The most desperate landing in the history of civil aviation


A soft touch and a cheerful wheelset on concrete are not a reason for standing ovation. Ironically, the most powerful wreck in stories civil aviation happened not in the air, but on the ground.

In 1977, an explosion thundered at the Canary Airport of La Palma - the bomb of the terrorist did not harm anyone, but was the first act in the horrible events of that day. All arriving planes were redirected to the small airport of Los Rodeos on about. Tenerife, where the fog, inexperienced dispatcher and overcrowded airfield completed the work begun. On the runway, two Boeing 747s crashed, filled to capacity and passengers. 583 man ascended to heaven without the help of aircraft.

Similarly ended landing at the Irkutsk airport (2006). The already-landed Airbus A-310 was deployed and dropped from the runway by the left engine, which, due to the erroneous actions of the crew, accidentally went into take-off mode. The plane collapsed and burned, of the more than two hundred people on board, only 78 was able to escape.

And yet, despite all the prejudices, aviation remains one of the safest modes of transport. Air crashes occur much less frequently than road accidents or death lightning strikes. Even when the engine is turned off, the control system fails and the chassis gets stuck - the passengers on board have a considerable chance to return safely to the ground. Instead of frozen computers and faulty mechanization, there arises the human mind and inexhaustible will to win.

50 thousands of commercial flights around the world every day

I bring to your attention a selection of the most famous emergency landing of airliners, which, however, ended in a safe manner.

And from the platform they say - this is the city of Leningrad (1963)

The story of the miraculous rescue of the aircraft, which, in an attempt to prevent a fall in the middle of the northern capital, managed to spill over onto the Neva.

The background is as follows: a Tu-124 passenger airliner on the Tallinn-Moscow flight followed a report on the problems that occurred on board. Immediately after takeoff, the nose strut of the chassis is wedged in a semi-folded position. The nearest airport, where it was possible to land an emergency plane "on the belly", was Leningrad Pulkovo Airport (at that time - "Highway"). There and it was decided to send "Carcass".

Upon arrival, the liner began to "cut circles" over Leningrad. For the speedy development of fuel, he patrolled at a height of less than 500 meters, at this time the crew was actively trying to unlock the chassis mechanism using a metal pole. Behind this fascinating occupation of them and found the news of the stop of the left engine due to a shortage of fuel. The commander and co-pilot rushed to the steering wheels and, having received permission for a through-span over the city, urgently led the "Carcass" in the direction of "Pulkovo". At this time, the second engine stopped. The reserve height was not enough, even to divert the aircraft outside the city.

At that moment, the commander of the aircraft Viktor Yakovlevich Mostovoi made the only right decision - to try to land the plane on the Neva, which was squeezed into the granite banks. The airliner passed at 90 m. The Liteyny Bridge, rushed 30 meters above the Bolsheokhtinsky bridge, jumped A. Nevsky's bridge under construction at a height of several meters and collapsed into the water, almost catching the steam tug of the wing.

The landing turned out to be surprisingly smooth: all 45 passengers and 7 crew members survived. The pilots, according to tradition, were immediately taken by the KGB officers, however, soon everyone had to be released due to the interest of the world media in this incredible landing and the heroes, whose actions saved five dozen people from a seemingly hopeless situation.

Race with death

31 December 1988, the crew of the Tu-134 was in such a hurry to the holiday table that they chose to descend along the steepest trajectory, not paying attention to the heart-rending cries of signaling about too high speed and fast approaching the ground. At a speed of 460 km / h in violation of all the rules and instructions were released chassis. It was already too late to release flaps - at that speed the air flow would simply tear them off "with meat".

The speed at the moment of contact was 415 km / h (with the maximum allowable value of the chassis conditions 330 km / h). Thus, the crew of the Soviet airliner has so far set an unbroken record of landing speed in civil aviation.

When the speed dropped to 6 km / h in 380 seconds, the pilot pilots wondered for the first time in the entire flight how they would slow down. Despite all the measures taken by them (reverse engines, the release of flaps and spoilers, braking), the plane still rolled out of the runway and stopped on the security strip, in 1,5 meters from the descent to the ground. Fortunately, only the heads of careless pilots were injured in the incident.

Fly Aloha Airlines Cabrio!

In the same year, 1988, there was another surprising case.

An old Boeing flight from Hilo to Honolulu (Hawaiian Islands) was hit by 35 squares due to explosive decompression. meters fuselage skin. PE occurred at an altitude of 7300 meters at a flight speed of about 500 km / h. 90 passengers in a flash found themselves in a roaring air stream, the speed of which was 3 times the speed of the hurricane wind; at air temperature overboard minus 45 ° С.

The most desperate landing in the history of civil aviation

The pilots dropped urgently and slowed down to 380 km / h, however, 65 people managed to get injuries and frostbite of varying severity. After 12 minutes, a plane with a minute deviation from the schedule landed at Honolulu Airport.

The only victim of an unusual accident was a stewardess - the unfortunate thrown overboard at the time of the destruction of the fuselage.

Gimli Glider (1983) and Century Pilots (2001)

“Gimley Glider” - that was the name worn by Boeing-767-233 (w / n C-GAUN 22520 / 47) of Air Canada, which made an amazing feat. The 132-ton airliner with the engines stopped neatly planned from the height of the 12 000 m and landed safely at the abandoned Gimli airbase (where at that moment the car races were carried out). The situation was complicated by the lack of electricity, as a result of which many flight instruments turned off. And the pressure in the hydraulic system was so low that the pilots could barely move the ailerons and rudders.

The cause of the incident is the error of the ground services of the airport in Ottawa, which mixed kilograms and pounds. As a result, less than 20 tons of kerosene came into the aircraft’s tanks instead of the required 5 tons. The situation was saved only by the presence in the cockpit of an experienced FAC Robert Pearson (at leisure - an amateur glider) and a second pilot, a former military pilot M. Quintal, who knew about the existence of an abandoned runway Gimli.

Interestingly, a similar incident happened in 2001, when the engines of the French Airbus flying along the Toronto-Lisbon route were stalled over the Atlantic Ocean. FAC Robert Pishe
and the co-pilot Dirk de Jager were able to fly another 120 km on the "glider" and make a soft landing at Lajes air base in the Azores.

Flying over the volcano vent (1982)

... The stewardess held out a cup of coffee and, as if by chance, looked out the window. Seen behind the board left no doubt: the fears of the pilots are not in vain. From both engines came a strange glow, like strobe flashes. Soon inside, the choking smell of sulfur and smoke appeared. Commander Eric Moody was forced to make one of the most naive statements in the history of civil aviation:

“Ladies and gentlemen, says the commander of the aircraft. We had a little problem, stopped all four engines. We are doing everything possible to run them. Hope this doesn't give you too much anxiety. ”

None of the passengers and 248 crew members aboard the 15 at that moment had suspected that the Boeing 747 flew through a cloud of volcanic ash ejected by the suddenly awakened Galungungung volcano (Indonesia). The smallest abrasive particles scored engines and damaged the fuselage skin, putting flight No. XXUMX (London-Auckland) on the brink of disaster.

The huge liner was planning over the night ocean. Straight along the course a mountain range grew on the southern coast of Fr. Java. The crew had to decide whether they had enough height to fly over the obstacle and make them forced at Jakarta airport, or should they just put the liner on the water. While the PIC together with the Indonesian dispatcher calculated the remaining distance and the aerodynamic quality of the aircraft, the co-pilot and flight engineer did not stop trying to restart the engines. And, lo and behold! The fourth engine sneezed, spitting volcanic pumice out of itself, jerked and blew in a steady manner. Gradually, two more engines were put into operation - there was enough traction to reach the airport, but another problem arose on the landing approach: the windshield was cut with abrasive particles and completely lost its transparency. The situation was complicated by the lack of an automatic drive for landing at Jakarta airport. As a result, the British still managed to land the plane safely, looking through two tiny, transparent areas on the windshield. None of the people on board were injured.

Miracle on the Hudson

New York is served by three airports, one of which is La Guardia, located in the heart of the city. Taking off, the planes are over the skyscrapers of Manhattan. Doesn't that sound like a starting point for the next blockbuster in the 11 September genre?

That time the situation was similar! In the afternoon of 15 on January 2009, an Airbus A-320 flew out of La Guard with 150 passengers on board, heading for the New York - Seattle route. Approximately in 90 seconds after takeoff, the plane crashed into a flock of birds - the flight recorder recorded impacts and a change in the engine operation mode. Both engines instantly "cut off." At this point, the plane managed to gain altitude 970 meters. The dense residential buildings of 10-million metropolis were spreading under the wing ...

Returning back to La Guard was excluded. The reserve of height and speed was enough only for 1,5 minutes of flight. The PIC immediately made the decision - go to the river! Hudson (the real name is Hudson River) is several times wider than the Neva and does not have significant bends in the lower reaches. The main thing was to reach the water, gently align the plane - and then the matter of technology. Airbus plopped into the cold water and swam among the ice floes, like a real Titanic. The crew and all passengers remained alive (however, around 5 of poorly fastened passengers and the stewardess were still seriously injured).

The main hero of this story, of course, was Chesley Sullenberger - a former military pilot who once piloted the Phantom.

Taiga novel

7 September 2010 of the year in a remote Siberian wilderness landed Tu-154B of Alrosa Airlines, following the route Yakutia - Moscow. After 3,5 hours after takeoff, there was a complete loss of power supply on board: most of the instruments turned off, the fuel pumps stopped, it became impossible to control the wing mechanization. In the fuel tank in the fuselage, there was an operational fuel reserve (3300 kg), which was enough only for 30 minutes of flight. Having dropped to an altitude of 3000 m, the pilots began a visual search for a suitable site for landing an 80-ton monster. As the artificial horizon was used an ordinary glass of water.

Luck! A concrete strip of Izhma airport appeared ahead. Short - just 1350 meters. Two times less than necessary for normal operation of the Tu-154B. In the past, 3-4 class aircraft (Yak-40, An-2, etc.) landed here, but since 2003, the strip was finally abandoned and used only as a helipad. Here and had to land an emergency aircraft. Due to the inability to release flaps and slats, the landing speed of the "Carcass" exceeded the calculated value by almost 100 km / h. The pilots were able to land a poorly controlled aircraft on "three points", but it was impossible to stop on the runway - the Tu-154 rolled into a small fir-grove on 160 m behind the runway end. None of the 72 passengers and nine crew members were injured.

Aircraft commander E.G. Novoselov and the second pilot A.A. Lamanov was awarded the title Hero of the Russian Federation. The remaining members of the legendary crew (flight attendants, navigator and flight engineer) were awarded Orders of Courage.

The plane passed on the site of an ersatz repair and under its own power (!) Flew to Samara at the Aviakor aircraft factory. In the summer of 2011, the repaired car was returned to the owner for further operation on passenger airlines.

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  1. ICT
    April 25 2014 08: 16
    tighter piggy bank
    there are more photos

    history can be clarified here
    1. +7
      April 25 2014 13: 13
      Thank you, damn it, for the positivist! I'm on a business trip on Monday ....
    2. 0
      April 26 2014 23: 05
      As I read the article, I also recalled the incident with a Korean Boeing and landing on a frozen lake in Karelia. Having read to the end, I was surprised that they did not remember about him.
  2. +4
    April 25 2014 08: 20
    There are heroes, and not only in their own country
    1. +4
      April 25 2014 13: 04
      The aircraft underwent an ersatz repair on-site and flew (!) To Samara Aviakor Aviation Plant under its own power!

      What is also a feat, to raise a plane from there, knowing that there will be one attempt, and the error will be death!
      1. Lyokhin63
        April 25 2014 22: 33
        The most difficult element of flight has always been, is and will be - landing. On March 28, 2014, the crew of Ruben Yesayan performed a unique flight of the Tu-154M aircraft (flight number RA-85069) from the Bezymyanka airdrome to the Smyshlyaevka landing pad located directly next to it (the distance between the runway thresholds is 2300 m). The complexity of the flight was that the Smyshlyaevka airfield was closed in 2012, and its runway length (1200 m) was almost half the minimum required runway length for normal operation of the Tu-154M (2200 m). [3] The aircraft is intended for the training aerodrome of SSAU.
        He told the boss - he was not only not surprised, but also told that in due time both TU-144 and TU-104 were put on this short strip.
  3. +5
    April 25 2014 08: 40
    I recall a plane shot down by our own. Somewhere in Karelia, a rocket destroyed the fezulage wing. engines, 6 people died in the explosion. But the pilots managed to land a Boeing on a frozen lake. And our pilots before landing on the Neva .. why the hell did they violate, well, forget about the fuel ..... Well, in general about the pilots, the news about what should be accepted pilots of foreigners outrages me personally.
    1. +3
      April 25 2014 08: 59
      Quote: Free Wind
      6 person seems to have died during the explosion

      Less from heart disease
      the rocket destroyed the fezulage wing. engines
      Exaggerate, only the engine. Otherwise, he would never have sat down
      And note that the plane was then South Korean, do they have a tradition?

      And about landing on the Neva for me news!
      And interesting
  4. -4
    April 25 2014 08: 40
    I wonder what happened with this Tu-154, and remained in the taiga?
    1. ICT
      April 25 2014 08: 43
      left on his own
    2. +3
      April 25 2014 13: 34
      no, corrected, took off from the same runway. now it is casting, and it has its own name on the fuselage - "Izhma"
  5. +19
    April 25 2014 09: 03
    Heroism has always been present in aviation. And I will not belittle the merits of the aviators. The monkeys only enrage (following the example of the American cinema) the applause of our tourists to the pilots for any successful landing. It's like applause to the minibus driver for not driving into the KAMAZ or Zhiguli on the way. Or a plumber for a fixed tap.
    And further. I really "liked" the recent government decree allowing to hire foreign civil aviation pilots, instead of training and creating conditions for their own. Shame!
    1. +4
      April 30 2014 16: 37
      Quote: SPLV
      Only enraging monkeys (following the example of Amer’s cinema) are the applause of our tourists for the pilots for any successful landing.

      You know, after the New Year’s flights, I personally applauded sincerely on that imported junk that is currently being operated. Especially when on takeoff to Domodedovo on the left engine screeching for some unknown reason, the plane made a sharp left roll. And the baby’s voice in the whole salon - Dad, are we falling ?, generally stalled the brain and the will not only of me. And the torsion of the fuselage, visible with the naked eye when maneuvering in the air, also did not greatly inspire a blissful state of the soul ... In general, I sincerely applauded upon landing, applauded the luck that it was not me ... that this time ...
  6. 0
    April 25 2014 09: 10
    the windshield was dissected by abrasive particles and completely lost transparency, as a result, the British still managed to land the plane safely, looking through two tiny sections that remained transparent on the windshield

    ,,, can someone tell me boots what , Doesn’t they land on instruments? Do you really need an external review ?, request
    1. +4
      April 25 2014 09: 58
      It says that there was no automatic landing gear, heading / glide path ... So it was necessary to look out the window ...
    2. +13
      April 25 2014 10: 03
      Quote: bubalik
      Doesn’t they land on instruments? Do you really need an external review ?,

      Have you tried to drive the "Zhiguli" into the garage at night by instruments?

      Do not be offended, I am not a mockery. So, for comparison.
      1. +2
        April 25 2014 10: 22

        311ove SU  Today, 09: 58 ↑

        It says that there was no automatic landing gear, heading / glide path ... So it was necessary to look out the window ...
        IRBIS (2) RU  Today, 10:03 ↑ Did you try to drive the "Zhiguli" into the garage at night by instruments?

        ,,, yes, it turns out landing was carried out blindly, intuitively ,,, good Well done!
      2. The comment was deleted.
    3. 0
      April 25 2014 21: 36
      the final stage from a height of 30-10 - visual - you must see the strip
  7. +1
    April 25 2014 09: 14
    Quote: bubalik
    Do you need an external review?

    well, so as not to fly off the strip
  8. +4
    April 25 2014 09: 51
    The last story is the most remarkable. It is unclear how the pilots managed to land.
    but it turned out like in a joke with a cry of what the hell the Russian pilots paved a new track
  9. +1
    April 25 2014 11: 07
    Thanks to the author
  10. MAG
    April 25 2014 11: 21
    Miracle salvation of the Tu-154 in Izhma takes place to be well done pilots BUT why didn’t they remember that person who looked after them as best he could, sawed down trees and cleared a long abandoned strip, and at the same time he didn’t get a penny for that.
    1. +4
      April 25 2014 17: 20
      This is the key point. Karen Shakhnazarov, who wants to make a film about the band’s supervisor, wants to make a film. This person is definitely a hero.
  11. -3
    April 25 2014 11: 32
    Where's the splashdown on the Hudson?

    1. +9
      April 25 2014 12: 51
      Have you read the article?
  12. +8
    April 25 2014 11: 55
    I somehow read it, as one pilot says to a friend, they pay us such a good salary for the fact that someday some seconds will come when everything will depend on us. The article is a good example.
  13. +14
    April 25 2014 12: 36
    Respect to the author for a positive and informative article! By the way, in the last case with TU-154, there was another hero of this story - the caretaker of this abandoned taiga airport Sergey Sotnikov, who maintained the runway on which the plane sat.
    1. 0
      4 May 2014 13: 23
      if I'm not mistaken, then based on this case there was a story in the movie "Yolki", only there was
  14. +5
    April 25 2014 12: 56
    It's nice to read about fellow Yakut people. Indeed, they are professionals and heroes. That flight was from my town Mirny to Moscow. In general, the pilots of Alrosa are some of the best. Well, and the person who looked after the runway in Izhma was shown on TV, they thanked him.
  15. 0
    April 25 2014 13: 08
    it’s good that there are such pilots .... finally, handsome men :)
    1. +10
      April 25 2014 13: 15
      Here are the best pilots

      - We need three landing strips
      - we will sit in parts
      1. +2
        April 25 2014 20: 01
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        - We need three landing strips- ??? - We will sit in parts

        I remember this Russian television comedy with a Boeing 747 good .Now it is no longer shown, 10 years have not watched!
        1. +3
          April 30 2014 16: 28
          Quote: supertiger21
          Russian television comedy with Boeing-747

          Broiler-747, to be more precise ...
  16. +2
    April 25 2014 13: 32
    About the last case: Author, learn geography. Izhma - in Komi, it is the European part of Russia, not Siberia
  17. BCO 82-84
    April 25 2014 13: 48
    In the 70-80s there was a rumor about the landing of the Yak-40 (engine failure). Maybe someone knows the details?
  18. +3
    April 25 2014 14: 31
    In almost all cases of aircraft rescue, they were piloted by former military pilots.
    1. 0
      April 25 2014 21: 41
      your lie - military pilots when they come to ha on a secondary role - this is not their environment - not a combat use - it's hard for them although the men are good
  19. 52
    April 25 2014 17: 47
    Thanks for the positive!
  20. +1
    April 25 2014 18: 02
    great selection
  21. +4
    April 25 2014 18: 18
    In the latter case, in Izhma, they forgot another hero, without whom there would be a catastrophe. This is the one that for many years without a salary watched and tidied the very runway.
  22. dmitrij.blyuz
    April 25 2014 18: 34
    Still, the best car in the world is the An-2!
    1. +1
      April 25 2014 21: 07
      Strongly support!
    2. +5
      April 27 2014 02: 43
      An-2 is an enchanted plane for me: how many times it didn’t take off aboard it, never once did it land on it ...
      1. +1
        April 27 2014 20: 35
        That is what it is, although they say that the biplane scheme is outdated, but I think in civil aviation, especially in the mosquito on the "Dvukryl", you can do a lot of other good things.
  23. 0
    April 25 2014 19: 58
    Impressive, Kaptsov well done good ! Learned including and about plane crashes unknown to me. wink
  24. +5
    April 25 2014 21: 21
    in 1987 in Irkutsk, my right landing gear collapsed on my tu154 - 3 hours we produced kerosene and sat on the left and front — threw it on the right side of the road but everyone was alive — the passengers kissed were very happy - but we didn’t use the damn thing after -100 anti-alcohol suffering
  25. postman
    April 25 2014 21: 33
    "Plane crashes happen much less than accidents or fatal lightning strikes. "
    A controversial statement, always used as an argument by apologists for safe flights.
    They try a lot about this, they don’t bring digits. No, of course, if you take all the accidents and all the air crashes in a year, then yes.

    And if so?

    1. number of accidents per year / per number of OPERATED car drivers per year =Х
    (or all the same: all accidents / number of cars, but for the entire time the car exists)
    2. number of aircraft crash per year / per number of OPERATED aircraft for the year =У
    (or all the same: all plane crashes / number of aircraft, but for the entire time the aircraft exists)
    Something tells me that X will be MUCH smaller

    and this is even WITHOUT taking into account the correction factors for maintenance (compare an airplane and a car), control (traffic police, sale and IAC (or whatever), qualification of pilots and drivers (training / exam for a pilot and "passing" traffic rules, number drivers "on a unit of transport: a pilot and a 2nd pilot, sometimes a navigator, stewardesses and coffee against one muddy carrier)

    well, exactly, the same specific indicator for the number of victims + injured,BUT SEPARATE
    1. +1
      April 26 2014 20: 29
      Something tells me that X will be MUCH smaller

      May be. Probably few cars avoid accidents, and its life is usually less than, for example, in carcasses. Probably it is necessary to take a very serious accident in order to get the result you expect.
      But you can go from the other side. Calculate the probability of a person dying in an accident with respect to the probability of dying in a plane crash for a person who spends the same time in motor vehicles in motion and in air on an airplane.
      Or divide (normalize) by this time, if it is different. I think the second normalized probability will be much greater than the first.
      1. postman
        April 27 2014 20: 16
        Quote: Falcon5555
        But you can go from the other side

        The plane will lose.
        With specific comparison.
        Safety data (and statements) are sly.
        It is from the nature of FLIGHT
  26. The comment was deleted.
  27. +1
    April 26 2014 11: 14
    All stories speak about one thing, automation is automatic and you have to be able to fly, nobody canceled aerobatic skills.
  28. +1
    April 26 2014 16: 57
    I remembered on the topic. In the late 80s, a case occurred at the airport of Dushanbe. I could not sit down the 154th. It seems like the wing landing gear did not come out. The plane first cut circles over the city in order to burn fuel, and then the commander with the symbolic name Giro took the decision to put it on two racks. Planted - having plowed a wing several hundred meters. As far as I remember, no one was hurt, and Giro got the star of a hero.
    1. +3
      April 27 2014 16: 01
      Quote: Somad
      As far as I remember - no one was hurt, and Giro got the star of a hero

      ... And then the disaster began and began to fight drunkenness
      Vladimir Giro received the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, co-pilot Azam Rakhimov received the Order of the Badge of Honor, flight engineer Vyacheslav Zamanov was awarded the Order of Friendship of Peoples, and all flight attendants received medals.
      Wrong heroes became needed. Although the republican newspaper Tojikistoni Soveti (now Dzhumkhuriyat) issued (highlighted by me)
      The third of September is Tajik Aviation Day.
      About twenty years ago Tajik pilot for the first time in the Union it was possible to land a plane crashing "on the foam." This feat is forever inscribed in the golden pages of the history of Tajik aviation.
      Strange, then the fashion was "non-indigenous" or "invaders"

      In the photo the crew of the TU-154 liner: Vladimir Giro (commander of the TU - 154 B 85511), Azam Rakhimov (2 pilot), Nikolay Nastasienko (navigator), Vyacheslav Zamanov (flight engineer), Galina Chernyavskaya (flight attendant), Irina Syrkina ( flight attendant), Yuri Koshechkin (flight attendant), Alexander Leongardt (flight attendant)

      Now 66-year-old Vladimir Giro is on a well-deserved rest and lives in the city of Novorossiysk
      1. 0
        April 28 2014 22: 31
        Thanks for the detailed information. But I didn’t find details on this occasion on the Internet. ... And what an international crew it turned out to be! .. ... And the photo is cool ...
  29. alex_83
    9 May 2014 13: 49
  30. 0
    13 May 2014 01: 37
    Pilots are real virtuosos.
  31. 0
    11 August 2014 11: 56
    Thanks - it was interesting to read!
    I agree with the authors above - all these cases (well, I don’t want to call them disasters - first of all, thanks to the pilots who saved the people) once again confirm that automation is needed, but piloting skills must be at the highest level. It is a pity that this is expensive and is increasingly becoming a formality. Plus, permission to hire foreign pilots - for the state building its planes is somehow wrong. Moreover, the West again began to build an iron curtain around Russia ...
  32. 0
    7 March 2017 10: 59
    A good article, but I will make one correction about the Tu-124 on the Neva, the airport was called "Highway". The name "Pulkovo" was given to the airport only in 1973.

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