Military Review

Why riot South and East of Ukraine?


People’s protest in the regions of the South-East of Ukraine against the nationalists who committed an armed coup in Kiev is attributed — at the suggestion of the US Department of State — to Russia's interference in the internal affairs of the neighboring state. In fact, the outbreak of civilian resistance in these industrial areas has nothing to do with the alleged intrigues of the Russian special services. A direct impetus to current events was given by the seizure of power in Kiev by groups of interests with aggressive anti-Russian ideology, while the deeper causes of the movement are rooted in the ethnic composition of the population, stories settlement and development of these lands ...

After the destruction of the ancient Russian state by the khan of Batu in 1238-40, the lands to the south and east of Kiev turned into a deserted desert, as Hungarian monk Plano Karpini, who traveled to Karokorum, wrote in his travel notes. In the Russian annals of the XIII-XV centuries, the lands stretching to the south-east of the Ryazan-Tula-Bryansk-Chernihiv-Kiev-Vinnitsa line, including 2 / 3 in modern Ukraine, were called the “Wild Field”. The area on which Zaporozhye, Dnepropetrovsk, Poltava, Kharkov and even Sumy are today was the personal lands of the family of the Golden Horde Khan Mamai, who suffered a terrible defeat from the Russians in 1380 on the Don River near Tula.

Why riot South and East of Ukraine?

After the collapse of the Golden Horde at the end of the 15th century, the Russians began to move south and east to protect their state from the annual raids of the nomads of the Crimean Khanate and the Nogai Horde. The most advanced Russia in the “Wild Field” during the reign of Ivan IV the Terrible, moving its borders to the Caspian and Azov seas. The southwestern border of the Moscow kingdom passed west of the modern Ukrainian cities of Chernigov, Sumy, Kharkov, and Donetsk. For its defense in the uninhabited steppes, many cities and fortresses were built, inhabited by volunteers from the northern and central regions of Russia.

However, during the time of Ivan the Terrible, the “Wild Field” was not completely uninhabited. In the valleys of the Don and Seversky Donets rivers, as well as their tributaries, at that time 200 was inhabited by subethnos, known to the whole world as Don Cossacks. It is known that the Moscow Prince Dmitry, who received the nickname Donskoy after the victory over Khan Mamai in 1380, on the eve of this battle the Cossacks of the Don village of Sirotinskaya presented one of the most revered icons in Russia today, the icon of the Don Mother of God and vowed to protect Russian lands from nomadic raids.

The Cossacks initially emerged as an international community of free warriors-horsemen, who did not recognize any rulers over themselves and joined the military campaigns of various armies for profit. In peacetime, they were engaged in the cultivation of bread and crafts, but because of their proximity to the nomads, at any moment they were ready to become warriors again. All important questions of the life of the settlement-village were decided by the general meeting, at which each Cossack had the right to express his opinion and vote on an equal basis with others. The Cossacks elected their commanders and officials from among themselves either for a fixed period of time or for the duration of the campaign. To address issues relating to the group of villages or the whole Cossack region, representatives were elected in public. After the expiration of his term of office, such a representative turned into an ordinary citizen.

Personal slavery among the Cossacks never existed. The captured enemies had to work for a certain period on their master (no more than 6 years), after which he was given the choice: either to freely return to his homeland, or to become a Cossack and get equal rights and duties with all. Any man who declared this, whoever he was before, could become a free Cossack, and after that no one had the right to enslave him. This was often used by fleeing serfs from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Russia, who were guaranteed freedom by the Cossack community, even if they were found by the former owner. This rule sounded like a categorical imperative: “There is no issue from the Don”.

The lands of the Don Cossacks were located in the adjacent territories of the current Russian Federation and Ukraine. They included the entire modern Luhansk region, half of Donetsk and part of the Kharkov region. Western border Don troops were passing along the Kalmius River, which flows through the city of Donetsk.

After the conquest of the remnants of the “Wild Field” of the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire at the end of the 18th century, Russia, which mastered the Urals and Siberia, was sorely lacking in the vast steppe expanses of the south of modern Ukraine. That is why Catherine II the Great and the subsequent Russian emperors invited the inhabitants of European states to settle in the space from Odessa to Rostov. In Novorossia, as they began to call these lands after the name of the center of the province, the city of Novorossiysk (now Dnepropetrovsk), in addition to Russian villages and small towns, many Polish, Bulgarian, Greek, German, Serbian, Jewish, Moldavian, and even Swiss settlements appeared.

The industrial boom in the South-West of the Russian Empire that began in the middle of the 19th century confused the ethnic map of the former “Wild Field” even more. Along with the Russian capital, the industry of New Russia was raised by businessmen and specialists from all over Europe. For example, Donetsk, before 1920, was called Yuzovka after the English businessman John Hughes, who founded the city. At the same time, the Russians remained the most numerous and uniting ethnic group in the region.

The turning point occurred after the 1917 revolution of the year, when the Kiev Central Central, which was not elected by anyone, declared “Ukraine” territories, not only populated mainly by Ukrainians, but all lands where ethnic Ukrainians lived in significant numbers, including the Kuban, the North Caucasus and the Lower Volga. Since the Bolsheviks benefited from the creation of Soviet Ukraine, they supported alternative government bodies that met in Kharkov. And for the sake of increasing the number of supporters in the republic, Donbass was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR, which had never had anything to do with Ukraine.

In the framework of the policy of “indigenization”, that is, bringing representatives of national suburbs into power, mass falsifications were carried out at the 1926 census of the year. On the instructions of Moscow, instead of real ethnicity, in the corresponding column Russians, Bulgarians, Greeks, Jews, Poles indicated “Ukrainian” only because of their residence in the Ukrainian SSR. The same thing happened in 1930-s when issuing passports, and such an entry could not be changed in those years. As a result, the number of “Ukrainians” in the former “Wild Field”, populated mainly by the Russian population, was increased so much that the belonging of Novorossia to Ukraine seemed to stop asking questions.

All the years of Ukraine’s independence, the inhabitants of its southern and eastern regions for the most part were very ironic about historical myths created by nationalist-minded pseudo-historians. After all, here, in the South-East of today's Ukraine, the overwhelming majority of people remember both their Russian ancestors and the development of the “Wild Field” by Russia. And since the new Kiev regime has already declared them to be "second-rate" people, subject to, if not destruction, then severe discrimination, they are striving to where their ancestors came from, where they are considered equal, to Russia.
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  1. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 1 May 2014 09: 28
    In the history of creation, so many factors are mixed ... and mostly subjective ...

    In my opinion, people are rebelling because the State ceases to express their interests ... presses and humiliates ... does not count ... and does not ask for their opinion.
    1. Anton Gavrilov
      Anton Gavrilov 1 May 2014 10: 22
      He also wants to use as his appendage, and feed the entire western part at the expense of the southeast, erase the good memory of past feats, but all their potential crimes simply can not be counted!
    2. alexng
      alexng 1 May 2014 10: 45
      Yes, the current illegitimate government must all give the heroes of Russia without exception, as they are doing everything possible to ensure that the Southeast breaks away from Ukraine and becomes part of Russia. And without any financial costs from Russia.
      1. family tree
        family tree 1 May 2014 11: 16
        Quote: alexneg
        Yes, the current non-legitimate government must all give the heroes of Russia without exception, since they are doing everything they can to

        Only in the award sheet, after the words about the award, indicate (posthumously) what
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. Validator
      Validator 1 May 2014 11: 14
      Lugansk, yesterday. I think this is a riot of mentality. Russians against the West, as always
      1. Gloria45
        Gloria45 1 May 2014 12: 19
        With radicals, radically
        1. Jogan-xnumx
          Jogan-xnumx 1 May 2014 15: 07
          Quote: gloria45
          With radicals, radically

          I support for all 100 !!!
          Congratulations, colleagues, all FIRST !!! We must win and we will definitely win !!!
  2. Giant thought
    Giant thought 1 May 2014 09: 32
    It is necessary to restore historical justice in the territory of New Russia. The southeast is fighting for justice trampled by the junta, against fascist lawlessness, Bandera lawlessness and rewriting history.
  3. Gagarin
    Gagarin 1 May 2014 09: 34
    Thanks for the interesting layout.
  4. Ivan 63
    Ivan 63 1 May 2014 09: 34
    Good article, it explains well where the "Globe of Ukraine" came from
  5. Cossacks
    Cossacks 1 May 2014 09: 41
    And the article is good and Ivan 63 well noted about the globe.
  6. dojjdik
    dojjdik 1 May 2014 09: 57
    the southeast has never rebelled and is not going to do it, on the contrary, people living in these regions of Ukraine are for peace and tranquility; a riot or a mess is an artificial planting of a small handful of agents of the CIA, which Yanukovych could not suppress in time; during! this is where the mistake - for the future, all the leaders of such states as Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan - get ready "democrats" will soon come to you; choke them immediately; no OSCE UNOs and other sects will help you
  7. 1 May 2014 10: 06
    "Why are the South and East of Ukraine rebelling?"
    in the southeast of present-day Ukraine, the vast majority of people remember both their Russian ancestors and the development of the “Wild Field” by Russia. And since the new Kiev regime has already declared them “second-class” people, subject to, if not annihilation, then severe discrimination, they strive to where their ancestors came from, where they are considered equal, to Russia. Author Alexander DONETSKY

    So it will be shorter.
  8. I am Russian
    I am Russian 1 May 2014 10: 07
    Hunt for the PRESIDENT - Gaddafi's failed script [30/04/2014]
  9. Orc-xnumx
    Orc-xnumx 1 May 2014 10: 17
    And we still keep the "bald mummy" in the mausoleum?
  10. mamont5
    mamont5 1 May 2014 10: 23
    "It is known that the Moscow prince Dmitry, who received the nickname Donskoy after the victory over Khan Mamai in 1380, on the eve of this battle, the Cossacks of the Don village of Sirotinskaya presented one of the most revered icons in Russia today."
    I don’t know ... There were no Cossacks then. There were "Brodniks" from Slavic immigrants and also service nomads (remnants of the tribes of the Black Klobuk, Pechenegs, Polovtsians), of which the Cossacks were later formed.
  11. Lavrov
    Lavrov 1 May 2014 10: 30
    We lived here in the Donbass, maybe sometimes they didn’t bother ..., we worked hard in full, so that we had enough for life. Then again, the second grade. and ..... And I have two higher technical education. Try Bender to finish a technical university, and work at a metallurgical plant .. Weak? We are for peace, friendship. You put us before the choice. Before the bosom of Ukraine! Now we ourselves!
    1. Jogan-xnumx
      Jogan-xnumx 1 May 2014 15: 36
      Quote: Lavrov
      And I have two higher technical education.

      So you find yourself with such a "baggage" that still quilted jacket! laughing My congratulations, fellow countryman, with the Russian spring and FIRST! drinks I, too, it turns out from quilted jackets, because I have almost the same educational baggage. I hope that soon we, like Crimea, will be at home! hi
      Well ... to raise the festive mood.
  12. Ruswolf
    Ruswolf 1 May 2014 11: 09
    I don’t know ... There were no Cossacks then.

    It's not about who was, who was not. There were no Ukraine and Ukrainians either. I mean the names. The main thing is that the Slavs lived there. Russia not only liberated these lands, but also defended and developed them all their lives. Defended and developed so that some scum, in the XXI century, called the inhabitants of these regions cattle and second grade!
    "Both the auctioneer and the otliknitsa" say the Slavs. So it turns out - Kiev stood in front of the EU, and back to the region - so the regions turned back to Kiev! And now who will jump next!
    And I don’t know how anyone, but it seems to me that the Kiev authorities will no longer leave the regions or not, the main thing is to keep what they managed to capture.
  13. vostok1982
    vostok1982 1 May 2014 11: 17
    At the expense of the Don Cossacks in the 14th century, the author went too far.
    1. AVIATOR36662
      AVIATOR36662 1 May 2014 12: 28
      The author, of course, went a lot in places, but the main thing in this case was noted! That Donbass, which had nothing to do with Ukraine, was transferred by the Bolsheviks of the Ukrainian SSR in order to increase the number of its supporters in the republic. Let us hope that the events developing rapidly will correct this mistake and this historical injustice will soon (sorry for the tautology) become history.
      1. vostok1982
        vostok1982 1 May 2014 12: 29
        No one else residents of New Russia themselves want this. Only this hope and live.
  14. svp67
    svp67 1 May 2014 11: 39
    Why riot South and East of Ukraine?
    Probably worth looking for the answer here ...
  15. aepocmam
    aepocmam 1 May 2014 11: 43
    Declare South and East occupied by Ukraine and act in this paradigm. Let Obama sprinkle with saliva and bile come out, and we have fun.
    1. Capyar 48315
      Capyar 48315 1 May 2014 14: 06
      what about fighting - have some fun?
  16. VD chauvinist
    VD chauvinist 1 May 2014 11: 59
    Most likely, there were no Don Cossacks at the end of the 14th century. Ushkuyniki were. And the fact that the Türks participated in the ethnogenesis of the Cossacks is a fact. Cossack - kaisak, kosh, chicken, etc. - Turkisms. And self-government was arranged according to the Scythian-Sarmatian model ... and at the beginning of the 16th century, Cossacks are the Russian language and Orthodoxy.
  17. nnz226
    nnz226 1 May 2014 12: 43
    Well, really now only Donetsk and Lugansk regions are "rebelling" against the Kiev rulers! Odessa looks at it slyly, Kharkiv seems to be "exhausted", there are no barricades or seizure of buildings. One can only hear about Zaporozhye how several hundred supporters of federalization withstood a hail of insults from thousands of monstrous Unitars. In Nikolaev, after the defeat of the tent camp, there is silence, about Kherson, too, do not hear .... In reality, two areas are not specifically recognized, and precisely by deeds, and not verbiage of the authorities in Kiev.
  18. Capyar 48315
    Capyar 48315 1 May 2014 14: 02
    what nonsense is this article
  19. navigator1997
    navigator1997 2 May 2014 21: 42
    It's a good article. Just like the author with history, geography and toponymy? About the Cossacks in the 14th century, they already wrote here. Novorossiysk, if nothing has changed since last summer (I flew over it then), is located on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus (it is still Leonid Brezhnev freed), and did not change its name from the day of its foundation. And Dnepropetrovsk before the revolution was called Yekaterinoslav. Such plops, in my opinion, discredit the correct idea expressed in the article, approximately like "Su-24 fighter" in one of the TV reports.