Military Review

Development impulses of the domestic radio industry

21
To the 60 anniversary of the formation of the USSR Ministry of Radio Industry


After the death of Stalin in the struggle for power, a succession of reorganization went on. The concentration and redistribution of power in the country between the successors of the leader expressed themselves in the merger of many departments. In 1953, the Ministry of Power Plants and the Electrical Industry of the USSR was formed on the basis of a number of ministries, which included enterprises of the radio electronic industry. But time has persistently demanded that the country's leadership independently design a booming industry at the state level.

At the beginning of 1954, by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Ministry of Radio Engineering of the USSR is distinguished from the composition of the Ministry of Power Plants and the Electrical Industry of the USSR.

The intensive work of the radio industry in the country began at the end of the Great Patriotic War and in the post-war years.

Since the radio industry was not in the priority areas of industrialization, the USSR entered the war, having isolated instances of radar technology and lagging far behind the radar of Germany, England and the United States.

Development impulses of the domestic radio industryA number of decisions on the creation of individual samples of radar equipment were made already during the war. In July 1941, in the Moscow air defense zone, a radar station for airspace control RUS-2 was developed by NII-20 (now the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Radio Engineering - VNIRT). The station timely detected more than 200 bombers raid on Moscow on the night of July 22, 1941, which allowed it to take off in advance Aviation and put on high alert anti-aircraft artillery.

The Moscow Radio Plant, evacuated to the city of Sarapul in 1941, turned out to be the only enterprise producing radio navigation equipment for transport and military aviation. During the war years, the plant produced 50 pieces tank radar.

10 February The 1942 of the State Defense Committee adopted a resolution on the development of a gun-laying station (SLA) for the air defense forces and its mass production. The task was completed thanks to the work of the team of the plant-institute No. 465 (later renamed the Scientific Research Electromechanical Institute). From the beginning of 1943, the plant began mass production of the SON-2 station.

The company is also entrusted with the execution of the order for the development and production of the aircraft identification device “friend-foe”. In the course of the war, the devices "friend-foe" in the required quantities began to be supplied to the Air Force. In the future, the development of such systems was carried out at the Scientific Research Institute-17 (now OJSC “Concern of Radio Engineering“ Vega ”), and then at the Kazan Research Radio Engineering Institute.

Another difficult task of wartime was the creation of aircraft radar equipment. In record time in July, the first domestic radar station Gneiss-1942 developed by VNIRT was put into service on 2. The government's task of releasing 1943 sets of new stations in 200 was exceeded.

The next achievement is the creation of radar-based fighter aviation guidance devices on enemy aircraft in the absence of visibility called “Biryusa”.

The most important role in the development of radiolocation was played by the decree of the State Defense Committee of 4 in July 1943 of the year “On radiolocation”, issued before the start of the Battle of Kursk. The People's Commissariat for the Electric Industry organizes the Main Directorate of the Radar Industry consisting of three institutes and five factories. The All-Union Scientific Research Institute (nowadays the Central Research Institute of Technical Research) became the head organization.

For large scientific, design and engineering-technical workers, 30 personal salaries of up to five thousand rubles each and 70 salaries of up to three thousand rubles were established.

A radiology department has been established at the Moscow Energy Institute to train qualified workers for the radar industry plants. Organized 15 vocational schools with a contingent of students 10 thousands of people.

20 August 1945 two years after the use of nuclear weapons in Japan, the State Defense Committee set up an ad hoc committee for the preparation and production of the atomic bomb, led by Laurenti Beria. Simultaneously with the development of nuclear weapons, it was necessary to speed up the creation of their means of delivery and to multiply the capabilities of air defense. To this end, 28 June 1946, the management system of enterprises of the radar and electronic profile has been changed. From the Ministry of the Electric Industry (15 in March, the 1946-th People's Commissars were renamed into the ministries) were singled out at the suggestion of the Radar Council of the Ministry of Communications Industry, headed by Ivan Zubovich.

From the beginning of the 50-s, the system center of work in the field of anti-aircraft weapons control for the country's air defense system has been formed.

The development of KB-1 (now OAO GSKB Almaz-Antey) in close cooperation with other enterprises of the stationary system Berkut (later C-25) became a fundamental step. Pavel Kuksenko and Sergo Beria were appointed chief designers, and Alexander Raspletin became the soul of the development, as well as subsequent air defense systems. His brilliant ideas were implemented in the creation of the original missile guidance system of the Berkut system.

Serial production of C-25 and subsequent systems was entrusted to the Kuntsevo Electromechanical Plant (now MRTZ). As a result of strengthening the material and technical base and carrying out reconstruction, the plant manufactured thousands of air defense complexes of several generations.

The experience of creating the C-25 system laid for many years the traditions of close cooperation between the customer’s specialists and weapons developers at all stages of creating new equipment, the ability to upgrade each new system, and the ability to make changes to the already manufactured equipment on the move, thus reducing the time it takes for modern weapons to be received. .

It was not by chance that at one of the meetings with the command of the Air Defense Forces and the heads of defense ministries, the main leader of the Soviet military-industrial complex, Dmitry Ustinov, said: “We all came out of the 25 system”.

New impetus for the development of the radio industry and electronics gave the war in Korea 1950 – 1953. She demonstrated that radio can dramatically reduce air losses. This forced the country to follow the path of the earliest creation of equipment in this direction. The Soviet Union joined the race of electronic weapons.

In the postwar period, the radar council is tasked with creating a new generation of electronic weapons. 10 July 1946 was approved a three-year plan for the development of radar, and soon the council was reorganized into the Committee on Radiolocation at the Council of Ministers of the USSR headed by the Chairman of the USSR State Plan Maxim Saburov.

The activity of the committee played a big role in the development of the whole complex of radio electronic systems. The research institutes and factories created in the post-war years, trained engineers and designers became the backbone of the radio-electronic industry.

The state did not have a single body for managing military-industrial affairs, but as international tension grows, its structure changes significantly. The search for a rational organization for managing the military-industrial complex was multi-stage and controversial, which indicated an extremely complex functional relationship between its member enterprises and organizations.

By decision of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) and the Council of Ministers of the USSR in February 1947, nine branch bureaus were organized that dealt with issues of the defense industries. The bureau became the prototype of the future famous "nine" of the ministries of the defense complex.

From February 1951 to October 1952 was operated by the Bureau of Military Industrial and Military Affairs under the chairmanship of Nikolay Bulganin. The bureau dealt with issues related to the consideration of plans for military orders, research work on military equipment, adoption of new models and decommissioning of obsolete ones, and others. There was no separate bureau office.

One of the leading places in the management system of the defense industrial complex was occupied by the Department of Defense Industry of the Central Committee of the CPSU, created at the height of the Cold War.

The business style of the defense department was formed by Dmitry Ustinov, who held major positions in the party and the state. For him, there were no secondary issues and in the course was the expression "to refine the question before the ringing." The department was liquidated after the events of August 1991 by order of the presidents of the USSR and the RSFSR Mikhail Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin.
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  1. Giant thought
    Giant thought 1 May 2014 09: 58
    +2
    That would be the attitude to this industry and our current government, things would go much faster.
    1. afire
      afire 3 May 2014 01: 34
      +1
      things are very big.
      for some reason, many people think that little is being done in our country, although they themselves have only TV in their sources, and not their personal presence. Your lack of information does not mean the absence of affairs in the field of electronics in Russia. What we just do not produce! like in China about 5 years ago
      1. Kadavercianin
        Kadavercianin 13 May 2014 11: 12
        0
        And people generally rarely creep into them unfortunately and have enough TV (I’m talking about people in general), from my friends I know almost all IT people, but they’re scratching, even if they’re falling, and in nete it’s 15 minutes to search
  2. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 1 May 2014 10: 32
    +3
    One of the pillars of the country's national security
  3. 225chay
    225chay 1 May 2014 10: 46
    +5
    In the late 70s and 80s, Soviet electronics made a breakthrough before our eyes. It seemed she would soon catch up and drive west.
    But it was stopped after the collapse of the USSR and destroyed as if Mamai passed.
    Such powerful radio-electronic enterprises were destroyed, as well as the entire industry of "Soyuzelectronmash" ...
  4. Cossacks
    Cossacks 1 May 2014 11: 00
    +3
    Somehow I decided to buy some not expensive receiver. I went to the store not a single domestic. I was upset and basically refused the purchase until better times.
    1. Pashhenko Nikolay
      Pashhenko Nikolay 1 May 2014 17: 46
      +3
      Exactly. And when it wasn’t a problem to assemble it myself. I myself still have two boxes of transistors, lamps and other trifles in the shed. Maybe I’ll still etch a couple of three boards in retirement.
      1. afire
        afire 3 May 2014 01: 37
        -2
        what are you speaking about? components tend to age!
        None of your old elements have long corresponded to the values ​​indicated on them!
        1. i80186
          i80186 3 May 2014 09: 21
          +1
          No, metal-ceramic cases with gold wiring do not age. An example of this is Voyager, for example, which flies far away somewhere and sends signals. And the ratings indicate only the passive components, aka resistors, capacitors, and inductors, well, variations on their subject.
        2. tolancop
          tolancop 3 May 2014 12: 08
          +3
          Electrolytes may have dried up. And ICs, transistors, rezuki and ceramic capacitors are probably in working condition. But does it need the old? Buying a new one at Mitino is not a problem. And the elemental base did not leave millet, but rode forward ... Now a handful of parts from the past are being replaced by one controller ...
          Oh, the current abundance, but in those years .....
          1. i80186
            i80186 3 May 2014 12: 58
            +3
            Nothing can replace a 10kw magnetron from the main radar path.))
        3. Bayonet
          Bayonet 4 May 2014 08: 10
          0
          I would attribute this only to electrolytic capacitors, well, if for decades, radio tubes.
  5. mdwspb
    mdwspb 1 May 2014 11: 51
    +3
    We were not allowed to develop this direction on purpose and assured everyone that now we can’t catch up. There is potential - you need to make a breakthrough!
  6. sv68
    sv68 1 May 2014 12: 25
    +1
    we invented and created the first radio in the world and at least in this we must maintain priority.
  7. sazhka4
    sazhka4 1 May 2014 12: 33
    +7
    The "silence" in Skolkovo is surprising. Where vbuhali, why, and where the return .. And the Red, as always, "untouchable". The incomprehensible "strains" .. Putin .. Ay !!
    1. Pashhenko Nikolay
      Pashhenko Nikolay 1 May 2014 17: 49
      +2
      Oooh. After Ryzhy, not only in Skolkovo there was silence. Only boxes from under the Xerox are dragged in silence.
  8. imugn
    imugn 1 May 2014 12: 37
    0
    Now all this has begun to revive: there are state orders, and the VP has begun to function
  9. Donskoi
    Donskoi 1 May 2014 12: 49
    +2
    That is how "dense" I am in radio electronics, so I RESPECT people working in this area, especially in the military-industrial complex. In general, Russian "brains" are the biggest diamond in the crown of the Russian Empire!
  10. Bagor Danilov
    Bagor Danilov 1 May 2014 18: 28
    +1
    The article seems to be taken from the archives. Why is there nothing about the development of the radio industry in the 90s and "noughties" ?! After all, those who survived in the 90s mainly "left" on the backlog of the 70s and 80s, and at the beginning of the "noughties" on supplies abroad, and on repairs of equipment supplied to foreign customers, and, as a rule, radio electronics were supplied as part of combat systems, that is, in fact, "imposed" on foreign customers, tk. by that time, the main foreign customers, China and India, realized that we had lagged behind for years in this area and were trying with all our might to get rid of the "makeweight", preferring to integrate either our developments or equipment from Western suppliers in our technique, they aroused and still cause deep respect for foreign specialists!). Only in the mid-2000s the radio industry began to attract the attention of the state. A new period has been marked - the creation of state corporations, such as RosTech and specialized management companies within them (as an example, the Concern Radioelectronic Technologies). The forms of interaction between enterprises of related industries, such as the Council of Chief Designers, which had been known since Soviet times, were resumed. The SDO Execution Control Service appeared. In general, we are waiting for the continuation of the article))
  11. Enot-poloskun
    Enot-poloskun 1 May 2014 20: 09
    -1
    Unfortunately, the radio industry is now in ruin. To drink something with grief?

  12. Alex Nick
    Alex Nick 1 May 2014 22: 07
    -1
    Do we have a radio industry? It used to be a bit, but now? Now, when it will be, then the conversation will begin.
  13. Kostyanich
    Kostyanich 2 May 2014 02: 03
    +1
    enough damn yelling prosralivsepolymers
    where you need to buy entire workshops for the manufacture of their microcircuits (for the needs of the military-industrial complex)
    so not everything is so bad
    one thing is not clear what gavriki do in skolkovo
    can put on a stake Chubais and Serdyukov you look and the results appear laughing
    1. afire
      afire 3 May 2014 01: 41
      +4
      damn type in Yandex - electronics contract manufacturing
      AND YOU WILL BE AMAZED HOW MUCH IN SUCH PRODUCTION IN RUSSIA!
      zadolbali whimper those who have nothing to do with this !!!
  14. Sergey777
    Sergey777 2 May 2014 10: 00
    -1
    Quote: Bagor Danilov
    The article seems to be taken from the archives. Why is there nothing about the development of the radio industry in the 90s and "noughties" ?! After all, those who survived in the 90s mainly "left" on the backlog of the 70s and 80s, and at the beginning of the "noughties" on supplies abroad, and on repairs of equipment supplied to foreign customers, and, as a rule, radio electronics were supplied as part of combat systems, that is, in fact, "imposed" on foreign customers, tk. by that time, the main foreign customers, China and India, realized that we had lagged behind for years in this area and were trying with all our might to get rid of the "makeweight", preferring to integrate either our developments or equipment from Western suppliers in our technique, they aroused and still cause deep respect for foreign specialists!). Only in the mid-2000s the radio industry began to attract the attention of the state. A new period has been marked - the creation of state corporations, such as RosTech and specialized management companies within them (as an example, the Concern Radioelectronic Technologies). The forms of interaction between enterprises of related industries, such as the Council of Chief Designers, which had been known since Soviet times, were resumed. The SDO Execution Control Service appeared. In general, we are waiting for the continuation of the article))


    And because there is no electronic industry, the screwdriver assembly of Chinese consumer goods does not count, the Belarusians still have something left. Piece pieces for the defense industry are all, and so is the complete kirdyk! Himself in the past is associated with radio electronics, now I work as an electrician! :)
  15. gregor6549
    gregor6549 2 May 2014 16: 54
    +3
    Enterprises of the USSR Ministry of Radio Industry were also involved in the development and production of automatic control systems.
    In particular, the SKB of the Minsk Electromechanical Plant under the leadership of Ch. Designer Vladimir Lepikhov in the mid-late 60s developed a number of objects of the Air 1M automated control system designed to automate the control of formations and formations of the country's air defense forces and the air force. In the early 70s, on the basis of the above-mentioned SKB, NPO Agat was created, which became the leading enterprise of the USSR in the development and production of automated control systems for the USSR Ground Forces and front-line aviation (ACCS "Maneuver" and "Etalon").
    Major General Engineer Yuri Dmitrievich Podrezov was appointed General Designer of these systems.
    NPO "Agat" included a number of research institutes and factories not only in Belarus but also in other republics (Georgia, Ukraine), and hundreds of enterprises from the entire Union took part in the creation of these ACCS.
    A number of automation and communications equipment, command-and-staff vehicles and command and control posts were created and adopted that provided control of all types of ground forces and front-line aviation at all levels (from company to front).
    Fortunately, neither perestroika nor the collapse of the USSR could ruin what was created by the thousands of NGOs from the AGAT and its allies, although huge damage was done to the case.
    Many developments of "Agat", which is still alive, find application in the Armed Forces of Russia, Belarus and other former republics of the Union, albeit sometimes under different designations.
  16. shurup
    shurup 5 May 2014 14: 53
    +1
    He concluded that for the development of the radio industry it is necessary to pay the appropriate specialists and that they go to Porsche to work, and not the sons of effective managers.
    This applies not only to the radio industry, but where can I get Beria for supervision?
    An advertisement can post or invite from Singapore?
  17. Signaller
    Signaller 8 May 2014 15: 56
    0
    As you know, the first air defense complex around Moscow was called "BERKUT" after the first letters of its creators. Correctly Beria-Kuksenko. Well, if Lavrenty Palych was a manager, then everything was tip-top. In this article, we have gone away from this, Like Ustinov .. Yes, he can only be listed there as a manufacturer. The head of the defense industry. But as a developer ???? - This is nonsense.
  18. Takashi
    Takashi 10 May 2014 15: 51
    0
    I do not agree with the author about the fact that "Since the radio industry was not one of the priority areas of industrialization, the USSR entered the war," on the contrary, radio towers and radio stations were built throughout the country for broadcasting to kapmir.