*Due to a number of errors, the riflescopes for Kalashnikov’s machine guns and machine guns that the Ministry of Defense of Russia is purchasing are making it impossible for the shooter to fire a duel - aimed shooting at the head target, and also have a low probability of hitting other targets.*

An updated version of the article, which was published in the "Bulletin of the Academy of Military Sciences" №4 for 2013 year.

An updated version of the article, which was published in the "Bulletin of the Academy of Military Sciences" №4 for 2013 year.

Some shooting errors are determined by the sight design. Of such errors, the following effects have the greatest impact on the shooting results:

• range error;

• error targeting;

• rounding the installation of the sight.

When shooting with an open mechanical sight and a visual method for determining the distance to the target, errors in determining the range and pickup [1, p. 129] dominate among shooting errors in height. For example, when shooting an AKM machine gun at a distance of 500, these errors are:

__Median Shooting Altitude Errors Meters (% of total error)__

0,7 ÷ 1,11м range definitions (56,6 ÷ 63,5%)

0,5 ÷ 0,75м leads (28,9 ÷ 29,0%)

Rounding of the 0,17 m sight mount (3,4 ÷ 1,5%)

*FIG. 1. Excerpt from the 6 table [1, page 130].*

The error in determining the distance leads to the fact that the shooter sets the wrong sight and thus shifts the average hit point (STP) up or down from the aiming point - the center of the target. 0,7m from the center even of a growth figure means that the STP and the center of dispersion of the queues are shifted to the contour of the target. And 1,11m means that they are taken out of the contours of even such a high goal. The pickup error increases the dispersion of single shots and STP queues.

Obviously, with those indicated in FIG. 1 values of shooting errors, the probability of hitting the target is small. The column “% total error” shows that, under these firing conditions, range determination and pickup errors dominate the total error and amount to 92,5% (!) Of the total shooting error.

If the range is determined using even the simplest rangefinder optical sight scale, with which help is made weaponsthen the errors of determining the range and aiming are much smaller and even cease to be dominant in the total error of shooting [1, p. 129].

That is, the optical sight multiplies the deviation of the STP and the center of dispersion of the queues from the center of the target, therefore, dramatically increases the probability of hitting. Therefore, in recent years, many armies in the world have been actively completing with optical sights not only sniper rifles, but also automatic small arms. And there is no alternative to this process.

But optical sights have different designs, and the errors of determining the range, pickup and rounding of the installation of the sight for each design their own. Therefore, in itself, the complete set of Russian automatic small arms with optical sights does not guarantee that the probability of hitting our weapons will reach the level reached by the likely adversary. It is necessary that our new riflescopes have no greater values for shooting errors than the best world samples.

In this article, the Russian sights are compared with the most innovative of the passive optical sights - with the ACOG (Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight) series from the American company Trijicon, which are coming into service with the US Army. For an adequate assessment of our sights, we first evaluate ACOG.

**ACOG - Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight**

“The width of horizontal scratches on the line of falling of a bullet in ACOG corresponds to the average width of the male shoulders (19 inches) at this range” - Operator's Manual [2, p. 19, hereinafter translated by the author]. The width of the square is equal to the width of the shoulders at a distance 300м.

*FIG. 2. Aiming scheme with ACOG, Operator's Manual [2, page 18].*

That is, in these sights, a new method of measuring the distance to the target has been applied: the range is determined not by the angular height, but by the angular width of the target. From the shooter it is only necessary to choose that horizontal risk, the width of which is equal to the width of the arms of the target. And measuring the distance and setting the angle of aiming - in one action! Extremely fast, simple and intuitive, even to a non-professional.

Note the following:

• By the angular width, you can accurately measure the distance to a “man” target of any height - height, waist, chest, head with shoulders (target # 5 from our shooting range [3]), as well as any intermediate height between them, because the vertical size of the target does not matter.

• Although Operator's Manual [2] does not state this explicitly, ACOG makes it easy to measure the distance and aim at the head when the shoulders are not visible. After all, the width of the head is 23cm, which is almost half the width of the shoulders 50cm [3, targets №№ 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. Therefore, it is possible to measure the distance to the head by half the horizontal risks. For example, at 400 range, distance measurement and aiming will look like this:

*FIG. 3. Measuring range and aiming with ACOG in the head target. Scheme of the author.*

• ACOG allows you to abandon the direct shot and shoot accurately. After all, with a direct shot, the STP “walks” from the lower edge of the target to the top and therefore the probability of hitting the range of the direct shot and the range of the top of the trajectory cannot be greater than 0,5. And shooting with precise aiming gives the maximum chance of hitting. However, ACOG allows you to shoot a direct shot: without picking up the exact crosshairs, you can always direct the crosshairs of the direct shot range to the lower edge of the target; for example, the 6 crosshair is always at the bottom edge of the growth target.

Thus, ACOG shooters even with M-16 / M-4 allow extremely quickly and with a high probability of falling into any, including the main target - the most frequent and most dangerous target on the battlefield. An ACOG shooter at ranges to 600 can fire a duel even more effectively than a sniper armed with an optical sight like our PSO-1. Because ACOG allows you to quickly measure the distance.

**Sights of our manufacturers**

"Novosibirsk Instrument-Making Plant" (refinery, recently renamed "Shvabe protection and security") - "the main supplier of day and night sights for all types of small arms of the Russian Army" [4, "Specialty" page] - still measures the angular range target height.

**Error measuring the distance at the target height**

Measuring the range of 1PN93-2 AK-74 with the production of refineries:

*FIG. 4. [5, page 51].*

As you can see, the specialized scale measures the distance only to the growth target, in this sight - height 1,5м. And to determine the distance to all other targets in accordance with the 2.7 section of the Guide [5, page 20-21]:

1. The shooter must know the height of the targets.

But this is possible only for standard targets, whose dimensions are unchanged. You can even measure the range on the scale of the growth target to the standard chest and head targets: since the chest is 3 times and the head one 5 times lower than 1,5, the range measured by the growth scale should be reduced by 3 and 5 times, respectively. That is, when shooting at the landfill, the method of measuring the distance from the target height can still be applied.

And in combat, the targets have an arbitrary height, often between the heights of standard targets, and therefore measurements by their angular height give a very large error. For example, if the target height 0,4m count the head, then the measured distance will be 1 / 3 less than the real range. And if the same goal is calculated chest, then the measured range will be on 1 / 5 more than the real range.

And for a growth target, if it goes on high grass, deep snow or over uneven terrain, the measured distance may have an error to the real range 1 / 3 ÷ 1 / 4.

2. The shooter must firmly know the following dimensions of the reticle:

*FIG. 5. [5, page 40].*

3. The shooter must determine the angular value of the target on the sighting grid in the thousandth range.

4. The shooter must calculate the distance to the target by the formula:

D = B * 1000 / Y

where D is the distance to the target,

B - target height,

Y is the angular height of the target in thousandths.

5. And only now the shooter must choose the aiming mark, which must be aimed at the target.

Especially note:

• The above method for determining the distance from the angular height of a target is a classic method used in almost all our rangefinder scales for small arms.

• Obviously, the classical method is more laborious, and therefore slower and less accurate than the method used in ACOG to determine the distance from the angular width of the target.

• Yes, the classical method is universal - it allows you to measure the range not only to a person, but to any object of a known height - a building, tank, BMP, telegraph pole, etc. But why is it for a machine gunner or machine gunner who does not hit buildings, tanks, infantry fighting vehicles and telegraph poles?

• The universal classical method loses to the specialized ACOG method precisely in what the machine gun or light machine gun was created for — in defeating enemy personnel.

**New Russian optical sights do not allow to effectively hit the head target**

“When firing a machine gun at a distance of 400 (direct shot), fire should be fired at the upper aiming mark, aiming at the lower edge of the target or at the middle if the target is high (running figures, etc.)” [5, article 2.8.2, p .21]:

*FIG. 6. Excerpt from figure A.13 - [5, p.49].*

That is, up to 400, you can only shoot a direct shot with such a gun at a low target, there is no other way.

Designers 1PN93-2 AK-74 laid in this optical, having a good multiplicity (4x), only one sight (!) Way of shooting at low targets - the one that 40 years ago was recommended for AK-74 sector (mechanical) sight:

*FIG. 7. Excerpt from Art.155 Guides on AK-74 [6, Art.155].*

But aiming at the bottom edge of the target with an 4 sight is a direct shot at the pectoral target. And to the head target, such a shot at ranges from 150 to 300 gives the probability of hitting 4 10 times worse than choosing the exact crosshairs in ACOG. This is shown in the article. "The machine gunner should and can hit the head figure." "Military Review" in fig. 6.

At the head target, a direct shot must be fired, not with an 4 or R sight, but with an 3 sight (300). And the sector (mechanical) AK sight allowed the machine gunner not to shoot with the 4 sight, but to mount the 3 sight and to conduct an equal duel with the M-16 / M-4 mechanical sight. But the 1PN93-2 AK-74 sight completely deprives our gunner of this opportunity!

When discussing the above article “The submachine gunner should and can hit the head figure” on the Military Review portal, some commentators blamed me for not raising this issue, they say, in battle, the requirement of article 155 of the AK-74 Guide can be ignored and not fired with sights "4" or "P", and with a sight "3". But the new sights of the refinery, as we see, the label "3" is simply not.

In this situation, the separation of the enemy with all its M-16 with ACOG in the very first seconds of the fire duel destroys the sniper of our branch. And the rest of our department turns into a target in the dash.

Our submachine gunners and machine gunners must also beat their head targets! And for this, in the 1PN93-2 AK-74, it was enough to provide at least one more tag - 350м (approximate direct shot at the head target) or at least 300m, as on the sector "mechanical" sight.

From the Shooting Course [3, shooting exercises] it is obvious that the optics on the sniper rifle can effectively beat the head target. So, the optics will allow it on the machine gun and Kalashnikov machine gun. Why do they make optical sights for them, which make it impossible to conduct an effective fire on the head target - it is impossible to explain.

And these 1PN93-2 AK-74 our Ministry of Defense purchases thousands of pieces of 3,5 (!) - [interview of Deputy Director General of the Refinery Yury Abramov on the sidelines of a meeting of the Scientific and Technical Council of the Military Industrial Commission under the Government of Russia, December 2011 g].

A year and a half ago, the Ministry of Defense seemed to have admitted the mistake of these sights:

*FIG. 8.*

But so far on the site of the Novosibirsk Instrument-Making Plant, the 1PN93-2 AK-74 and several other optical sights for automatic rifles and Kalashnikov machine guns have this feature - the target range and range for measuring the range start with 400m. These are 1P77, 1P78-1, 1P78-2, 1P78-3 day sights. For the 100-series sights, information about the target range is simply not indicated on the refinery website, and it is possible that they are the same - suitable only for the thoracic target (“thoracic” sights).

It's been a year and a half, and you can forget the instructions? Bullets began to fly differently, or what?

Sights in which there are no aim marks less than 400, do not allow to conduct a firing duel even in the case when the distance to the target is known. And if the range is required to be measured, then in the fire duel, ACOG simply does not leave any chance for our shooter with these sights.

For effective shooting at the head target, “thoracic” sights of the refinery should not be brought to normal combat. It is more expedient to bring the "4" mark of these scopes to the range 350m - the range of the direct shot at the head target. For the AK-74, this means that at the 100 range, the “4” mark for the STP above the aiming point should be 19 centimeters. Then, with the “4” tag to the 350 range, you can hit any low target, including the head one, with a single or two rounds on the 3 cartridge.

I emphasize that this method of correcting the “chest” optical sight is good because it does not require retraining of machine gunners. All the skills that have been developed from machine gunners in accordance with Art. 155 AK-74 manuals, remain: aim a low target at the bottom edge, and a running one - at the middle (Fig. 7).

Of course, when casting the “4” tag to the 350 range, the remaining sighting marks will not match their ranges either. But it is better to hit any target up to the range of 350m, and to the running one - up to 450m-500m, than at ranges from 150m to 300m not to get into the main target, which fires at you.

But even better, of course, stop releasing "chest" sights.

**Double rounding-off error**

In addition to the already mentioned deficiencies in 1PN93-2 AK-74, the distance scale step is twice the usual one - 200м instead of the usual 100м. This means that the rounding-off error of the sight was also doubled.

The distance step 100m led to the emergence of the STP beyond the contours of the growth target, starting with 650m. This was acceptable, because beyond 600m - the range of a direct shot at the growth target - we practically and do not shoot with a machine gun. As we have seen, the Americans in ACOG for the M-16 range pitch remained 100, and the target range remained 600 [Fig. 2].

*Fig.9.*

And the distance step 200м leads to the exit of the STP beyond the contours of the growth target already starting with 500m. After all, the excess of the 6 sight at a distance of 500 is greater than 0,75 - half the height of the growth figure - [6, table “Excessive trajectories over the aiming line”]. That is, zones with a meager probability of hitting even the highest target of 1PN93-2 AK-74 begin with 500m. A "just" reduction in the probability of hitting occurs even closer to 500, because the rounding error is doubled at all distances.

Therefore, shooting with an 1PN93-2 AK-74 sight even for a growth target is only advisable up to 400m. Shooting on 400m is useless and dangerous: you are unlikely to get in, but you will find yourself and put yourself under fire. And this applies to all sights where the range pitch is 200.

Summing up the assessment of 1PN93-2 AK-74, we can say that its developers made all possible errors that could be made to reduce the likelihood of hitting this sight even compared to the "old man" PSO-1.

**The negligence of our manufacturers sights in the documentation**

Note that in the figure from the Operating Instructions for the 1PN93-2 sight [Fig. 5] The distances between the 4, 6, 8 and 10 sighting marks are the same. This is mistake! In the explanatory captions in Figure A.4, these distances are indicated correctly, based on AK-74 ballistics: from “4” to “6” - 2,8 thousand, to “8” - 7,6 thousand, to “10” - 14,6 thousand. But the drawing itself does not correspond to these explanations! The distances between adjacent labels must be different:

from “4” to “6” - 2,8 thousand;

from "6" to "8" - 4,8 thousand. (7,6 thousand. - 2,8 thousand.);

from "8" to "10" - 7 thousand. (14,6 thousand. - 7,6 thousand.).

That is, the rangefinder scale “wound up” into the telescopic sight should “stretch” with increasing range. As seen in FIG. 2 from the ACOG documentation.

Our Defense Ministry assured me that in the 1PN93-2 AK-74 "live" sights, the rangefinder scale was "stretched", as it should be. But the shooter, still studying the guide to the sight, should get used to the aiming grid, which he sees in the sight. And getting a real sight, the shooter should not suspect that he slipped marriage.

Weapons should be different accuracy of the wording and schemes in the documentation, and such "blunders" of our manufacturers reduce the credibility of our weapons.

**Final conclusions**

Russian rifle scopes for machine guns and Kalashnikov machine guns, including those that received the GRAU index, passed state tests and were procured by the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, have a number of drawbacks that increase shooting errors.

Due to constructive errors, Russian sights have a significantly lower probability of hitting the target and a more complex and lengthy process of aiming than their direct competitors - ACOG sights.

But copying ACOG is not advisable: in Russia, a passive sight was invented and patented, one step ahead of ACOG. It is necessary to begin development work on this new sight.

**References**

[1] "The effectiveness of firing from automatic weapons", Shereshevsky, MS, Gontarev, AN, Minaev, Yu.V., Moscow, Central Research Institute of Information, 1979,

[2] "Operator's Manual: Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight" Model: 3x30 ▼ TA33-8, ▼ TA33R-8, ▼ TA33-9, TA33R-9, www.trijicon-XNUMX, TAXNUMXR-XNUMX ▼

[3] “The rate of shooting from small arms, combat vehicles and tanks of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (2003), was commissioned by the order of the Commander-in-Chief of the Land Forces - Deputy Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation from 01 July 2003 g No.108.

[4] www.npzopt.ru - the official site of OAO "PO" Oil Refinery ".

[5] “Product 1PN93-2. Instruction Manual, 44 7345 41, approved by ALZ.812.222 RE-LU.

[6] “The 5,45-mm Kalashnikov assault rifle (AK74, AX74, AK74H, AX74H) and 5,45-mm Kalashnikov machine gun (RPK74, RPXXNNXX, RPK74H, RPXXXUM, RPX74H, PCXX74, RPXXNNXX, RPX1982H, PCXXXNUMX, RPXXNNXX, AKXNUMXH, RPXXNUMX, RPXXNNXX, RPKXNUMXH, RPXXXNUMX, AKXNUMXH) XNUMX