-up courses, but also on counter courses. The maximum target speed when shooting in pursuit increased to 260 m / s. From the opposite course, it was possible to attack targets flying at speeds up to 150 m / s.

After upgrading, the processes of capturing the target and launching the rocket at speed targets on the catch-up courses were automated, which simplified the use of the complex. GOS was able to select a moving target against the background of natural fixed noise. Thus, effective work of the homing head was ensured when the target was found against the background of continuous clouds of less than three points. With greater cloudiness, the Strela-2M MANPADS zone was significantly reduced. It should be noted that the Strela-2M complex, like its predecessor, was not protected from false thermal targets.

At the factory, the 9М32М rockets were placed in the 9P54М launch tube with fixtures for the new 9P58 trigger mechanism. The pipe and the device of the Strela-2М complex were similar to the corresponding elements of the Strela-2 system, but could not be used with them. To avoid misuse, elements of two MANPADS had different docking devices. The total weight of the complex was 15 kg.

Modernization of the existing portable anti-aircraft missile system did not take much time. In October, 1969 began its joint trials. Test shooting, the ground for which was the Donguz test site, continued until February of the 1970 year. During tests, MANPADS 9K32M "Strela-2M" confirmed the declared characteristics and was recommended for use. The corresponding decree was issued in 1970 year.


By the time the work began on the Strela-2M complex, it became clear that the further development of MANPADS involves the use of several new technologies. For a significant increase in performance required to create a new homing head with a higher sensitivity. For this reason, by the already mentioned resolution of the Council of Ministers on 2 of September 1968, it was necessary not only to upgrade the existing anti-aircraft system, but also to create a new one that would use modern components.

According to the analysis of the proposed options, it was decided to equip the missile of the advanced Strela-3 MANPADS with a new homing head with a cooling system. Calculations showed that in order to increase the sensitivity of the GOS compared to the 9М32 rocket by two orders, it would be necessary to cool its photodetector to the temperature -200 °. The development of the homing head was entrusted to the design bureau of the Kiev plant Arsenal.

The main element of the new 9K34 MANPADS "Strela-3" was the 9X36 guided missile. In comparison with previous missiles of the family, the 9М36 product had a slightly larger starting weight (10,3 kg) with similar dimensions (length 1427 mm, diameter 72 mm). The overall layout of the rocket remained the same: the GOS in the main compartment, the steering compartment with control equipment and the warhead compartment in the middle of the rocket and the large engine compartment in the tail section. The missile complex "Strela-3" retained the management principles used on previous ammunition of the family. The product was equipped with one pair of steering wheels and four stabilizers, which gave it rotation in flight. Management was still carried out by deflecting the rudders at the right moment.

Deep modernization led to the fact that the 9М36 rocket had the opportunity to hit targets at ranges up to 4500 m and altitudes 15-3000 m. The speed of the rocket decreased to 400 m / s. Thanks to the use of a new deep-cooled infrared homing system, the missile’s ability to detect and track targets has significantly increased. The high sensitivity of the GOS photodetector led to a noticeable improvement in rocket performance: the maximum range and height of target detection increased. In addition, maximum target speeds have increased. The 9М36 rocket could hit a target on a head-on course at its speed up to 260 m / s. For the attack in pursuit, the target speed increased to 310 m / s.

Also, the new GOS was less susceptible to natural interference and made it possible to effectively use the portable zenith complex in adverse weather conditions, with the possibility of visual detection of a target.

The 9М36 rockets were supplied in parts in 9P59 launch tubes made of fiberglass. The pipes could be reloaded and used up to five times. Before using the MANPADS, the 9P58M trigger mechanism and the 9C13 “Search” radio direction finder were attached to the mountings of the launch tube. The 9P59M trigger was a further development of devices from the previous Strela family of MANPADS. It consisted of equipment for the initial acceleration of the gyro rocket, as well as the anti-aircraft gunner warning system about the capture of the target. For the early detection of airborne targets with included radar stations, the passive radio direction finder 3C9 was included in the Strela-13 MANPADS. This system allows you to pinpoint targets at a distance of 12 kilometers. MANPADS assembly weighed 16 kg.

Also in the complex "Strela-3" included ground-based interrogator 1RL247, designed to determine the state of the aircraft. The interrogator could work in the systems "Silicon-2", "Silicon-2М" and "Password". The identification was made at distances up to 7-8 kilometers. The interrogator was not connected with the trigger mechanism and could not automatically block the launch of the rocket.

At the end of autumn 1972, tests of a new MANPADS began on the Donguz test site, which lasted until the spring of 73. In the course of these tests some weaknesses of the system were revealed, which were soon eliminated. The reason for the appearance of claims was the lack of reliability of the element base, which affected the characteristics of the entire system. However, all problems were solved before the end of the test. In mid-January 1974, the new 9K36 Strela-3 MANPADS was adopted.

Based on:
Vasilin N.Ya., Gurinovich A.L. Anti-aircraft missile systems. - Minsk: Popurri LLC, 2002
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  1. +16
    20 May 2014 08: 42
    Normal, fairly competent article good
    At one time, I had a chance to quite closely "communicate" with the "Strela-2M" MANPADS, after that I can not watch without laughing how the use of such weapons in films is shown. Especially when they "shoot" from it at aerial targets "at the head". In fact, when acquiring a target and preparing for a launch, there are many restrictions and specific requirements that the shooter must take into account. In general, this is not the easiest weapon to use as it might seem to an outside observer.
    1. badger1974
      20 May 2014 11: 33
      the needle is much simpler Seryoga, it is simplified to fix the mark of the sight, it is enough to escort the target and shoot from the space closed by buildings, helicopters at a time, fighter aircraft, just like attack aircraft, a twin shot to any aircraft there is no chance of returning
      1. +7
        20 May 2014 13: 42
        I don’t know Volodya, I didn’t deal with "Needle", I heard only from those who studied it that it is heavier than "Strela-2M". Yes, and in my opinion you are exaggerating a little, maybe "Needle" is easier to use and of course more effective, but in any case, you need to prepare shooters for it. I myself didn’t have a chance, I won’t lie, but in 90 I watched the Arrow firing at the RS-132 range (they didn’t hit). When I first saw the BM-13 Katyusha launcher based on the ZIL-131, I was a little crazy. Then they explained what it is for, its projectile does not fly relatively quickly and emits heat, an ideal training target for MANPADS. But that time I fired from the DShK at an illuminating rocket on a parachute, it turns out to be not so easy to hit.
        1. badger1974
          20 May 2014 14: 03
          The UV and IR matrix is ​​cooled along with argon (on arrow-3), but the rate of dropping incoherent waves in the processor of arrowheads 3 and needles is a million times larger (i.e. selectivity), and the additives have a powerful electronic base .........
          1. 0
            21 May 2014 19: 42
            As far as I know, the matrix is ​​available only for the French Mistral MANPADS, the rest have sensors.
            Sensors in the UV and IR ranges are spaced along the axis, while the rocket rotates, scanning takes place. The difference in signals from both sensors allows you to see the separation of heat traps from the target. Something like this.
    2. 0
      20 May 2014 14: 41
      Should I create a fiber-guided MANPADS? I think any rookie can handle it. It will be enough to see the target through optics and the tracking system for the movement of the pupil of the eye will control the rocket, the main thing is to observe the target before the defeat. A good hindrance to security and GOS will be the arrow itself, which you can’t fool around. smile
      1. badger1974
        20 May 2014 15: 00
        stupidity, the Swedish RBS-70 is completely the same ... exactly like the English blooapp, the four French Mistral should be dragged together by four, the question is, will they do four snouts when the second echelon of enemy aircraft passes? complete
  2. +2
    20 May 2014 09: 32
    Oh, how many of these "Arrows" mountains are stored in warehouses, they would be sent to YUVU, there they were useful.
    1. 0
      20 May 2014 11: 05
      Quote: Athenogen
      Oh, how many of these "Arrows" mountains are stored in warehouses, they would be sent to YUVU, there they were useful.

      Why counter-battery fight? Yes, and Bongo's comment makes it clear that the "volunteer boy" will not cope with the "Arrow", then it is necessary to supply the "Arrows" and operators.
      1. +2
        20 May 2014 19: 45
        Quote: fyvaprold
        Why counter-battery fight? Yes, and Bongo's comment makes it clear that the "volunteer boy" will not cope with the "Arrow", then it is necessary to supply the "Arrows" and operators.

        I think at YUVU there are quite a few Strel operators who served in the Soviet Army and know how to handle them.
  3. +4
    20 May 2014 09: 41
    And in due time I broke my whole head (I served in the early 80s) why did I need a refrigerator. And there it turns out, an increase in sensitivity. The original solution.
    1. +1
      20 May 2014 10: 41
      Quote: Avenich
      Why do I need a refrigerator. And what turns out, an increase in sensitivity

      I don’t know how true it was in one of the programs that the solution was found by chance. We noticed that in severe frosts the indicators are better
      1. anomalocaris
        20 May 2014 17: 57
        Well no. This is a fairly obvious solution. They thought of it back in the 40s ...
  4. +4
    20 May 2014 10: 12
    The article is plus, it was written competently and competently, but the author, apparently using unverified sources, writes that one day in August 1969, 6 Israeli aircraft were shot down by arrows and 4 more by other means of air defense. This is not so, as indicated Israel did not bear such losses (10 aircraft in one day), comparable figures appeared only after the Soviet air defense division was transferred to Egypt in early 1970. During this period, the Egyptian air defense was not effective enough and was already partially suppressed, which was one of the reasons ne ebroski Soviet troops in Egypt. I know this not from other people's words ....
    1. +4
      20 May 2014 10: 45
      Quote: ranger
      During this period, the Egyptian air defense was not effective enough

      As it is mildly said. I had to hear eyewitnesses, so they spoke about those warriors extremely terribly obscene
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. +4
        20 May 2014 11: 25
        Well, by the way, I am also an eyewitness - he served in the Suez Canal zone in 1969-72. Therefore, I can say that everything happened and the Arabs are also different - in war as in war ... Therefore, I would not smear everything with exclusively black paint - for example, stories about the calculations of missile divisions or anti-aircraft gunners throwing equipment at air raids and scattering. So, for three years neither my colleagues nor I had to deal with cases of exodus from a position. There were times when, after several bombing attacks, up to a third of the ZENAP personnel were out of order, but they didn’t run away into the desert ... And why the Egyptians were defeated - there are several reasons for this, I will not dwell on the lack of space. I just want to say - according to our experts, the operation to force the Suez Canal in 1973, for example, was carried out simply brilliantly, which means they can when they want or learn. But it was not easy at all, you can believe me ...
      3. badger1974
        20 May 2014 11: 46
        there was even a hit in the fire of the hunters, the instructions were so read to their mother, do not direct in the sun, the launch should be carried out only in fixing the target, the location of the launch tube is not lower than 20 degrees from the surface vector (for an arrow -2m), the three can be lower, here is the needle-fixing the target and at least zero dolbish (the main building is not touched if the bullet is zero), needle -1 is a masterpiece, just a needle is Kiev "Arsenal"
    2. 0
      20 May 2014 12: 15
      Israeli data
      During this period (1969-1970) there was a war of attrition between Israel and Egypt. According to Arab statements, "in August 1969, in one day, 10 such missiles shot down 6 Israeli Air Force planes, while all other air defense means - only 4", or in another version, "at the end of 1969, several volleys of Strela-2 MANPADS shot down 6 Israeli "Phantoms" of 10 ". These reports do not correspond to reality - on the Egyptian front in August 1969 Israel lost only one aircraft - A-4 Skyhawk, shot down on August 19.8.69, 1969 by anti-aircraft artillery fire, and at the end of XNUMX (October - December) there were no losses at all.

      By the beginning of the Yom Kippur War in 1973, the Arab armies had up to 2,000 Strela-2 complexes. The Arabs claim that in the period 6-23.10.73 these MANPADS shot down 23 Israeli aircraft and 8 more - during the so-called. "Battle of Hermon" (April 8 - May 30, 1974). These figures are greatly exaggerated. According to one of the sources, during the 1973 war, "Strela-2" shot down no more than 6 Israeli aircraft - 3 reliably and 3 more - presumably, joint fire of MANPADS and anti-aircraft artillery. According to another source, in total during the war, up to 35 hits of "Strela-2" were recorded in the planes of the Israeli Air Force. At the same time, 4 planes were shot down, 3 were seriously damaged. The remaining 28 were quickly repaired, in some cases they returned to service on the same day. And this despite the fact that about 5,000 (!) Of such missiles were fired. This ineffectiveness of "Strela-2" is explained both by the low sensitivity of its TGS and by the extremely weak missile warhead. Its weight is only 1.17 kg, so even an aircraft hit by a missile could often return to base, where it was quickly restored. In April - May 1974, the effectiveness of the complexes was higher - they shot down 3 Israeli aircraft (F-4E Phantom 8.4.74, the pilot and navigator were captured in Lebanon; another Phantom 19.4.74, the pilot died, the navigator received seriously wounded and taken prisoner; A-4 "Skyhawk", also 19.4.74, the pilot was killed).

      During the 1973 war (as well as 1982), Israel captured large quantities of Strela-2 and adopted them for service. For a long time, this complex was the only type of MANPADS in Israel, and only by 1979 the American Red Eye MANPADS appeared in service, and in 1989 - the Stinger MANPADS.

      The Strela-2 was also used during the 1982 war. On June 5 (the night before the start of the ground operation) an AH-1 "Cobra" combat helicopter was shot down. Pilots Amichai Spektor and Yossi Kehler were killed. According to some sources, he was shot down by the fire of a 23-mm anti-aircraft gun, according to others - by a Strela-2 missile. On June 6, this missile also shot down the A-4 "Skyhawk" attack aircraft, its pilot, captain ("siren") Aaron Achiaz was captured by the PLO and remained there for 75 days, until 21.8.82. It should be noted that about 50 Strela-2 missiles were fired at his plane. On the same day (6.6.82) the Bell-212 helicopter was also shot down, 5 crew members were killed. It is indicated that he was hit by anti-aircraft fire, but it is not clear whether it was "Strela-2", a cannon or something else.

      For almost 18 years after June 1982, before the withdrawal of Israeli troops from Lebanon on May 24.05.2000, 2, there were numerous cases of the launch of Strela-05.03.95 missiles at Israeli aircraft and helicopters, but there were no more casualties. For example, on 2/XNUMX/XNUMX the launch of "Strela-XNUMX" at a combat aircraft was recorded, the missile did not hit the target.
      1. badger1974
        21 May 2014 18: 33
        it is impossible to assert that the arrow-2 was fired, there is no such definition in practice, because just like "red ai" was used by anyone, especially a year by the 80s, there was an international scandal on the supply of the US left-hand weapons to Iran, or do you prefer to hide this fact? let's be honest, just go to such a booze
  5. vkrav
    20 May 2014 10: 49
    The first foreign country to receive Strela-2 was Egypt.

    And then the "friendly" Egyptians sold these Arrows to the dushmans ... And they successfully shot down Soviet turntables and planes with Soviet Arrows ... And later, the "friendly" Iizers sold Arrows (in the warehouses of the Caspian Flotilla there were dofig of them - ok 2000 pieces) to Chechens with the same results ... Conclusion: with such friends no enemies are needed ... And even in the "brotherly" Ukraine, their dofiga began to play ... We are waiting for where they will emerge?
  6. yacht
    20 May 2014 12: 25
    We are waiting for the continuation-MANPADS: "Needles"
    1. badger1974
      20 May 2014 12: 36
      Needle -1, a worthy thing, past the optical instrument Kiev "Arsenal" corporation "Luch", awesome topic
  7. The comment was deleted.
  8. The comment was deleted.
  9. +1
    20 May 2014 16: 20
    Interestingly, and whether in the composition of Strela was the interrogator "Svoy Alien" of the state identification system? In Stinger, as far as I'm aware, there is such a "fit".
    1. badger1974
      21 May 2014 10: 06
      necessarily, but it can be activated or fired with the interrogator's blockade, it happened when the yellow dudes in panamas shot down their own moments with an arrow-2, an arrow-2m was already with the interrogator "friend or foe", another thing is that the stars and stripes opened codes and missiles walked by or did not work at all, by the way, this trend is still such, the operator needs to make sure that this is an enemy aircraft, more like in Ossetia - more attack aircraft died from Friendly fire
  10. Serpentik
    20 May 2014 19: 26
    Quote: gregor6549
    Interestingly, and whether in the composition of Strela was the interrogator "Svoy Alien" of the state identification system? AT

    The article also shows that a requestor appeared in arrow 3, but the launch did not block.
    1. 0
      21 May 2014 16: 44
      Thank you for not being attentive enough. But that the launch requestor did not block it is not good. So after all, you can knock your own people. After all, the decision to launch is made by an ordinary soldier and not by a unit commander, as in "large" air defense systems.
      1. badger1974
        21 May 2014 18: 47
        what do you think? when a scallop flies, whose is it? your own or someone else's? when mi-24 or eight? your own or according to your soul? do not invent it, the interrogator is tightly closed, all hope is on the operator and the intuition of the unit commander, ... I dare to notice the intuition in a "spectacled" situation can fail, (Ossetia, friendly fire from MANPADS)
  11. 0
    21 May 2014 12: 26

    even the hunters got into the bonfire, instruct mother to read them like that, do not direct them in the sun, start only in fixing the target (do not touch the main building
    I hope everything was okay with the hunters ... I can imagine: men are sitting, warming themselves, drinking tea, and here you are! an arrow flies into the bonfire ... about the sun it’s also interesting: you have to be careful, the sun is one with us, as if the end of the world would happen to humanity because of an anti-aircraft gunner’s error!
    1. badger1974
      21 May 2014 17: 00
      what do you doubt? completely in vain, this case was in 1991 at a training ground near Nikolaev (Ukraine), just because of the general coven the etlo business did not become widespread, but to shoot a rocket with an infrared head towards the sun is a pretty penny, you’re a brother obviously an American who has seen a disco, be simpler and more attentive, and people will reach for you
  12. aspid21
    29 May 2014 15: 16
    Can we, if we want?

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